Transformational leadership style defines as leaders who can supply an imaginative and prescient and a feel of the mission, inspire, pleasure and achieve respect and believe thru charisma. These type of leaders are inspiring their followers to function in advance of expectations through influencing them to pursue greater and convincing to exchange their self-interests with organizational interests. They are additionally making an attempt to inspire followers to commit a shared vision and dreams for an organization, initiating them to be innovative, problem solvers, and creating followers’ leadership potential by way of coaching, monitoring, and provision of both task and aid (Khan, Nawaz & Khan, 2016).
Transformational leadership style has five factors. These are: (1) idealized influence (attributed), (2) idealized influence (behavioral), (3) inspirational motivation, (4) intellectual stimulation and (5) individualized consideration.
Idealized influence is characterized by leaders who behave as position fashions to their followers. Subordinates have perfect trust, respect, and admiration on their leaders. Charisma is an alternate time period which replaces idealized influence. It is associated with charismatic leadership. The leader’s behavior is reliable, as a substitute than arbitrary, and the leader shares in any risks happen. The chief demonstrates excessive standards of ethical and moral habits and avoids the use of power for non-public acquire (Long, 2014).
Idealized have an impact on consists of two forms idealized influence attribute in which leaders get hold of having faith plus respect, and idealized have an effect on behavior in which leaders show off brilliant conduct and might sacrifice their personal desires to improve the goals of their workgroup (Sadeghi & Lope Pihie, 2012).
Inspirational motivation refers to transformational leaders sharing a compelling vision or aim with their followers and continuously motivating them to reach for the goal. It helps to boost subordinates’ self-assurance and reassuring them that boundaries faced can be overcome. Higher degrees of motivation have been linked with higher tiers of performance. Inspirational motivation frequently produces person effort and performance past ordinary expectations, therefore growing followers who are impartial in managing challenges on their very own (Khan, Nawaz & Khan, 2016).
Intellectual Stimulation involves leaders motivating their followers’ effort to be innovative and innovative by questioning assumptions, reframing issues and drawing near old conditions in new ways. It can be used to extend inspired ideas that will enhance the leader’s reputation. Basically, intellectual stimulation includes the leader stimulating the followers to suppose thru problems and troubles for themselves and therefore to increase their own ability. In intellectual stimulation, new thoughts and innovative trouble solutions are solicited from followers who are integrated into the system of addressing issues and finding solutions. Followers are inspired to attempt new approaches, and their ideas are now not criticizing due to the fact they vary from the leaders’ thoughts (Long, 2014).
Individualized consideration refers to the personal interest that transformational leaders pay to their followers, the place the chief acts as a teach and mentor in recognizing and developing the followers. Transformational leaders are as people and not only individuals of a team and thus, set up a one-to-one relationship with the followers in order to hear to and apprehend their wants and goals. This in flip helps the followers’ development. As a result of individualized consideration and other transformational leadership behaviors, followers are empowered. The purpose of transformational leadership is to seriously change humans and organizations in literal experience to trade them in idea and heart (Khan, Nawaz& Khan, 2016).
Transactional Leadership Style
Transactional leadership style is focusing on the function of supervision, business enterprise, and crew performance. Transactional leaders require contractual settlement between the leaders with their followers. The follower is responsible for following the order to operate a task. The leader, in turn, gives rewards for following orders in completing the task. The followers may additionally be punished when they fail to accomplish their duties. The leaders do no longer focus on their employees’ non-public development and do not individualize their needs. This approach emphasizes the significance of the relationship between leaders and followers focus on the communal advantages derived from a structure of ‘contract’ via which the leader gives you such matters as rewards or incentive in return for the dedication of the followers (Oelofse, 2006).
Transactional leadership style is described in terms of three factors. These are (1) contingent reward, (2) management by exception (active) and (3) management by exception (passive).
Contingent reward entails an interplay between the leaders and the followers on the groundwork of leaders’ rewards, promises, and eulogies to inspire followers so as to reap performance degree signed by using both parties. Contingency rewards are the necessary leadership instrument in transactional vicinity that brings followers and team to perform up to standard. With this type of leadership, the leader tries to gain settlement from followers on what must be performed and what the payoffs will be for the people doing it (Khan, Nawaz & Khan, 2016).
