Tuberculosis Epidemiology Research Sample Essay

Description of the infectious disease

The contagious disease chosen for the discussion is tuberculosis. It is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which spreads from one individual to the other via air, affecting the lungs but at times affecting the other body parts like the kidney, brain, and spine. Its symptoms include loss of weight, night sweats, frequent sickness, and coughing up of blood accompanied by chest pains. TB is spread through air in which the germs are put in the air when an individual suffering from it sneezes, coughs, or speaks. From research, the germs can stay in the air for many hours, depending on the area. The complications of this disease include kidney problems, heart failure, swelling of the brain membranes, and spinal pain. According to the Mayo Clinic, TB can be treated using antibiotics such as Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and Rifampin. According to the World Health Organization, TB is present in all countries in the wolf affecting over six million men, about four million women, and two million children (World Health Organization, 2022). This implies that the disease is more vulnerable to men than women and children. The CDC states that the death rates of TB have hiked to 2.4 cases per group of 100000 people representing a 9.8% increase (Centre for Disease Control and prevention, 2022). Nearly 1.5 million people die yearly because of TB, and relatively 9 million get ill yearly.

Why the disease is regarded as reportable

Tuberculosis is a reportable disease because it carries the potential to become an epidemic across the globe due to its high transmission rates. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, TB should be reported faster as soon as it is identified (Centre for Disease Control and prevention, 2022). They state that any reporter entangling in a confirmed or suspected case of TB should report to any designated department or their officials within 24 hours. The designated departments include healthcare providers like doctors, nurses, physicians, laboratories like lab technicians, and administrators like child care centers, youth camps, or higher education learning institutions. Similarly, individuals can report to federal or tribal entities like an operating facility providing health care services and licensed allopathic, osteopathic, or naturopathic doctors.

Social determinants of health and how they contribute to the development of TB

The social determinants of health for TB include poverty, education, housing conditions, and health access. Poverty has been researched to be among the leading determinants of tuberculosis. Poorly ventilated and crowded living environments are mostly associated with the poor. Similarly, poverty is associated with poor health knowledge, making individuals miss empowerment linked to gaining knowledge about TB. The lack of knowledge can also be linked to education, in which an individual has to learn to gain the required knowledge on how to avoid TB transmissions. Poor housing conditions create a vulnerable environment for tuberculosis, making the individuals susceptible. Access to health allows individuals to be tested by trained clinicians and medical providers. Those who have the conditions are treated and get cured with time.

Epidemiologic triangle concerning TB

Following the causal model of an epidemiologic triangle, various environmental, host, and agent factors result in tuberculosis. An epidemiologic triad mainly consists of an external agent, susceptible host, and a specific environment for disease infection. In the case of TB, the pathogen is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, breeding on human as the host and in a moderately acidic, nutrient-restricted environment. The agent factors include close contact between the person and the disease (World Health Organization, 2022). The host factors include inhaling sneezed or coughed pathogens from a victim. Conceptually, the environmental factors for TB include drinking, smoking, indoor air pollution, and overcrowding.

Special considerations or notifications

Developing special considerations for the schools and general public is necessary to curb the continuous spread of tuberculosis. Across the globe, patients ailing from TB should be placed under airborne precautions to protect others. Any individuals entering the special airborne precautions rooms should ensure that they wear N-95 respiratory masks. All public members should embrace washing their hands with soapy detergents after coughing or sneezing. Similarly, a TB victim should avoid visiting people or asking others to visit them to avoid the continuous spread of the disease. Schools should consider using fans or opening windows to ensure that air can freely circulate in the classrooms.

Importance of demographic data to community health

In assessing a condition, the patient’s demographic data include identifying their personal information like address, birth date, contact, and name. Demographic data is important when dealing with a contagious disease because it streamlines the medical billing process, improving the quality of healthcare offered to patients. Similarly, it bolsters the cultural competency of the healthcare and enhances proper communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. The demographics enable the provider to understand the patient’s environment better, hence developing a better medical treatment plan for their condition (Centre for Disease Control and prevention, 2022). Contextually, the data allows the healthcare provider to easily track the patient whenever a need arises after they have left the clinic.

Role of the community health nurse

Community health nurses fill the health system gaps for underserved populations. They ensure that all populations are represented and given their required care by going to businesses, schools, and organizations to offer medical services, rehabilitation, and health education. At the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of tuberculosis prevention, they help assess, diagnose, treat, and refer patients suffering from the disease for further care. They assess their patients concentrating on the signs and symptoms of TB, diagnose those who show the signs and treat them to prevent further infections. As a result, collecting data from organizations and schools helps display the prevalence and morbidity of infectious conditions across the globe. A communicable nurse can treat an underserved patient suffering from tuberculosis without hesitation and with expectations of payment.

