TV Research: Anderson Cooper 360 Free Essay

TV Research: Anderson Cooper 360This paper shall cover the Anderson Cooper 360 show and shall shed light on different areas of the show.

Under the daylight savings time, Anderson Cooper 360 airs daily at 2 PM according to Chicago time and features host Anderson Hays Cooper. The show is divided into a number of segments. The show is based on a number of different segments. Amongst others, there is the strategy session in which Anderson cooper talks to correspondents and analysts around the world and takes their opinion on incidents and accidents related to international politics.

There is the segment popularly referred to as keeping them honest, which delves into the latest of measures and actions taken by the government and takes a critical look at their feasibility.There is the segment crime and punishment takes a look at high level corruption and crime. There is the 360 Bulletin which serves to provide a brief summary of the news highlights for the day. There is the segment the shot serves as a relief from the seriousness of the show and constitutes of jocular images or video clips from across the world.

There is the segment called what were they thinking features stories that are of an unusual nature. There is the segment Beat 360 integrates the website of the program into the show and serves to provide another twist of humor to the show. The last segment on the show is Lifestyles of the Rich and Shameless which is a recent addition to the show and serves to bring to light the lives of rich people from the corporate world (CNN, 2009).1.

Central Issue of the showUpon viewing numerous episodes of the show, the issues seemed to concentrate extensively on the element of terrorism and the implications of terrorism on the lives of the everyday American. The show covered numerous different news items but a vast majority of them seemed to be related to be the numerous elements that terrorize the everyday life of the common man and how it in turn serves to take effects on society.2. Fact/Opinion Oriented CoverageNot only in the above mentioned issue, but in other issues as well, the news coverage on Anderson Cooper 360 is one that seems to follow a particular approach.

Anderson Cooper first presents a brief report on the subject of the news and continues to supplement it through external sources. He then makes sure that he provides the audience with an interview with a personality that can provide an opinion and a bit of a discussion on the show (Harrison). If one was to switch from Anderson Cooper 360 to other news channels to witness coverage from the same news, it is fairly easy to see that Anderson Cooper makes sure he covers the news subject completely and it is not until the interview of a news correspondent or a credible personality that the show begins to develop an opinion of sorts (Watson).3.

Coverage of the Root Causes of the ProblemAnderson Cooper 360 makes sure that once the subject of the news has been introduced to the audience a brief report is presented in which the origins and causes of the problem are covered. The show goes on to present the analysis of the current state of the subject of the news. 4. General Observation from the 10 BroadcastsAfter having watch 10 broadcasts of the show, the general observation made as a result was that the team of Anderson Cooper 360 puts excruciating effort in putting together a news report that can cover the news and that the integration of the website with the show serves to make the show highly complex and just as entertaining at the same time.

Anderson Cooper himself in particular was observed to be a news reporter who chose to provide his audience with the complete picture and went to immense lengths to cover the story as best and comprehensively as possible. This led to the show providing either second editions to previous news reports or referring the audience to alternate news sources such as websites and books if they wished to acquire detailed information about a news subject.5. Alternate media sources for the information on the showSince Anderson Cooper 360 provides audience with a blend of news segments, it will be next to impossible to find a media source that is non-electronic that can be trusted to provide the same news that Anderson Cooper 360 does.

The fact that the show almost always brings in an outsider to give their opinion the subject of the news and presents a comprehensive and concise report on the news subject also gives the show its particular appeal. If one was to scour the internet for a news report as comprehensive as that of Anderson Cooper 360, it would take up a significant degree of searching to acquire all the information. This gives Anderson Cooper 360 another edge that many other shows lack. The show is based on extensive research and this allows the show to bring the audience to a point where they can form their own opinion and can continue to develop their perception about a news item (Anderson and Benjaminson).

