Type 1 (Juvenile) Diabetes University Essay Example

Informative Speech- Type 1 (Juvenile) Diabetes

My brother, Kaden, was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes when he was 14. The average child is diagnosed with Juvenile (Type 1) Diabetes between the ages of 4 and 13. (Mayo Clinic, 2013) Type 1 Diabetes is a condition where the pancreas no longer produces the insulin that the body needs to survive. Insulin is a chemical made by the pancreas. Insulin helps the glucose from your blood reach your cells. When the glucose can’t reach your cells, it stays in your blood, which is very dangerous. (Betschart Roemer, 2011) Having diabetes means that your body no longer produces insulin.

Type 1 Diabetes is extremely rare, in fact, only 5% of diabetes cases each year are Juvenile. (Betschart Roemer, 2011) Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes can set in very quickly. Increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, weight loss, fatigue and blurred vision are all signs of on setting Juvenile Diabetes. (Mayo Clinic, 2013) While on vacation in Mexico, Kaden had complained that he had to use the restroom too often while flying, and that he couldn’t find water fountains often enough. He ordered endless amounts of food but still seemed to be getting thinner. Lastly, he could never seem to spot the wildlife that we pointed out to him. Treatment of Diabetes is a lifelong commitment that takes a lot of hard work to keep you healthy.

This disease is becoming more and more common in youth all over the world. (Washington, 2013) This means that we need to be aware of the symptoms so that we can diagnose this disease earlier and hopefully keep young people healthier. Treatments include pricking your finger to check your blood sugar, giving yourself insulin injections, and counting carbs in everything you eat. There is no known cure of juvenile diabetes although some research shows that if one of your childen is diagnosed, you can limit the risk of your other children by giving them vitamin D supplements.

This is because Vitamin D suppresses the PTH production, which is thought to possibly prevent Type 1 Diabetes. (Ghandchi, 2012). My doctor advised me to do this when Kaden was diagnosed and I have been on these supplements ever since. This disease can affect almost every organ of the body, especially if blood sugar levels are not kept regular. Complications of Type 1 Diabetes can develop gradually, over years. Keeping your blood sugar as close to normal as possible can dramatically reduce theses complications. Possibilities include renal disease, blindness, and shortened life expectancy. (Lung, 2013) Other complications include heart disease, nerve damage, osteoporosis, hearing, and skin problems.

Many people actually lose limbs due to lack of blood flow.(Bakker, 2013) It is often very hard for young people to accept that they are different and have to monitor their insulin levels for the rest of their lives. My brother had a very hard time listening to doctors when they told him how often he had to prick his finger. He also had difficulty keeping his glucose levels from dropping too low. Sometimes during basketball games, he had to eat a Snickers during time-outs.

Kaden eats more than everyone else in my family, and still has trouble gaining weight. With all of the chemical fluctuations in his body, he will more than likely always be skinny. Type 1 Diabetes is a condition where the pancreas no longer produces the insulin that the body needs to survive, there are no prevention methods, but many ways you can treat it to live a healthy life. This disease can blindside you and your family with complications, but the best thing you can do is always support your loved one who was diagnosed.

Exploring The External Environment: Macro And Industry Dynamics Analysis

Explain the importance of the external context for strategy and firm performance

  • The External Context of Strategy. Explained: The external environment must be thoroughly understood to formulate an effective strategy that can help one in achieving company objectives. The external environment provides business opportunities to the firm as well as threats that may impede the successful implementation of a strategy. Knowing what industry and firm-specific factors affect a firm is critical to understanding a firm’s competitive position and to determining what strategies are viable. The proper use of tools to analyze the external environment will help to identify some of the major reasons industries differ so much in their long-term profitability. Characteristics of the external environment are the factors that are relevant to the firm’s performance at a given point in time so to avoid blind spots in industry analysis, managers should always integrate their analysis of a firm’s industry with a broader stakeholder analysis. Managers must remain focused on the industry and not on a particular firm operating in it.
  • The external environment has two major components: The Macro Environment (Political, Economic, Sociocultural, Technological, Environmental, and Legal factors, known as PESTEL). The industry environment is comprised of strategic groups of firms that seem to be more similar in certain ways than other members of the larger industry.