National agency organizations that address TB

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the identified agency that addresses tuberculosis. The agency states that TB has remained to be among the leading infectious disease killers around the globe. USAID, in cohorts with the US government, has made TB efforts to reach many people curing those with the disease and preventing it from spreading (United States Agency for International Development, 2020). Similarly, the agency has cooperated with the ministries of health in providing bilateral assistance to the 24 countries with high TB cases. They have provided TB global funds, which target assisting 31 more countries in fighting the disease. As a result, research clearly states that the agency has helped to decrease 25 percent of TB mortality rates across the globe.

The global implication of TB

According to the World Health Organization, a total of 1.6 million people worldwide have died from TB since 2021. Of the total population who died, 187 000 people had HIV alongside tuberculosis (World Health Organization, 2022). Globally, TB has been ranked as the 13th leading cause of mortality and the 2nd leading infectious killer after the legend Coronavirus. The disease is fatal if not treated properly and kills an individual quickly. Its indication has been summed as an acute respiratory failure because of pneumonia accompanied by septic multiple organic dysfunctions, neurological involvement, and adrenal insufficiency. Other nations have regarded it as an infectious killer, advising on maintaining natural lights, good hygiene, and proper ventilation.


Centre for Disease Control and prevention. (2022). Tuberculosis. Saving lives and protecting people. Retrieved from;

United States Agency for International Development. (2020). Tuberculosis. United States Government. Retrieved from;

World Health Organization. (2022). Tuberculosis. Retrieved from;

World Health Organization. (2022). Rapid communication: key changes to treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (No. WHO/UCN/TB/2022.2). World Health Organization. Retrieved from;

Voting Right Act Writing Sample

The Voters Rights Act (VRA) 1965 ensured every American participated in the voting exercise. From time to time, there has been a review of the Act to ensure that the existing vacuum is appropriately addressed. The Supreme Court, on June 25th, 2013, ruled that it was very unconstitutional to Use Section 4(b) in determining those subject to preclearance. This ruling sparked much debate, with two groups, some supporting the preclearance from the federal state while others were against it. This paper discusses the overview of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. It examines the preclearance Act brought to the Supreme Court in 2013. Finally, it gives a general opinion preclearance fits modern democracy compared with other nations which have run free and fair elections.

The 1965 voting Right Act was an essential statutory that set out the differences between the state and federal governments on the issue of voting since the Civil war. Since then, the Supreme Court has given insight into the constitutionality in Section 5 about several voting rights and the practices that followed the democratic exercise. However, the provision where the federal government was responsible for oversight of elections was removed in 2013. Section 2 clearly showed that no conditions should be set for one to qualify as a voter1. The 1965 voting right had an immediate impact which was seen, and new black voters got enrolled, the section two of the Amendment, which was in line with the fifteen amendments, made more than a quarter of new black people to be registered as voters. The poll taxes were challenged and made unconstitutional because of the 14th Amendment. This led to massive registration of voters; the thirteen counties with fewer blacks saw a tremendous registration of voters who before were prevented from participating in this democratic right. [1]

There are two views regarding preclearance those who feel that the federal government should be actively involved in it, while others think it should not be the case. Political scientists can see the 2013 Act as an attempt to identify areas with racial segregation and do away with discriminatory practices. The section 5 amendment wanted those who needed to make amendments to seek approval from the Attorney. Until the federal government approves it, nobody should be denied the right to vote. In brief, this can be seen as the best strategy to dislodge the barriers by the states or local governments in blocking minorities from exercising their right to vote. The Supreme Court in 2013 ensured that the discriminatory laws or procedures in place are not repeated in the future2. Those discriminatory measures that have existed since have been chiefly targeting minority groups. Therefore, those who support this believe that it ensures that minorities participate in the voting exercise.