 6. Suggestions for the News Director of this programUpon close observation of the show, it was clear that while the show served to present an excellent picture of the present state of affairs of the subject of the news, there is still a considerable lack in the area of the analysis of the root cause of the problems that the show chooses to tackle. Also, a highly important observation that was made was that even though the show was broadcasted over international television, the news items constituting the show were those that were imperative to the US. Major issues that were or a nature where they were of no significant importance to the US were not covered with the depth that they deserved.

The fact that the show contains a number of different segments does serve to make the show more entertaining, however the inclusion of segments such as the shot, beat 360 and lifestyles of the rich and shameless deprives Anderson Cooper 360 of the tone of seriousness that one would expect it to maintain. While one light segment would have been more than enough to provide the audience with a bit of a break from the regular news, the presence of three such segments serves to give the show a feel similar to that of a magazine that supplements with a newspaper. The newspaper being the CNN broadcast, and Anderson Cooper 360 being the magazine. Works CitedAnderson, David and Peter Benjaminson.

Investigative reporting. Indiana University Press, 1976.CNN. “AC360o”.

2009. <http://ac360.blogs.cnn.

com/>Harrison, Martin. TV News, Whose Bias?: A Casebook Analysis of Strikes, Television and Media Studies. Transaction Publishers, 1985.Watson, Stephanie.

Anderson Cooper: Profile of a TV Journalist. London: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2007.  

TV And Advertisement To Children

Different organizations use different means of getting more customers and maintaining their loyalty. Most of these marketing strategies have gone out of their ways becoming unethical in nature and having a lot of influence on children, and leaving them vulnerable. Marketers uses advertisement especially on televisions and this has the greatest impact on children, due to the extend the advertisement covers.

In most cases, children refer to advertisements as normal entertainment. Different qualitative researches have found that children do enjoy watching television advertisements due to the pleasure they receive (Katke, 2007). Many parents have become concerned about the marketing advertisements that are directed to children and the effects they might have (Walsh, 1990). The concerns have been mostly on the food advertisements (Grossbart & Crosby, 1984).

These are some of the major concerns that have made the parents to look into how they can control their children in watching televisions.Advertisements placed on the television plays a significant role in diffusing communication. Hence, it has a big influence in the development of a child’s consumer behavior (Peter & Olson, 1994). Advertisement acquaints children with the available products and how they are to be used.

  In a case where parents controls the children from watching television, the impact the children will get from watching the adverts will be lowered. Despite the effort by parents to control the frequency at which children watches television adverts to reduce its effect, it has been found out the results can be the opposite of what the parents think (Bijmolt’, Claassen & Brus, 1998) . The concern of the parents about the food advertisements in televisions is that these foods are never healthy foods. In a research done by the New South Wales Department of the Health in 2006, it was found out that of the food advertisements done in televisions, 43% were of high fat or sugar content, while 36% were of core foods (Brand, 2007).

Therefore, children are exposed to more adverts on high fat and sugar contents than the core foods. These adverts usually come during prime times. These are the foods that have been a major cause of obesity to the children, hence the parents concerns.In Australia, due to the role played by the television advertisement in contributing to obesity, many concerned bodies have called for the banning of these advertisements.

Advertisements have not been directly linked to causing obesity, but due to the contribution it makes on the children’s choice of food, it thus plays a big role in children’s obesity. The more a child watches an advert about certain product of food, the more they will need their parents to buy that product. Therefore, the advertisement has a direct impact on the type of food the children will want their parents to buy for them. Children have become a target of many such adverts since they are not able to differentiate between the real information and an advert.

In a research done by Hastings (2003), it was found that there is a lot of literature showing that children’s diet is usually affected in various ways by the adverts carried out in televisions. Despite this, there are those who have argued that there is no sufficient evidence to say that food advertisements contribute to the child’s diet behavior hence obesity. This is because many researchers have shown evidence that there are impacts that are caused by the food adverts, but none of the researchers has been able to wholly quantify the details (http://www.wfanet.

org/pdf/adv_papers/how_advertising_foodchoice.pdf.). In Hastings (2003) findings, there are many ways in which obesity among children can be linked to watching the television adverts.