Management-by-exception includes corrective criticism, poor feedback, and terrible reinforcement. Management-by-exception takes two forms: active and passive. A leader makes use of the active form of management-by-exception watches followers intently for mistakes or rule violations and then takes corrective action. This is very fundamental when in some situations like safety is paramount in importance.
Passive management-by-exception implies waiting passively for deviances, mistakes, and blunders to appear and then taking corrective action. A leader using passive shape intervenes solely after requirements have no longer been assembly or troubles have arisen. An example of passive management-by-exception is explained in the management of a supervisor who gives a worker a poor performance comparison barring ever speaking with the worker about her or his prior work performance (Khan, Nawaz & Khan, 2016).
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
Laissez-faire leadership style is regarded as delegate management style. In this style of leadership, leaders are hands-off and allow group contributors to make the decisions. This leader abdicates duty, delays decisions, offers no feedback, and makes little effort to assist followers to fulfill their needs. There is no trade with followers or attempt to assist them to grow. This element is usually regarded as the most passive and ineffective shape of leadership. Yukl (2010) argued that laissez-faire leader shows passive indifference about the mission and subordinates, for instance, ignoring troubles and ignoring subordinate needs. It is high-quality described as the lack of nice leadership as an alternative than as an example of transactional leadership.
Leadership effectiveness is integral to success in any organization. It carefully relies upon on effects and penalties of the leaders‟ things to do for followers and organization. The extent to which the agency achieves its desires and performs its assignment is the most regular measures of leadership effectiveness. Effective leaders are capable to wholly interact followers in the organizational strategies. Appropriate leadership fashion is an essential issue influence the effectiveness of the leaders (Sadeghi & Lope Pihie, 2012).
In fact, the notion of leadership effectiveness is nevertheless challenging among scholars to define leadership effectiveness and about its measurements. Still, there is no common idea and described the dimension of effectiveness. However, leadership effectiveness symptoms such as actions of a leader, conduct of subordinates closer to organizational desires and fulfillment of common desires are regularly taken as terrific measurement (Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin & Taherdoost, 2017).
Therefore, in accordance to Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin & Taherdoost (2017), leadership effectiveness can be measured via measuring unique leader’s direct results and subordinates’ assessment about their chief performance in the organization. Measuring specific leader’s direct result is through making an evaluation of leadership effectiveness by means of comparing with others. Specific leader’s result refers to the overall performance of a chief that is found in the practical output of an association objectively. In concerning to this, group overall performance and success of group goals, subordinate leader effectiveness evaluation, developed subordinate job satisfaction, accelerated subordinate performance, extended selection making, and improved team performance are examples of leadership effectiveness measures that study the particular leader’s outcome.
The 2nd measurement of leadership effectiveness is subordinate contrast of the leader’s effectiveness. This refers to the subjective measurement of leadership effectiveness. Exemplary measurements in this regard are subordinates’ opinion and willingness to work for a leader. This finds out about has six object scales to measure leadership effectiveness. These are a subordinate willingness to work at a high-level overall performance for the leader, agreement that they would experience working for the leader, get along with the leader, admire the leader, find their work patterns compatible with the leader, and have similar best for the leader.
These measurements of leadership effectiveness have been summarized as a goal and subjective measurement with the aid of Erkutlu (2008). Objective consequences refer performances or intention attainments that are physically measurable such as income growth, income margin, sales increase, market share, income relative to targeted sales, return on investment, productivity, the value per unit of output, etc. In other cases, subjective rankings of leaders’ effectiveness are acquired from the leader’s superiors, peers, or subordinates.
Therefore, for this study about goal results size is not fabulous due to the lack of first-rate data. BCA hasn’t sufficient and nice reports for measurement of leadership effectiveness. Hence, a subjective ranking of leadership effectiveness is suitable from perceptions of people from the city administration.
Leadership Theories and Approaches
Leadership is a process that involves influence and occurs in a group with common goals (Northouse, 2013). It can be broken down into four categories: A process is where groups are influenced by an individual to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2013). Leadership is therefore not precise but rather a reciprocal event that is available to everyone (Northouse, 2013).