Use PESTEL to identify the macro characteristics of the external contextt

What is PESTEL?

  • PESTEL is a tool for analyzing the larger political, economic, sociocultural, technological, environmental, and legal issues that confront the firm. A firm needs to understand the macro environment to ensure that its strategy is aligned with the powerful forces of change that are affecting its business landscape. PESTEL helps managers to Gain a better understanding of the opportunities and threats they face Build a better vision of the future business landscape and how the firm might operate profitably Avoid strategies that may be doomed to failure for reasons beyond their control Have a good starting point when entering a new country or region
  • PESTEL has three steps, namely:
    • consider the relevance of each pestel factor to your particular context.
    • identify and categorize the information that applies to these factors.
    • Analyze the data and draw conclusions

  • PESTEL Analysed

Political Factors

Political factors influence businesses and consumer confidence, as well as consumer and business spending The stability of the political environment, is important for companies entering new markets. Political Factors include:

  • Government policies
  • Regulations
  • Taxations
  • Regional trading blocks
  • Fair-trade decisions
  • Tax programs
  • Minimum wage legislation
  • Pollution and pricing policies

For example:

How stable is the political environment?

What are the foreign-trade regulations?

Tax policies, etc.?

 Economic Factors

Managers need to consider the macro-economic factors that will have a short and long-term effect on the success of pursued strategies. Economic Factors include:

  • Inflation rates
  • Interest rates
  • Tariffs
  • Growth of local and foreign national economies
  • Exchange rates
  • Unemployment rates
  • Local labor costs
  • Availability of critical labor
  • Outsourcing

For example:

Projected interest rates?

Sociocultural Factors

Sociocultural Factors vary from country to country

Represents beliefs and values, attitudes and opinions, and lifestyles Sociocultural

Factors include:

  • Local languages
  • Dominant religions
  • Leisure time
  • Age
  • Lifespan demographics
  • Attitudes towards:
    • Consumerism
    • Environmentalism
    • Role of men and women

For example:

Lifestyle trends?

Demographic changes?

Technological Factors

Technological factors have a major bearing on the threats and opportunities that firms encounter

Technological factors include:

  • Lower costs
  • Better standard of quality
  • Opportunity for more innovation
  • Reduce communication costs
  • Increase remote working
  • Distribution of products and services

For Example:

Level of government research funding?

How mature is technology?

 Environmental Factors

Refers to the relationships among human beings and other living things and the air, soil, and water that support them.

Environmental factors include:

  • Environmental legislation
  • Loss of habitat and biodiversity
  • Waste
  • Pollution
  • Direct and indirect operating costs
  • Biodegradable or recyclable packaging

For example:


Environmental legislation?

Legal Factors

Legal factors reflect the laws and regulations relevant to the region and the organization. Legal factors include:

  • Law established
  • Change of laws and regulations
  • Cost of regulatory compliance
  • Influence businesses and consumer confidence and also consumer/business spending Government policies
  • Tax programs
  • Min. wage legislation
  • How stable is the political environment?

For example:

Is the intellectual property protected?

Relevant consumer laws?


Consider macro-economic factors that have a short and long term effect on the success of strategies

  • Inflation rates
  • Interest rates
  • Growth of local and foreign national economies
  • Unemployment rates
  • Availability of labor

What is the projected interest rate?


Represents values and beliefs, attitudes and opinions, and lifestyles in a specific country Dominant Religions

  • Demographics
  • Age
  • Leisure time
  • Lifestyle trends?
  • Demographic changes?


Have a major bearing on the threats and opportunities firms encounter

  • Lower costs
  • Better standard of quality
  • Reduce communication costs
  • Distribution of products/services

What are the new technological capabilities and their probable impacts?


Relationships among human beings and other living things and the air, soil, and water that support them.

