Topic Discussion/ Pricing Decision Essay Example

AbstractA company must always set a price when it creates a new product or penetrates a new distribution channel or geographical region, or on sourcing and entering bids for contract business. The price of a product is most important element in the marketing mix, since it generates direct revenue.IntroductionPrice is the only element in the marketing mix that directly generates revenue (Kotler, 2003.

p.44). A lower or higher price can considerably vary the gross margins as well as sales volumes. This directly affects other expenses.

There are various factors that determine the appropriate pricing strategy for a company.Topic 1 CommentMain Steps in the Price Setting ProcessSelecting the pricing objective is the first step. In this step the company decides what among survival, maximum market share, maximum current profits, product quality leadership and maximum market skimming. Survival is a short-range objective that may be pre-empted by a fall in demand for the product or changing consumer preferences.

Maximizing the market share entails setting the cheapest feasible price hoping improved volumes will reduce the cost. Maximizing current profits is another short term objective. This may unfavorably influence long-term performance. In all the objectives, the application of price as a tactical tool is appropriate in order to allow costs or the market to establish prices (Kotler, 2003.

p.64).In the determination of demand, for the normal goods, quantity demanded and price are inversely related. That is, the higher the price the lower the demand.

In the case of luxury goods, as the price of the product increases, the higher the demand goes.  In this step, collection and analysis of historical sales data, test-marketing the product in specific locations with higher or lower prices is important (Kotler, 2003.pp.64).

In the estimation of costs, there are two categories of costs, fixed costs and variable costs. The activity based cost estimates the actual profitability of selling to a segment of customers. It also facilitates designing of a product with a specific target market in mind. In analyzing the competitor’s costs, offers and prices, utilize the competitor’s prices as a point of reference for the company’s products (Kyle, 2008.

p.1). The competitor’s prices should be considered in relation to the cost structure and the likelihood for change in response to the company’s offering (Kotler, 2003.p.

66).In the selection of the pricing method, the perceived value pricing is used with a focus on the customer’s perception of the value of the company’s products. The company needs to create a positive image for its products. The value proposition of the company is tested in this method.

  The going-rate pricing is used when pricing is determined by the competitor. In the selection of the final price, the relevant marketing activities are considered. Since demand determines the highest price for a product while cost determines the lowest price possible to realize profits (Kotler, 2003.p.

65), it plays a major role in this step. In this step, the company needs to ensure it remains unpredictable by the competitor. This will minimize vulnerability in relation to competition. Periodic monitoring of prices and the competition minimizes the chances of the competitor successfully undercutting the company in prices (Baye, Gatti, Kattuman & Morgan, 2007.

pp. 202-216).Analyzing Competitor’s Costs, Prices and OffersIn analyzing the competitor’s costs, offers and prices, the company must understand the competitor’s cost structure and the probability of the competitor changing their strategy in response to the company’s offerings. The recycling companies are in strong competition.

Since they have a common competitor in the landfill, the companies must develop their operations in order to attract demand for their services. Rumpke Recycling Company seeks to attract increased demand for services in order to have more control in the pricing of the landfills. The company has noted that in other regions the landfill tip fees are lower than in its area of operations. Rumpke Recycling Company utilizes the competitor’s prices as a point of reference for the company’s services (Sandoval, 2007).

Topic 2 CommentValue PricingValue Pricing is a method where the firm wins loyal customers by charging a fairly low price for a high-quality offering. This pricing method has two salient features: it checks erosion and cost of consumer assurance in the reliability of prices; it is consumer focused, minimizing the need for sales promotions and coupons (Kotler & Keller, 2005). This pricing method is appropriate since the customer gets value money in the sense that the market will always offer the same price regardless of the different market segments. This assures the customer that the product is worth.

The need for the customer to carry out market surveys in an effort to obtain the lowest price is eliminated.By setting one price without deviation, the customers benefit in that they can always be sure that the product is available regardless of the competition. The competitors will also create more innovative strategies to attract more customers such as offer add-ons and bonuses. The company will also cut advertisement costs since there will be minimal need to advertise for price offers.