Leadership involves influence precisely on how the leader affects its supporters. A leader must be able to influence its followers otherwise it will be nonexistent (Northouse, 2013). Leadership can also occur in a group since it is the background in which leadership occurs. It is about one individual who influences the rest of the group in order to achieve the similar goal (Northouse, 2013). Leadership involves consideration of common goals, that need to be attained in order to accomplish a task together (Northouse, 2013). In the leadership process both leaders and followers are involved. It is often than not the leader initiates the relationship by creating linkage and bears the burden to try and maintain the relationship (Northouse, 2013).
Leadership style is a pattern or behavior between a leader and the subordinate (Walker and Miller, 2012). There are several ways to approach a leadership role
- The old-style boss- they tend to make decisions without input from any staff members. They give demands and expect them to be fulfilled without question. Employees needs would not be considered before organizational ones (Walker and Miller, 2012)
- Situational leadership- it is the adaptability of a leader to the situation at hand. Each situation would require a different kind of leader (Walker and Miller, 2012. In this approach leadership is seen as specific to the situation in which it is being exercised (Navickas, Navickas and Jegelavičiūtė, 2018).
- Transactional leadership- this is a leader that motivates the employees by appealing to their needs. This type of a leader would focus more on effective communication and goals to maintain standards (Walker and Miller, 2012). Subordinates are motivated by a transactional leader using contingent rewards, enforcing rules and corrective actions (Swamy and Nan jundeswaraswamy, 2019).
- Transformational leadership – this is a leader that motivates employees to work hard in order to achieve more than they thought they could. It is closely related to Emotional intelligence (Ariyabuddhiphongs and Kahn, 2017). They act as a mentor or coach, provide challenging jobs to their employees to inspire them to surpass their expectations (Walker and Miller, 2012).
In my opinion I think a transformational leader and transactional leader have some similar traits such as motivation towards employees to achieve goals, so they have a self-reinforcement (Wang, Tsai and Tsai, 2014). While the old-style boss and situational theory are opposite since one relies on action within the moment and the is rigid dictatorship.
There are a several advantages to view leadership from a trait approach.
I chose to relate Blake and Mouton managerial grid which is classified under a style approach versus the psychodynamic approach which focuses on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator leadership style (Northouse, 2013). Managerial grid describes a person’s attitude against production and people while Blake and Mouton is based on the personality of a singular (Hersey and Blanchard, 1982).
According to Ernest L. Stech, the psychodynamic approach consists of a variety of leadership styles. It is the consistency with a person’s behavior in the way they think, feel as well as act with relation to the environment and other people (Northouse, 2013). Personality is usually characterized by traits or qualities that a person would reveal such as shyness, independence, creativity or intelligence (Northouse, 2013). There is a full list of possible personality traits and psychologists have confirmed that none is better than the other (Northouse, 2013). Numerous questionnaires have been formed for use of characterizing an individual’s personality.
Each personality type has its stronghold and suitability when it comes to a leadership position (Northouse, 2013. In order to have an effective work situation there is no need to match the personality traits of the leader to that of the follower (Northouse, 2013).
According to Carl Jung human behavior can be understandable as well as predictable (Northouse, 2013). People generally have desires when it comes to how they think or feel, and this will reflect on the outcome of their work and relations with various people. Jung in Northouse (2013) then came up with four dimensions which he believes are a basis of human behavior
- First, is when a person assumes their internal or external energy.
- How they gather information.
- The decision-making process.
- Lastly the difference between a spontaneous person and one that plans and follows a schedule.
The MBTI results are given in form of letters and numbers and this suggests how clearly the defendant has chosen their options (Henry, 2001). According to the theory an assumption is that one of the preferences (S, N, T, F) will act as the personality trait of an individual (Henry, 2001). It is also known as the dominant and the other three are auxiliary function.
The four types of classifications are (Cherry, 2019):
- A person who likes to derive energy externally or internally is classified under an extrovertist or an introvertist.
- Secondly, when it comes to gathering information it is either done in a precise or insightful way. This would be classified under senses versus intuition.