However, there is no point that advertisements per se have been linked to obesity. However, considering the type of foods that causes obesity are the ones highly being advertised, it can not be easy to rule out the impact advertisement causes to the children. It has been widely argued that advertisement causes increased cases of obesity. However, according to Holt et al, (2007), research has shown that the number of children watching television had indeed dropped by 9% in 2004 compared to the number that was watching the adverts in 1977.

furthermore, the advertisements of the food still carries the food contents that were being advertised in 1977, yet comparing the rate of obesity at that time was lower than what is being witnessed after the drop in the number adverts watched (Holt et al, 2007). It is true to argue that advertisement is not the only means that can influence on the children’s consumption behavior. However, many different researches have consistently shown how powerful it is in influencing the children.There is a growing consensus between different stake holders that food advertisement targeted towards children works.

This has led to increased concerns to the many people. Cancer Council of Southern Australia (2008) in its findings felt that obesity among children is as a result of food marketing policies targeted at children. However, there are other factors on top of the advertisement that have been felt to contribute to obesity of children. These include the eating pattern of children, and the household behaviors.

According to Chapman, Nicholas & Supramaniam (2006), of all the television advertisements directed towards children in Australia, a third are concerned with food, and of these, 80% are usually unhealthy food. In general, the advertisements that children and their families receive are actually messages of food that needs to be used in small quantities. In countering the effects of the advertisement of the marketing firms, the federal government puts its own advertisements to encourage healthy eating, but this is a waste of the taxpayers’ money considering the amount used by the marketing firms. Due to the concerns of the advertisements, several nations among them Norway, Sweden and Britain have banned advertising of food to children (Cancer Council Southern Australia, 2008).

Even though these bans have been effected, there have been no any evaluations done to ascertain how effective the move has been, and where necessary make some changes. This means that children are still vulnerable to food advertisements through other means like the satellite.In areas that have banned the advertisement of food to children, there are still some cross border advertisements that can affect children. For instance, Quebec is also among nations that have banned food advertisement to children.

However, these children are still affected by the advertisements originating from the US.   In a research done by Goldberg (1990), it was found that children in the French speaking regions of Quebec did not watch programs from the US, thus had lower consumption of sugary foods as compared to the children in the regions that spoke English.  This implies that the English speaking regions were still highly influenced by the advertisements from across the borders.There is little proof showing the effect that banning food advertisement among children can have.

This is due to the fact that little has bee done to ascertain and publish such information. However, looking at the regulation on tobacco advertising that was carried out in Australia, it has helped in making Australia have the lowest rate of smokers in the world. This can still be applied in banning the food advertisements on children.  Advertisement of unhealthy foods to children should be stopped for both ethical and health reasons.

Children can not be expected to make informed decisions on the products being advertised as they can not critically analyze advertisement information. Unhealthy food advertisement should thus be banned as they can badly affect the health of a child, hence being unethical to advertise and sell them to children. In a survey conducted by the Cancer Council of South Australia, 86.2 per cent of the parents support the ban of advertising of food during the time children are watching the television, 88.

7 percent felt that the government should have stringent measures over the advertisements carried out on televisions, and 74.6 percent were worried by the mode of the marketing firms using toys in advertising for unhealthy foods targeting children (Morley, 2007).When an advert is carried out on television, it changes the child’s attitude and behavior towards a certain product. These behaviors might have an influence on the mode of purchase of a child.

The attitudes of children are categorized into positive and negative attitudes. Children with positive attitude towards advertisement maintain their behavior even after an advert. However, the children with negative attitude do not purchase a product even after it has been advertised. Older children with negative attitude towards a certain product usually pay less attention towards that product mostly when it is advertised (Evra, 1990).

This has an effect on the sales that an organization gets. In case the television advertisement can not be banned, then the best alternative is to try and create a negative attitude of children towards unhealthy food adverts.In making choices, older children have fewer doubts with their decisions. The choices do not have to always match with the children’s attitude at this stage.