   ReferencesBaye, M., Gatti, J., Ruppert, J. & Morgan, J.

(2007). A Dashboard for Online Pricing. California Management Review, 50(1), 202-216. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.

Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management, 11th Ed, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Kotler, P.

& Keller, K. L. (2009). A Framework for Marketing Management, FourthEdition, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kyle, B. (2008). 7 Pricing Strategies That Improve Profit. Concept Marketing Group Inc.

Retrieved 26 March 2009 from, D. (2007).

Stepping Things Up: With Price And Demand For Secondary Commodities Increasing, MRF Operators Are Seeking Ways To Improve Their Operations. Recycling Today. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from…-a0133911429   

Unconscious Childhood Sexuality

Unconscious Childhood SexualityIn classical Freudian theory the unconscious wishes were almost exclusively sexual. Basic but unacceptable wishes of childhood get driven out of awareness.

  They become part of the active unconscious where, while out of awareness, they remain influential.  The active unconscious presses to find the expression in dreams, slips of speech, unconscious mannerisms, as well as socially approved behavior as artistic, literary, or scientific activity. One may say that it is difficult to treat Freud’s influence because it is far-reaching in effect and extremely complex.Freud believed that the sexual desire could be developed in individuals by sublimation.

That pleasure could be derived from any object that, as humans develop become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of personality development. First in the oral stage, illustrated by an infant’s pleasure in nursing, the mother’s breast is the first object. Consistently, the first love object is the mother, a displacement of the earlier object of desire which is the breast.  Then in the anal stage by a toddler’s pleasure in discharging bowels, the object is the rectal orifice.

Then in the phallic stage, where children then passed through a stage in which they settled on the mother as a sexual object, known as the Oedipus complex, but that the child eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its forbidden nature. The repressive latency stage of psychosexual development comes before the final stage of psychosexual development when sexual urges are once again aroused. Adolescents direct their sexual urges to the opposite sex with the genitals as the primary focus of pleasure (Felluga, D. 2003).

Analysis/DiscussionBased from the background information gathered during the interview with Doris, a depressed adolescent, the problems has developed from childhood experiences. The first five years is said to be the critical period in a child’s personality development. There were no proper gratifications of certain desires that these were reflected in her adult life.Major Issues.

The issues revolve around unconscious childhood sexuality. It is important to consider, whether or not: (1) having had no father contributes to her disorderly behavior; (2) a desire for sex and a fear of the desire primarily the root cause of Doris’ weak ego development; (3) the negative  attitude of her mother towards his father causes fear of the desire for sex; (4) the knowledge that her father left them when her mother was pregnant with her, causes her strong feeling of rejection; (5) siblings’ rivalry causes her masochistic tendencies and self-punishment; (6) the mother’s tolerance and permissiveness contributes to her personality disorder and school phobia; (7) without having a closely-knit family results to her antisocial behavior; (8) her mother’s guilt feelings over not being able to provide a `normal home` for her children contributes to her inadequacy and inferiority; (9) anxieties, stress suffered by a pregnant mother affect the mental development of the unborn child; and (10) uncaring baby-sitters negatively contribute to the disorderly development of her personality.Doris has never had a father.  According to Freud’s stages of psychosexual development, at ages three to six, the pleasure zone of a child shifts to the genitals.

  The formation of gender identity occurs at this stage (Phallic Stage) where children first become aware of anatomical differences between the sexes..  The super ego develops followed by cognizance of the cultural differences between males and females. Also, the identification with the parent of the same sex, whose behavior the child imitates, evolves at this stage.

Like its female counterpart, the Oedipus complex revolves around a child’s wish to possess the parent of the opposite sex.  Since Doris has no father whom she can turn her sexual desires, she had to repress it, thus the attachment was centered on her mother, a conflicting sexual feelings. She has advanced from her mother’s breast to her mother as a whole person. As her mother was busy working, Doris was left to the care of baby-sitters who did not give her the love that she desires.