The passing of these laws has helped to give the federal government the to weigh on the restrictions by some federal government before the state government or local district courts actualize them. This could help make standardization. However, the Shelby act permitted states to enact those measures reviewed earlier in Section 52. The right to vote is essential, just like other rights to people of color and the marginalized; therefore, some restrictions should be weighed to ensure that they are not barriers to access to voting right. [2]

Those with opposite views have two general arguments for their view. The first is that the Voting Rights Act is sufficient in addressing the discrimination that comes with voting and that there is no need for the federal government to grant the states the restrictions they put in elections. First, the federal government’s justification for giving grants to the states to help have a high turnout for black voters. It is believed that discrimination disappeared a long time ago. The North West court in 2009 noted that the voter registration rights had reached parity; therefore, concerns by the federal government might not be of use3. The states, therefore, have a right to have limited interference from the federal government. It is seen as an extraordinary intrusion into the affairs of the state government.

While the two antagonistic groups have varied views over the Act, there is some specific aspect in which they share the same ideas. Both do not agree with the idea of discrimination, and they believe that the state and federal governments have the powers to act against any malicious act that may hinder a full realization of the right to vote. More interpretations of the 1965 Act should be made to ensure everyone enjoys the democratic right to vote with no restraints.

Observing the elections that have taken place, I believe there is still some form of discrimination, which puts some vulnerable groups in some compromise. Therefore there is a need to ensure that the federal government checks what the state government is doing regarding elections. The states have diverse communities, and logically, there is a need to review some laws which are put in place to ensure compliance and ensure nobody is compromised in the voting exercise. [3]

During the administration of barrack, Obama 2008 –2015 intervened in the Texas case where it was believed that some laws had some form of discrimination3.

There are some marginalized groups who, for various reasons, have not fully exercised their rights to vote, especially in the black community; therefore, there is a need to regularly review what the states do regarding election laws to ensure they do not compromise the right to vote. Borrowing ideas from other countries like the United Kingdom, which have the most simplified law to ensure members are actively involved in elections, America needs to have fair laws that help everyone willingly participate in elections.

The United States is one of the countries globally ranked best in democracy; choosing leaders is done through a popular vote. Tie to time reviewing how the process ids dome is essential to ensure that nobody gets their rights flinched. Based on the 1965 Voting Act, many amendments have been made to ensure everyone takes part in elections. The 2013 Supreme Court verdict was such an amendment that made various individuals and lobby groups react differently. However, the concern for everyone is to have inclusivity in election acts. [4]


Parker, Keith, Dora Tilles, Clifton Brown, and Dawn Brown McGlotten. “Voter Participation in the Absence of the 1965 Voting Rights Act.” International Journal of Education, Culture and Society 6, no. 5 (2021): 159.

Raze, Kyle. “Voting rights and the resilience of Black turnout.” Economic Inquiry 60, no. 3 (2022): 1127-1141.

Shah, Paru, and Robert S. Smith. “Legacies of segregation and disenfranchisement: The road from Plessy to Frank and voter ID laws in the United States.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 7, no. 1 (2021): 134-146.

[1] Raze, Kyle. “Voting rights and the resilience of Black turnout.” Economic Inquiry

[2]Parker, Keith, Dora Tilles, Clifton Brown, and Dawn Brown McGlotten. “Voter Participation in the Absence of the 1965 Voting Rights Act

[3] Paru, and Smith. “Legacies of segregation and disenfranchisement(134-146)

[4] Ibd ;Paru, and Smith(1140-146)

Wealth Inequality In Our Society Essay Example For College

Inequality in wealth refers to how money is distributed within a community, not just how much a specific country has. Every culture differs due to various circumstances; inequality creates several issues since it causes disparity in a society’s perspectives, attitudes, and beliefs, among other things. Financial inequality is the degree to which wealth is dispersed inequitably among members of a specific group or society (Zucman 119). In addition to their yearly wage, their wealth comprises all the resources or assets they get through their employment, investments, government benefits, rent, and royalties.

The economic discrepancy may be felt regarding pay, wealth, or income. Pay disparity is the difference in the earnings from various occupations alone; income is any money acquired from investments, savings, employment, or rent. Extreme economic disparity adversely affects children’s prospects for success despite their parent’s best efforts and high poverty levels (Pfeffer and Nora 570). It is crucial to remember that different cultures have different degrees of economic inequality. There is a significant inequality in wealth ownership in the US today.

Notwithstanding the numerous fallacies surrounding economic inequality, the vicious cycle is a typical result of how society functions. Although inequality levels are high, income disparity contributes to recessions and high unemployment rates. Let us say the government does not ensure that all its citizens have access to employment opportunities. In such circumstances, a vigorous movement ought to compel the government to exert more significant effort to distribute its resources equally (Emmanuel and Zucman 14).