At the age of eleven and above, children’s attitudes towards buying an item is affected by advertisement. This also helps in making comparisons for other alternatives (Wartella, 1979). However, according a research done by Austen, Ruble & Trabasso (1977), they argued that young children tend to form attitude towards an advertised product easily as they diffuse quickly the message carried out in the adverts, and take it as it is carried out in that advert.  It is difficult for the children below the age of ten to make comparative analysis by recalling the information that had earlier been stored.

It thus makes it difficult for these children to have a comparison from which to make decisions. This is what leads to the children to buy certain products based on the attitudes they have developed (Wartella et al, 1979).In most of the shopping that involves children, what is purchased for the child is usually as a result of what the child influences. Children tell their parents what they want bought for them, hence contributing to the actual purchase.

On the other hand, parents encourage their children to participate in the purchase. The marketers on the other hand have realized this trend of behavior; hence have come up with strategies to capitalize on this. The younger children show a lot of confidence in the advertisements more than the older children.  As Chan & McNeal (2002) found out, the quality of the advertised products is not a very big issue to the older children.

Many parents find it very difficult to control their children to have healthy eating habits especially after they have seen some television adverts on certain food products. By the marketers advertising unhealthy foods to the children, it makes the children to be more interested in having those advertised food products. Therefore, it implies that there is a strong correlation between the advertised food products and the children’s preference. The adverts usually make the children to prefer the advertised food over the healthy foods, which is a reason for the increased obesity cases among children.

Obesity among children is very difficult to deal with and it usually results from complex issues, especially from the change in the eating habits of the family coupled with lack of exercises. Food marketing plays a very significant role in the obesity development among children. Markets use different types of Medias to reach out to their target groups. The food marketers use televisions to reach out to the children customers.

A lot of money (over $ 1 billion) is usually spent on food advertisements that are targeted at children (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation 2004).  A lot of information that is known concerning the adverts that deals with children’s  televisions’ food adverts usually arise from the research conducted about the television adverts. Junk food advertisement has escalated obesity among the children.

It is generally evidenced that television adverts plays a very significant role in contributing to obesity among children, whether directly or indirectly. It thus calls for strict regulations measures or banning of these adverts to ensure that parents and the children are protected.Marketing firms have gone ahead in targeting children by advertising through even newsletters and agencies. Marketing firms target children knowing that children can play a significant role in influencing the household shopping.

Many studies have confirmed that children to a great extend influence the parents’ purchasing system. This has been attested also by the fact that as the child spends much time watching television, the more they become demanding to have what they have watched. It is has been estimated that out four adverts that children watch on television, three of them are requested, and the requests ends up to be granted by their parents (Galst & White, 1976).  According to Taras et al (1989), there is a direct correlation in the amount of calories that a child as young as three years takes with the number of weekly adverts that are watched.

In a similar study, it was found that the children choice of food is determine by the type of advert that has been watched (Gorn, & Goldberg, 1982).Small exposures of children to commercial adverts have been found to greatly influence what kind of food the children would prefer. Researches have confirmed that many children who like taking fast foods watch a lot of television commercial adverts. This was found among the 7-12 grade students (French, Story, Neumark-Sztainer, Fulkerson, & Hannan, 2001).

In a similar study, middle school children who watched many adverts ended up taking a lot of soft drinks (Giammattei, Blix, Marshak, Wollitzer & Pettitt, 2003). Many children have negative relationship with using healthy foods like fruits and vegetables, although it is highly recommended that children should use these kinds of foods. This has also been attributed to the television adverts that children are exposed to. It is only one out of five children who are found to follow the required healthy eating guidelines (Krebs-Smith et al, 1996).