She tried to manage for herself. Doris having had to repress her sexual desires, psychological fixation developed.  Repression is a defense mechanism described as pulling or pushing back conflicts into the unconscious to forget something that causes anxiety. This is a defense mechanism employed by the ego to prevent conflict between the id and super ego.

Failure to use it effectively often leads to problems in life as the repressed conflicts remains intact and exerts a force on the conscious mind. Fixation refers to a state in which an individual becomes obsessed with an attachment to another person, being or object.Without her sexual desires having been satisfied, Doris became obsessed with her father. Such obsession was manifested in her persistence to know about her father, and his whereabouts notwithstanding the ire of her mother every time she would insist on her concern.

The unconscious fear of the desire for sex was developed as her mother reacted with rage and insisted that they are fortunate enough without him as he was a wretched person and rambled on to forget him. Doris centered her attention to her mother but her uncaring attitude rebuffed her away resulting to severe sexual conflicts, a desire for sex and a fear of the desire with her mother that a strong hostility towards her has unconsciously built up.Her background also reveals her extreme fears for school. According to Freud, we go to school to improve ourselves, to be more attractive to the opposite sex which is a natural instinct for procreation and survival.

When this desire for sex, which is a powerful unconscious motivational force, is taken away, the drive to improve oneself is also eliminated, thus Doris has developed ‘school phobia.’ Anxiety disorders which include school phobia come along to have a genetic component. Children of parents, who have anxiety disorders as exhibited by her mother, may also suffer anxiety disorders. Another possible cause of school phobia is long separation from a caregiver in early childhood.

Actual physical symptoms such as shaking or trembling, vomiting, headaches, etc., are common symptoms.  They usually get better once the child is allowed to stay home. Dysfunctional family can also cause children to feel compelled to stay at home.

Background information revealed that Doris has a mother who is too loose or over permissive.Doris’ father left while her mother was pregnant with her. The knowledge that he did not want to be burdened with anymore children is enough for Doris to have a feeling of rejection and a feeling of guilt that her mother was left alone to rear her children and her inadequacy to provide them a normal family. Unable to compete with her brothers in all aspects and her failure to win her mother’s attention, her inadequacy to have a phallus, as a sign of strength, Doris has developed masochistic tendencies unconsciously.

Girls always wanted a phallus, a desire which can never be filled, as theorized by Freud. All these factors contributed to what Doris is now.Antisocial behavior in childhood persists when children’s parents do not show them affection and acceptance.  They eventually behave antisocially and consequently, psychopathic behavior develops.

  It is understandable then why this behavior is difficult to treat. The sociopathic behaviors are deeply ingrained in the person’s personality. With this observation, psychologists agree that a loving parent-child relationship is necessary for a child to develop a moral conscience and to have the ability to cope with his emotional hang-ups.  An adult of the same sex to stand as model for proper and moral behavior facilitates a child’s normal developmentPsychoanalytic TherapyFreud’ theory of personality is the basis of psychoanalysis, which is one of the most important psychotherapeutic methods.

Intensive sessions between the psychoanalyst and the patient are held an hour a day, four or five times a week, or more often depending on the nature and scope of the problem. If possible the psychoanalyst should spend more than enough time with the patient. The psychoanalyst attempts to help the client reveal and resolve his emotional problems and conflicts and to determine his motives for repressing them. The psychoanalyst utilizes the person’s refusal (resistance) and reveals foolish or embarrassing thoughts so that the basic unconscious feeling that underlies his problem may be uncovered.

Through dream analysis, the latent content of a dream (unpleasant or painful unconscious thoughts) based on knowledge of its manifest content (remembered portion of the dream as recalled by the person after awakening) may be uncovered by the psychoanalyst.  Other basic psychoanalytic techniques may be identified:Free Association. This method involves instructing the patient simply to focus on a symptom or an event in the past and to “associate freely” to it, to say anything that came to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing it might seem (Mussen, et al.).