Despite the many myths surrounding economic disparity, the vicious cycle is a typical outcome of how society operates. Although income disparity relates to recessions and high unemployment rates, inequality is still relatively high. Consider a scenario where the government fails to ensure all its residents can access work opportunities. In this case, a strong movement should drive the government to allocate its resources more fairly (Emmanuel and Zucman 14). There is virtually unanimous agreement that the disparity present everywhere is unacceptable, even if many American individuals may disagree on how to accomplish equality.

Even if many of the charming and optimistic myths about America now are false, the US’s assertion that it delivered equality in the past may have been confirmed. Research from wealthy nations demonstrates that inequality is strongly correlated with a lack of opportunity and poverty (Emmanuel and Zucman 18). In many nations, these two elements determine economic disparity. The few who have had the chance to acquire resources typically end up with more excellent money than others who do not. Due to this, there is an economic divide and economic inequality.

Today’s society is permeated by inverse inequity. Humans differ for various reasons; for instance, when people are born in different countries, they are exposed to different situations. Lyons claims that Australia’s unequal resource allocation makes certain areas poorer than others. Another facet of inequality is how parents’ education and income affect their children. Young people from low socioeconomic backgrounds are likelier not to receive a quality education and not move up to the middle or upper social strata.

The odds of a youngster growing up in the middle or upper class are much higher for those who have educated and affluent parents. Many children’s future chances are highly influenced by their upbringing. Additionally, prejudice against smaller individuals might be linked to inequality. Also, many individuals lost their jobs due to the Industrial Revolution and the growth of technology since their talents were rendered obsolete by these developments. The wage gap between business leaders and the typical worker grows as technology eliminates employment. Nowadays, computers and machines perform much of the labor that individuals once performed. In manufacturing and packing, for instance, automated equipment may manufacture goods more quickly and effectively than traditional human labor. Due to this, regular industrial jobs like making steel motors have decreased. When a tiny group of people possesses a disproportionate amount of capital, the economy and wealth of the society are primarily under their control.

The income gap between capital owners and the jobless in the US is still vast. Highly skilled workers are required to operate newly designed machinery and equipment. The rightward movement in labor demand has increased the wage gap between skilled and unskilled employees. This is an example of how technological improvements have caused an imbalance in the supply and demand for labor, leading to an uneven distribution of wealth. The inadequacies of capitalist systems are exposed when resources, opportunities, and efforts are not allocated equally among the population (Rabiul and Mark 13). Capitalist institutions have historically undergone much evolution, yet inequality has stayed consistent. During the start of the industrial revolution, labor conditions were appalling. The laws controlling working hours, child labor, safety, and other matters about employees were applied unfairly and inadequately. Inequality remained as the wealth gap worsened despite unanticipated occurrences, such as higher earnings during the proletariat revolution.

Over the years, this pattern has persisted. A progressive tax system, according to Lyon, would ensure that those in higher income categories would pay taxes in proportion to their income. In order to reduce the wealth-poverty gap, laws that limit economic inequality must be put in place. The wealthiest in Russia have access to specialized schools, shops, and other pleasures, whereas the poorer classes can only afford the basics. As long as the rich continue to take advantage of those who are less fortunate, the progressive push for equality has come to an end. The impoverished must put up with living circumstances they could never have imagined in a capitalist environment. Compared to other economic systems, a capitalist economy is one where the gap between the affluent and the poor is the greatest (Rabiul and Mark, 13). Under this system, the wealthy keep getting richer while the poor keep getting poorer. As a result, the gap between the two classes continues to grow.

The majority of cultures use inequality in various ways. The notion that the affluent keep becoming richer and the poor keep getting poorer is not just a cliché; it has theoretical and historical roots in wealth concentration. The money produced usually ends up in the hands of a select few when the remainder of society is underfunded. This occurrence characterizes contemporary society and happens in capitalist regimes. The impacts of the current degree of inequality are likely to persist in subsequent generations because children have begun to be born unequal from birth and carry their conditions into the future.

Works Cited

Islam, Md Rabiul, and Mark McGillivray. “Wealth inequality, governance and economic growth.” Economic Modelling 88 (2020): 1-13.

Pfeffer, Fabian T., and Nora Waitkus. “The wealth inequality of nations.” American Sociological Review 86.4 (2021): 567-602.

Saez, Emmanuel, and Gabriel Zucman. “The rise of income and wealth inequality in America: Evidence from distributional macroeconomic accounts.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 34.4 (2020): 3-26.

Zucman, Gabriel. “Global wealth inequality.” Annual Review of Economics 11 (2019): 109-138.

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