- Thirdly is a person who makes decisions rationally or subjectively and they are classified under a thinker versus a feeler.
- And lastly, we have a judge versus a perceiver, and this is someone who would rather live in an organized or spontaneous way.
There are 16 potential sequences from the four dimensions. My result was an ESTJ, which is described as an efficient driver (Richmond, 2008). Some of the positive attributes of an efficient driver is An ESTJ as a manager will be influenced to set direction from the very beginning (Richmond, 2008). They decide on it promptly and know what needs to be achieved in order to accomplish the set goals (Richmond, 2008). They are practical and implement ideas as well as create plans that are modelled with values (Richmond, 2008).
Inspiring others is achieved through the tendency to set high measures that have a clear and decisive role with a specific outcome (Richmond, 2008). And lastly an ESTJ can drive motivation through assuring goals will be met according to the set standards and plans successfully completed (Butt, 2019).
This style approach accentuates the behavioral manner of a leader (Northouse, 2013. Leadership can be categorized under two kinds of behavior, they are relationship and task behavior. Task behavior helps group members accomplish their goals while relationship behavior assists subordinates to get more comfortable amongst themselves and others (Northouse, 2013). Blake and Mouton was one of the many studies undertaken to investigate how a manager uses behavior in an organization setting (Northouse, 2013).
Blake and Mouton managerial grid
It was first conducted in the1960’s and has since then been used for organizational training and development (Northouse, 2013). The theory explains two factors: concern for production and concern for people and how it would help an organization fulfill their objectives (Northouse, 2013). Concern for production is the sole focus of a leader on the achievement of an organization’s objectives (Northouse, 2013). It is based on what the organization wants to accomplish it may involve a new product development or the volume of sales (Northouse, 2013). A leader that tends to people’s needs and tries to achieve the objectives is classified under concern for people. It may include trust and commitment within the organization, good working conditions as well as social relations (Northouse, 2013).
The two factors are joined on a leadership grid where the axes intersect. At the point of intersection, the grid portrays five major managerial styles (Northouse, 2013). They are country club (1,9), impoverished (1,1), authoritarian (9,1), team management (9,9) and middle of the road (1,1) (Northouse, 2013). As a team leader I am more of a dictator which is linked to the old style- boss theory where I would expect a subordinate to perform the task as I say. As an improvement I should try middle of the road (5,5) leadership style to balance between the organization goals and needs of the employees through communication objectives (Foskett et al., 2018).
Based on MBTI self-assessment some of my challenges included (Richmond, 2008)
- Struggling to articulate my words in a way that would inspire a large audience.
- Being impatient with people who act slowly than I do and in the end judge them as not being as bright as they should be.
- Being outspoken by not mincing words basically be blunt and straight forward.
- Give more negative feedback than positive which leaves others feeling criticized when it was not one’s intention.
In order to be a better leader, I would have to develop and become (Richmond, 2008)
- More patient with people who work slower than I do but at the same time encourage them let them know my expectations clearly so that they can work towards fulfilling them.
- Learn how to be softer in my way of communication by asking more questions and learning something from others. At the same time find a way to appreciate my colleagues and motivate them to make a difference (Schoemaker, Heaton and Teece, 2018).
According to my results from Belbin self-perception theory I am more focused when it comes to shaping. This would be a great fit in conjunction with MBTI results since I would fit a supervisory position. According to Belbin Team Roles (2019), a shaper is a person that challenges the team to improve and uses the best sources in order to solve problems more efficiently. A shaper shakes things up in order to consider all possibilities and pushes others when they feel like giving up (Belbin Team Roles, 2019). Based on the Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid, as a team leader I would have to improve on my concern for people and less on production. In order to achieve this, I would have to identify my strengths versus my weaknesses, lead with respect, have a vision and always look at the big picture in a situation (Szu-Fang, 2013).
Transformational Leadership Advantages And Disadvantages
Transformational Leadership Introduction
Transformational Leadership where leaders are able to initiate substantial innovation and change, Smit et al (2011:323). Theories of leadership have emerged in various ways for decades, each with its own thought process and a blueprint for successful team management. Transformational leadership is one of those theories, and is considered to be a more humane theory compared to other types like a militaristic transactional leadership style. It is a kind of leadership where leaders and followers work together to achieve higher levels of motivation and morale in teams.