  • Waste
  • Pollution
  • Access to raw materials
  • Direct and indirect operating costs

What is environmental legislation?


Laws and regulations relevant to the region and the organization

  • Law established
  • Change of laws and regulations
  • Cost of regulatory compliance
  • Is the intellectual property protected?

Identify the major features of an industry and the forces that affect industry profitability

The Industry Environment (Porter’s 5 forces model). Porter’s model explains the five forces that shape competition in an industry (these forces are never static). In short, Porters five forces model is a framework for evaluating industry structure according to the effects of:

  • Rivalry;
  • Threat entry;
  • Supplier power;
  • Buyer power; and
  • Threats to substitute.

Helps managers to evaluate the general attractiveness of an industry and specific opportunities as well as threats firms face in their local segment

A high-quality strategy will help to:

  • Minimize buyer power
  • Offset supplier power
  • Avoid excessive rivalry
  • Raise the barriers to entry; and
  • Reduce the threat of substitutions.

Porter’s Five Forces Model

  • Force
  • Description
  • Role Players
  • Effect
  • Example
  • Rivalry
  • Is the intensity of competition
  • Most aggressive forms of competition include price wars
  • Rivalry among competing sellers: Competitive pressures created by jockeying for better market position increased sales and market share, and competitive advantage
  • Higher degrees of rivalry results in lower levels of average industry profitability (as price competition increase, the average price declines, resulting in lower levels of profit)
  • When competitors are of relatively equal size and power, so the rivalry is affected not only by the number of firms competing but also by how similar they are Threat of Entry
  • The degree to which new competitors can enter an industry and the intensity of rivalry Barriers/conditions that make it difficult to enter the industry

New Entrants:

  1. Competitive pressures coming from the threat of entry of new rivals Industries with consistently high average profitability tend to be the most difficult to enter
  2. The higher the degree of entry in an industry, the lower the potential competition by limiting supply and reducing rivalry Industry Characteristics that affect barriers to entry:

  • Strong Brands
  • Proprietary technologies
  • Product differentiation
  • Restricted access to investment capital
  • Distribution channels constitute
  • Supplier Power
  • The degree to which firms in the supply industry can dictate favorable contract terms and thereby extract some of the profit that would otherwise be available to competitors in the local industry

Suppliers are powerful when they control factors such as:

  • Price
  • Delivery lead times
  • Minimum orders
  • Post-purchase service
  • Payment terms

Suppliers of Raw Materials, Parts, Components, or Resource inputs: Competitive pressures stemming from supplier bargaining and supplier seller collaboration Supplier power is increased when:

  1. The suppliers are relatively concentrated, controls scare input, or are simply bigger than their customer’s Firms in the local industry face significant switching costs when changing suppliers
  2. When firms in the supply industry present a threat of forwarding integration manufacturing finished products instead of just selling the components to manufacturers.
  3. The degree to which firms in the buyer’s industry can dictate favorable terms on purchase agreements that extract some of the profit that would otherwise be available to competitors in the local industry Buyers
  4. Competitive pressures stemming from buyer bargaining power and buyer-seller collaboration Many suppliers + few buyers = buyers capture a greater share of profits
  5. In industries characterized by many suppliers and few buyers, buyers often capture a greater share of profits

Factors that increase buyer power:

  1. When buyers are prestigious and when their purchases represent a significant portion of the seller’s sales
  2. When prices and products are easy to compare
  3. When buyers have numerous choice
  4. Access to information
  5. Threat of Substitutes
  6. The degree to which products of one industry can satisfy the same demand as those of another

A substitute is any product that satisfies a common need or desire Firms in other industries offering substitute products: Competitive pressures come from the attempts of companies outside the industry to win buyers over their products. The prevalence of viable substitute products from other industries places pressure on the prices that can be changed in the local industry When there are no viable substitutes, there is less pressure on price


Complementors are firms in an industry that provides products or services which tend to increase sales in another. Complementor: Any factor that makes it more attractive for suppliers to supply industry on favorable terms or that makes it more attractive for buyers to purchase products or services from the industry at prices higher than it would pay to absent the Complementor.