In a research done by Boynton-Jarrett et al, 2003), in trying to find if viewing television had any impact in the fruit and vegetable consumption among the adolescents, it was confirmed by the use of linear regression that the consumption of these foods decreased depending on the hours the adolescents watched television. This was thus concluded as caused by the television advertisements.Children have been made to believe that fast are rich in more nutrients than foods cooked at home. This was confirmed by a study that indicated that 70 per cent of children aged between six and eight years believed in this norm (Boynton-Jarrett et al 2003).

In essence, the TV adverts gives children very contradictory massages about being healthy. On one hand, children are told to be healthy by being shown successful people in the adverts, but when the food advertised is used by the children, it makes them be obese. This is the paradox that has led many to fight for the banning or instilling tough measures on TV adverts that are directed to children.Reference:Austin, V.

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TV Proggramming And Commercials In 1950

In the 1950s television became a big influence in the lives of many Americans.

Television has been noted to be one of the phenomenons that shaped the life of Americans in this period that was popularly referred to as the golden age of television. By the end of the Second World War this gadget was only considered as an entertainment tool for the wealthy Americans but in less than a decade nearly seventy percent of all the Americans households were owners of this life changing entertainment tool. [1]This was a time when every member of the family tried very hard to get hold of a television set, the most sought out piece of entertainment in the American living room at the moment. According to the surveys that were conducted over time close to three million Americans enjoyed television programming in this golden age of television with more increasing over the as the decade progressed.

Television was regarded as the one of the sources for the simpler and cheaper entertainment tool. (Wheatley, H 2007 34)With the tremendous growth in the use of television there was a transformation in the information industry as more people preferred to pass messages through television as opposed to other media. Advertising industry was one of the beneficiaries of this phenomenon growth. Different brands could be promoted using television, through such endeavours companies were in a position of reaching many potential consumers using a means that was appealing and popular at the moment.

Television became the most popular and sought after means of telecasting commercials in the 1950s.Different companies began to look at this entertainment tool as the most suitable medium to promote their products. These companies started to sponsor some of the most popular programs and shows in form of television advertising. This brought a lot of popularity to these companies and their products as they were able to get to many people during the popular shows that were watched by most of the Americans.

[2]With the majority of American families being owners of a television set, manufacturers had a great opportunity to popularize their products. This brought a new way of passing information regarding different products to the Americans giving way to the birth of the television commercial. More and more companies were buying television broadcast time for the sake of promoting their products. Most companies were leaving radio for television at a very high rate as it was by then the most preferred means of entertainment by most of the American consumers.

The sponsors ranged from the automobiles to tobacco products. Some of the popular products that had been sponsored by different companies included the “I Love Lucy which was sponsored by Philip Morris “Be Happy, Go Lucky which was sponsored by Lucky Strike among other popular television programs. (Marling, A 1996 187)Television commercial were the biggest sources of revenue for the TV companies at the time, they were able to generate a handsome amount of money from the adverts they aired during different slottings.The most popular time when the whole family was gathered around television sets to watch their favourites programs.

On the same note the most popular programs attracted commercials which gave the companies higher revenue. These were the so called prime time where commercials that fell on this time were charged highly compared to the other commercial in the low peak time. This was in relation to the number of people a given advert was going to reach at a given time. Majority of the Americans were glued on their television sets getting the best of entertainment as they took rest from their busy schedules.

The television companies took the opportunity to get higher revenue as they were helping the companies that were seeking to reach many people at a given time.[3]During the early days of the television, ad agencies and sponsors had the basic responsibility of packaging shows that were to be aired. They had the power to dictate what was to be show in a given program especially that that they sponsored. This power led to massive abuse especially on the areas of censorship.

For example a car manufacturing that was sponsoring a given program would not have allowed competitors cars to be shown anywhere in the program. This denied the viewers of given program a choice as they were only presented with a particular product without being given a chance to see what other variety might be available in the markets even in arena that today would be considered wrong places to show single company wares. On the same note cigarette companies which sponsored a given program would not allow scenes where the actors smoked cigars or pipes or any other brand that was in competition with the said product. This situation prevailed for some time in the decade coming to an end as the decade was closing.