The transformational leaders inspire people instead of dictating changes in their team, to shift their staff’s attitudes, aspirations or motives for working towards a shared goal. While there are a lot of good in transformational leadership, there are also some drawbacks in it. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of transformational leadership.
Advantages of the Transformational Leadership
Communicate inspiring visions, this approach stands out from other forms of leadership in its ability to quickly evaluate the current situation of an organization and to articulate a vision for its development and growth. Through passion and influence, the leader communicates her vision to employees to get everyone on board. They are also good at identifying gaps or problems in a vision process which helps them to make changes or recommendations for immediate correction of the situation. Through passion and influence the transformational leaders properly communicate their visions to other leaders within the organization and to all of the employees.
As their charisma tends to sell their followers the moralities of the dream, the acceptance of the new vision spreads rapidly down the company hierarchy to get everyone to the same page and Employees are inspired to do what’s expected of them because they view the whole work experience as a purposeful and enjoyable adventure. Transformation leaders are ordinary people who turn up every day to try and do their best in the world in every way
It’s about a dream, enthusiasm , passion and vision, and Jeff Bezos founder of e-commerce colossus Amazon in 1994 out of his garage in Seattle, complies with these guidelines. Transformational leadership style doesn’t stop with inspiring words, it is developed in Amazon’ leadership principles.
In a Quora post about Amazon’s leadership principles, Arun Prasath, a principal engineer at Amazon, describes how the principles are ingrained in the company’s culture. “The principles are embodied in the natural way of thought and the common language spoken on a day-to-day basis by Amazonians regardless of function, domain, role, level, business model or target market.” – Arun Prasath, Principal Engineer at Amazon.
Motivating your team, The vision of transformational leadership aligns with being able to inspire and motivate. Passion is basically a universal trait that helps transformational leaders to get their members to optimize performance. Bezos and Amazon obtain the consent and dedication to elevate team vision by knowing the interests and dislikes of the staff they know what motivates them and what doesn’t. They know that to get through hard times, they need to rely on their passion in order to sell vision and head employees in the same direction.
Enthusiasm is promoted, Transformational leaders creates a work environment that is enthusiastic and drives a company towards innovation and changes because enthusiasm is contagious, if followers see their leader being enthusiastic and successful in their pursuit of a new vision or goal, then they want to experience that same enthusiasm and success as well. Which leads to higher productivity rates, higher team morale rates and lower levels of follow-up turnover.
Risk Taking, Transformational leaders look at a pattern, challenge the pattern, and study new patterns to find new possibilities. They continuously challenge assumptions to find new solutions to old problems. Therefore Transformational leaders tend to be creative, To be more creative, you need a good dose of imagination and creativity. To create positive change in the company you must be able to think outside the box and you must be willing to take risks as well. Because you are trying to obtain a visionary goal, something transformative and different, you won’t have a paved out road ahead of you. In order to accomplish great things, it requires you to put yourself on the line to take risks and face challenge.
Determination, Transformation leaders rely on the highest standards they speak about the tenacity of completing the race irrespective of the obstacles your way through, the theory of determination according to Jeff Bezos, requires that you rely on your courage, stamina, power and perseverance to achieve the vision , by displaying endurance, you show employees that hard work pays off in the end.
It encourages ongoing learning and development, Transformational leaders do more than work toward a final goal or vision. They constantly working on achieving greater productivity standards and efficiency for themselves and their followers. This leadership style is one of the best at having people engage with the learning process for this position. Such leaders strive to improve their employees’ intellects, create a supportive community and provide individualized opportunities for learning. In return, they usually gets a higher degree of commitment and success from their team.
Transformational leaders are excellent communicators, Lack of team communication is one of the biggest issues corporations faces. When team members are not properly informed of job duties, expectations, or project stipulations, then they cannot be fully productive. Transformational leaders are excellent communicators, they provide consistent feedback to their followers to keep them pointed toward the vision or goal being worked toward.