  Patients are encouraged to be less inhibitive, to respond freely, and to speak out their ideas.  This technique can often successfully reveal repressed thoughts and hidden motives..   Transference.

 As treatment progresses, the patient often develop an emotional relationship with the analyst and this is called the transference neurosis.  He transfers to the therapist the characteristics of important people in his childhood; he re-enacts with the therapist major unresolved childhood conflicts (Mussen, et al.). The analyst modifies the relationship and enables the patient to acquire insights into his emotional reactions and the nature of his psychological defenses and to respond more realistically to his present and deep-seated conflicts.

The object of psychoanalytic treatment is self-understanding of the conflict. The psychotherapist must facilitate the patient himself to be aware of the unresolved conflict entombed in the cryptical niches of the unconscious mind to face and pursue with them to effect healing. Therapists must learn and experience the techniques themselves as clients. The patient needs empathy that is discernment and getting into the feelings of the patient.

Suppression of the formerly repressed drives is another possibility to cure the patient.  It means that, after the unconscious mind have been uncovered and understood by the patient; the conscious mind must exclude the unacceptable thoughts or desires and channel this repressed energy into sublimation which is achieving social, artistic, and other interests in life. What is important is the discharge of the repressed psychic energy, the coarctation of which was the primary reason of the neurotic indications.Conclusion.

“Psychoanalysis aims at transforming greater amounts of what once belonged to the id into acceptable possessions of the ego, along with its main purpose of turning unconscious contents into conscious ones. Thus, the mind can find solutions that were previously unattainable to the immature ego (Rowell, M. H., 2008).

”Freud’s classical psychoanalytic theory revolves exclusively on psychosexuality. He argued that a person’s personality depends on the stages of childhood development. That whatever wishes or desires have been repressed during these stages remain active in the subconscious mind and are manifested and brought back in adult life. The method of psychoanalysis using proficiencies of free association and interference and other appropriate techniques under the guidance of the analyst is itself a way of helping unconscious wishes find verbal expression.

Freud regards empathy “as essential for establishing the rapport between patient and analyst that makes interpretation possible. He views it as the process that allows us to understand others by putting ourselves in their place (Pigman, G.W., l995).

” The therapist must experienced relaxation himself to have a better feel on how to administer the same to the patient and will know more what to look for.  The therapist can make use as undercoating guide, his own anxieties, how he confronts and uncovers them. Courage and other individual qualities of the therapist are of primary importance.References.

Felluga, D. (2003). “Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development.”  IntroductoryGuide to Critical Theory.

  Retrieved on September 29, 2008 from<>Mussen, Paul, Rosenzweig, Mark R.

, et al. (l979). Psychology an Introduction (brief ed.)Massachusetts: D.

C. Heath and Company.Pigman, G.W.

(1995), “Freud and the history of empathy”, The International journal ofPsycho-analysis 76 (Pt.2): 237-56.  Retrieved on October 1, 2008 from<http://www.ncbi.>Rowell, M.H.

, (2008). The defense mechanisms. Classic Psychoanalytic Theory. The FreudPage.

  Retrieved on September 30, 2008 from<>      

Economic Globalization

Topic: GlobalizationBefore we identify what is the meaning of economic globalization we have to define first what is globalization and its relation to economic globalization. People use the term globalization when they refer to the process of integrating global economies of nations by freeing unrestricted exchange of goods, services, investments and currencies between countries. Our world today solely depended on globalization because we believe that this principles and process could lead every nation to prosper and become more developed.

Globalization brings about modernization in agriculture, speed up industrialization, innovate urbanization and increase per capita gross domestic product (CADI).Economic globalization however is one of the developments of globalization in reflecting the world cooperation in achieving economic stability amongst nations. Thus it will appear that economic globalization is an extension of globalization (or otherwise have the same interpretation as globalization itself) by liberalizing businesses and let them seek strong capital to attain the utmost benefits in the world of trade and market globalization. In other words, this is the market economy of globalization wherein it involves the system of globalization in becoming the system of a free economy.