This trend was sparked by the scandals that gaffed this sector in the late years of the decade. This is the time when the networks came to have a great say as far as the content of what was to be presented was concerned. The creation as well as production of new programs was put in the hands of packagers who did not have any connection with the companies which were sponsoring the programs or the networks in question. This made the advertising agencies to be reduced to buying airtime leading to very little control over the content to be aired.

(Sheumaker, H and Wadja, S 2004 114)[4]The advertisement at the moment represented the tremendous growth of the television industry. This period witnessed the animations and cartoons as the producers of different ads utilized the television ability to produce moving pictures which would attract viewers as they tried to understand what they presented. (Butler, J 2002 282)[5]As the decade progressed the America television served as the shopping mall where different advertisers made their way in to buying airtime in different networks. Most of the adverts in the early 1950s run for a long time, in some instances two minutes where they had mini stories in between and some detailed information concerning the product which was being promoted.

At times the viewers were having a difficult time distinguishing between the programs themselves and the adverts that were run in between. There was a very thin boundary between the contents of the program and commercials themselves. (Young, N 2004 43)The agencies control of the programs had reached a point where they were described as ridiculous, when the Federal Communication Commission lifted the ban on licensing in 1952 agencies were able to have full control as far as programming was concerned. During this period some of them were making very ridiculous demands.

One example was when Desoto asked one the contestants in a game show to adopt a different name other than Ford as the name that was being used promoted the competitor. Such a move meant that the sponsors wanted to have their products fully recognized in the programs which they sponsored. [6]The sponsorship generated revenues to the television network but on the other hand the demands by the sponsors to change the programs content to suit their needs would have made the programs to be unpopular as they would only be used as channels of advertising products while denying the viewers a chance to sample different settings and in this case the real ones where they would be in a position to learn new things which have not been censored to suit the sponsors need. In some programs it was almost difficult to draw a line between the program itself and the advertisement that appeared on it.

To the sponsors this was a boost as the actors were basically endorsing their products to the viewers but for the business it was a dangerous trend as a given television network will be associated with a sponsor risking losing business from other manufacturers. (Booker, M  2002 403)On overall there was a motivation to come up with quality, enjoyable and popular programs that earned enough respect and support from the American viewers. The sponsors and television networks worked hand in hand towards this end, their aim was to make the American viewers satisfied so that they can also gain from the expanded viewer ship of the program being promoted. The battle for sponsorship continued as the rival companies continued to fight over the popular programs with each quoting a higher price for the se programs so that the competitors can be pushed out.

The agencies on the other hand battled out with the networks over the control of the programming.[7]As the television viewership increased more and more people could be reached by different programs that were televised. This meant that the business was growing too as the sponsors of the given programs were in a position to reach out to a big number of people to whom they introduced and promoted their products. This was a golden chance for the television networks as they were present with an opportunity to double their earnings through increasing the sponsorship charges to be in line with the growth trends.

Many sponsors found themselves locked out due to the skyrocketing cost of sponsorship and advertising, those who remained in the business of commercials chose to use the hard to sell repetitive adverts so that they can get their messages across to the viewers. The viewers were not happy with this trend as they grew weary of the commercials which were described as outspoken sales pitches. They had to get a way of ridding their annoying sounds; they opted to invest in gadgets which muted off the sounds when these commercials appeared on their television sets. This limited the exposure of the adverts, this shows that the viewers had reached a point where they perceived some of the adverts being brought on their televisions during their favourite programs as a nuisance.

This made the television networks to do something before they lost out to their competitors. They introduced system where the programs to be aired on their channels were those that were controlled by the viewers rather giving the sponsors the full control. (Northup, C 2002 56)The scandals which involved a sponsor manipulating a quiz show to further the commercial interests led to agencies and sponsors to lose out in the control they have as far as television programming was concerned. Their control was brought to a check where stringent measures were taken to prevent such occurrences.