Disadvantages of the Transformational Leadership
Can Lead to Employee Burnout, While some will feel inspired by a transformational leader, others feel their presence as a constant pressure. Transformational leaders put a lot of emphasis on authenticity – living and breathing the company culture and values, this relentless push to fulfil the grand vision and constantly take pride in the company’s accomplishments can lead to some workers becoming demotivated and burnout. It sends the message that much more is required than simply turning up, doing a great job, and then going home.
It can face serious detail challenges, While transformational leaders are known for their inspirations and big picture visions, they would struggle with detail orientation at times. Experts claim that more comprehensive and coordinated people would need support from these types of leaders, which means that certain managers, assistants or other team members will be required to help sustain a transactional emphasis that can keep these leaders’ vision going in the right direction.
Transformational leadership often lacks a structure, The rigid and strict structure is one of the most influential critiques of transactional leadership, But when it comes to transformational leadership, the absence of a consistent structure is seen as its weakness. When it comes to structure there needs to be the right balance of firmness and versatility. In most transformational leadership situations, a serious problem may be the lack of any kind of framework at all.
The workers and even the leader themselves will exploit the lack of structure, undermining the morale and productivity of the entire team. An example is Eastman Kodak, for nearly a century, no company commercialized the camera as successfully as Kodak, whose breakthroughs included the Brownie camera in 1900, Kodachrome colour film, the handheld movie camera, and the easy-load Instamatic camera. However due to lack of structure, they tried expanding into different fields but continued to fail , Its stock price is now about 96 percent below the peak it hit in 1997.
Goals of transformational leaders may be far-fetched, Transformation leaders are people who rely on passion, excitement and determination to accomplish something. They feel that if they have these qualities they can do whatever they want, and they make sure they pass them on to their followers too.
However, at times, this often optimistic outlook can be a justification for them to turn a blind eye to real issues they may encounter. They may not be willing to accept the reality they face, especially if it is a ‘not so attractive’ reality. Instead of logic and reasoning this dependence on feelings may be extremely detrimental to the whole team. Eg, Borders was an international book and music retailer, founded by two entrepreneurial brothers while at university.
With locations all around the world but mounting debt,refusing to transition to the new business environment of digital and online books. Its missteps included holding too much debt, opening too many stores as well as jumping into the e-reader business to late. This over-reliance restricted their willingness to delve into research and logical reasoning to face harsh truths about the situation of their companies.
It carries the potential for abuse, this kind of leadership is strong, but not always used morally and for the good of the popular. But much of the time the interpretation of ‘doing it the right way’ by the transformational leader is simply the wrong way for the organisation and the people inside the organisation.
Transformational leadership has a lot of advantages that make it not only attractive but also feasible to adopt, While it has proved popular and catapulted many businesses to great heights, this is only possible if the leader works for the common good A transformational leader often stridently embraces a dream that isn’t a force for good. In reality not all those that are sometimes associated with this method match the definition. As you can see, Experts often cite Adolf Hitler and Osama bin Laden as examples of transformational leaders, so there can be a dark side to this style of leadership.
Leaders Lose Power If People Disagree With Them, Transformational leadership depends on internally motivated workers to work hard, so if those workers are not listening, thinking, and engaging with the goal, there would be a lack of intrinsic motivation. Therefore Leaders have to be cautious with the carrots they dangle to motivate their workers. When a leader makes a commitment, its workers have every right to expect follow-through,leaders have to be cautious with the carrots they dangle to inspire their workers.
When a leader makes a commitment, its workers have every right to expect follow-through Worse, inadequate transactional motivators (rewards and punishments) may be in place to promote some kind of response, and that imbalance is the reason why change efforts will fail. Marshall Goldsmith’s What Got You Here Won’t Get You There explains that when leaders offer suggestions or ideas, employees hear them as commands or promises. Failing to deliver on a promise — no matter how large or small — will violate the trust of employees.
Only organization itself benefits, The transformational leader continually inspires and motivates the employees to contribute to the improvement of the team and working well towards the organization’s goal. Although on the first glance this might seem like no problem at all, critics have pointed out that this kind of scheme does little to benefit the staff themselves. The organization itself has only one flow of control – from the leader to the workers, and only one aspect that profits from the process. While this may not always seem like it, it leaves little room for personal development.