Every process involve in economic globalization is founded on liberalizing markets to capitalize on other markets. In general, globalization as much as economic globalization brings about positive results to the development of trades and industries on the level of international merchandising.Globalization has been practiced even before the onslaught of World War II due by the movement of trade that started in the industrial revolution. The only thing that moved us forward in achieving the kind of an active and interactive globalization we have today is the introduction or modernization of our technology particularly the Internet.

While globalization introduced most of us to a faster and reliable form of world trading, the positive aspects of economic globalization in general have aided also other nation’s younger economies to participate in the world of globalization. The developing countries have been able to widespread their commodities through market liberalization and free trade. Regardless of any country, even smaller industries capable of producing world class products and services can now participate in the world trading. This is not possible in the past when globalization was restricted in favor only of the multinationals and conduct trades between them.

Thus economic globalization has not only benefited economies in general but the world economy in the promotion of a more efficient global resource distribution and further productivity. The internet is one of the wonders of man that has enabled all of these things possible and us as the active participants of this technology can empower ourselves in attaining fulfilled economic system especially because of trade liberalization. It is foreseen that this mode of globalizing trade will propel us more to achieve an even greater heights into our future with more stabilized economic standard.However, anything that deals with such a global dimension does not always contribute positive things to other people or to other things in one way or another.

For example, economic globalization may seem to uplift us towards a more economic stability but it also prompted an increase in the world’s population because of close interaction of races and populations thus resulting in high demand of resources and continued soaring of prices of food and commodities. This progress can also contribute to pollution, water shortages and poverty around the world. In this case there is now the dark side out of the positive side in a sense that economic challenges can be the major factor toward global challenges which we have to overcome to achieve a sustainable development for the world economy.Take for an example the case of some African countries that have not benefited from the good sides of economic globalization and though in general countries becomes developed, Africa remained poor because it does not have the capability to sustain much as to compete in globalization.

The effect becomes worse for them because they become poorer, useless and more inadequate. As a matter of fact, there are still countries that belong to the third world that still live in absolute poverty affected by infectious diseases and natural disasters brought about by climate change and cannot participate in the globalization at all. The rising of prices in the world market absolutely pin them deeper into poverty therefore economic globalization becomes a global challenge that is connected to poverty and unsustainable economy (Iwatani).Hence economic globalization has also introduced new challenges such as inequality across and within nations, instability of financial markets and deterioration of some governments.

We can also see that although globalization has already been practices years ago and has brought up recovery to world economy, great majority of developing countries remained poor and removed from the process of globalization development. It is true that globalization reduce transaction cost of trans-border movements of capital and goods as well as opening up world trades and advance means of communication. It also encourages population migrations because it increases people’s mobility, transfer of their goods, sharing of capital and ideas. But because of these they also spread out infectious diseases, pollution and the most abhorred of all – terrorism.

Still, poverty remains to be the number one challenges economic globalization must face.Moreover, the potential effect of economic globalization on how it would benefit every country in the long run is still very much positive because it will remain intensifying interdependence with regards to trading of goods and continue to move services and capital on the international level. This will result further into domestic economic development although it will not determine international policies and assure permanent economic conditions with other nations.  It is therefore safe to assume that the globalizing economy while it continue to formulates and evaluates domestic policies must not ignore significant actions and reactions that would carry more developments to the rest of the world (Balakrishnan).

Works Cited:Balakrishnan, Chandrasekaran. “Impact of Globalisation on Developing Countries and India ” (2004). April 16, 2009 <http://economics.>.CADI.

“Globalization.” Center for Alternative Development Initiatives (2009). April 16, 2009 <http://www.cadi.

ph/globalization.htm>.Iwatani, Kuniaki. “Combating Global Challenges through the Creation of Markets Supporting Sustainable Development.

” Institute of International Studies and Traning (2001).  <>.

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