The television networks came up with a mechanism where the viewers were given a big role to play as far as program choice on television was concerned. This brought in a new system where rating which was purely based on the questionnaires filed by the viewers in each household were to be used in determining the programming content. (Morrow, R 20005 17)[8]The commercial in 1950s consumed a better part of the program as they tended to be long. On average a single commercial lasted one to two minutes as compared to the less than thirty seconds in today’s adverts.

This took most of the programs time, it was even worse when the cost of advertisements rose leaving only some players in the airwaves, these are the players who tended to repeat the commercial especially for the hard to sell products. This was not received positively by the viewers as they become weary of the repetitive commercials which interfered with their popular[9]The companies that were sponsoring different shows opted to put their names in titles; this was done to grab the viewers’ attention, they argued that they had made it possible for the audiences to watch their favourite shows. Some of the popular shows that had the sponsors titles on them include: The Ford Television theatre, Texaco Star theatre and Colgate comedy show among others. This was one of the ways through which the sponsoring companies grabbed the full attention of the viewers through extensive featuring of their products in between the shows.

Through including the name of a popular household item on a popular television program the companies were aimed at reaching recognition of their products to the wider viewership. (Castleman, H and Podrazik, W 2003 2)[10]Timing was and has always been a important factor when choosing the program. Different companies selected different times depending on the moment when most of their target audience will be glued to their sets. For example when the cooking shows began to appear on television most of the advertisers choose to bring related adverts during the hours when these programs were aired.

The cooking shows were mostly slotted during the mid day programs, at this time the sponsors new very well that housewives were at home watching. They popped up their adverts during such programs so as to reach these women who were most likely to use their products. (Sterling, C and Kittross, J 2002 402)The television programming during the golden age was much influenced by the advertising companies as they demanded to establish their empires through the new innovations of this period. The influence was on the content, timing and many other aspects that came to shape this industry.

As the number of program viewers raised the cost of sponsorship increased making the television commercial the single largest source of revenue for the television networks and hence the influence they had on the programming.BibliographyWheatley, H Reviewing Television History, IB Taurius Publishers (2007)Marling, A As Seen on TV: The Visual Culture of Everyday Life in the 1950s, Cambridge, Harvard University PressSheumaker, H and Wadja, S Material Culture in America, Santa Barbara, ABC CLIO Publisher (2007)Young, N The 1950s, Greenwood Publishing Company (2004)Booker, M Strange TV, Westport Conn. Greenwood Publishing Group (2002)Northup, C The American Economy, Santa Barbara, ABC CLIO (2002)Morrow, R Sesame Street and the Reforms of Children’s Television, Baltimore, JHU PressCastleman, H and Podrazik, W Watching TV: Six Decade of American Television, New Yok, Syracuse University Press (2003)Butler, J Television; Critical Methods and Application, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2002)Sterling, C and Kittross, J Stay Tuned: A history of American Broadcasting, Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2002)      [1] Wheatley, H Reviewing Television History, IB Taurius Publishers (2007)[2] Marling, A As Seen on TV: The Visual Culture of Everyday Life in the 1950s, Cambridge, Harvard University Press[3] Sheumaker, H and Wadja, S Material Culture in America, Santa Barbara, ABC CLIO Publisher (2007)[4] Butler, J Television; Critical Methods and Application, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2002)[5] Young, N The 1950s, Greenwood Publishing Company (2004)[6] Booker, M Strange TV, Westport Conn. Greenwood Publishing Group (2002)[7] Northup, C The American Economy, Santa Barbara, ABC CLIO (2002)[8] Morrow, R Sesame Street and the Reforms of Children’s Television, Baltimore, JHU Press(2005) [9] Castleman, H and Podrazik, W Watching TV SIX Decade of American Television, New York, Syracuse University Press (2003)[10] Sterling, C and Kittross, J Stay Tuned: A history of American Broadcasting, Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2002) 

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