For Example:

Hot Dogs + Buns = More Sales

Music + MP3 Player = More attractive offering

Exit Barriers

Exit barriers are obstacles or impediments that prevent a company from exiting a market. Typical barriers to exit include:

  • Highly specialized assets, which may be difficult to sell or relocate Huge exit costs, such as asset write-offs and closure costs
  • Loss of customer goodwill.
  • In short, exit barriers make it infeasible to sell a firm in a particular industry. E. Porter’s Five Forces of Industry Structure

Understand the dynamic characteristics of the external context

Drivers of Change: Making the Five-Forces Model Dynamic

The Industry Life Cycle (ILC)

The ILC is a model that describes the evolution from inception through to its current state and possible future states New industries emerge when entirely new products are developed that satisfy customer demands in ways that existing products and technologies could not. The ILC is a powerful driver of industry dynamics because it’s a phenomenon characterized by change


Is the process during industry evolution by which sales eventually come to depend less on unique product features and more on price

Disruptive Technology:

Breakthrough product- or process-related technology that destroys the competencies of incumbent firms in an industry A disruptive change introduced by a new technology also has the effect of altering the industry life cycle. The industry is reinvigorated and rather than proceeding into decline accelerates into new phases of growth Disruptive technologies can be process-related (TQM) as well as product-related.

Innovator’s Dilemma

When incumbents avoid investing in innovative and disruptive technologies because those innovations do not satisfy the needs of their mainstream and most profitable clients Occur in established industries when incumbents continue to develop competency-enhancing innovations, while new entrants develop disruptive innovations

 The Industry Life Cycle:

  •  Dynamics of Industry Structure
  • Porter’s Five Forces
  • Cause
  • Effect
  • Industry Rivalry
  • Increase in industry growth
  • Globalization of industry
  • Reduced rivalry and less pressure on prices
  • Increased rivalry as new foreign players enter the market, pressure for scale economies leading to consolidation, and market domination by fewer but larger companies Threat of new entrants

    A decline in scale necessary to compete effectively

  • Increases in customer heterogeneity
  • Increased customer concentration

    Increased rivalry because its easier for start-ups to enter and compete

  • Easier entry because some customer segments are likely to be underserved
  • Reduces threat of entry, causing less pressure to compete on price Bargaining Power of Suppliers
  • Increase concentration of firms in supply industries
  • Forward integration by key suppliers
  • The emergence of substitute inputs that satisfy basic needs
  • Greater supplier power and possibly reduced profitability in the focal industry
  • Loss of power in the focal industry because of reduction in the number of viable suppliers
  • Reduction of supplier power and increased profits for the focal industry
  • Bargaining Power of Buyers Improvement in buyer information
  • The emergence of new distribution channels
  • Increased fragmentation of buyers’ industry
  • Increased buyer power because of the ability to compare
  • Reduction in buyer power because the focal industry has more options
  • Reduction in buyer power as nr of potential buyers increase and size of buyer industry declines relative to the size of focal industry Threat of Substitute Emergence of a new substitute
  • The decline in the relative price performance of a substitute
  • Reduced ability to maintain high prices due to more buyer alternatives
  • Reduces threat of substitutes and pressure to maintain lower prices Role of Complementors
  • The emergence of new Complementors
  • Higher barriers to entry in Complementor industry
  • Lower barriers to entry in Complementor industry Increase demand and less pressure on prices in the focal industry
  • Greater Complementor leverage and ability to profit from the complementary relationship
  • Reduction in Complementor leverage leading to the net increase of possible firms who can serve as Complementors and increase demand

Virtual Museum Tour

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History On September 22, 2013, I virtually visited the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History located in Washington, D.C., USA. It is one of the widest known museums in the United States and has many themes related to Natural History. The virtual tour is relatively easy to maneuver and provides many operational features; with exception of non-viewable literature due to incompatible zoom features.

The museum covers a variety of exhibits, detailed literary explanations, and real-life virtual viewing of the multi-floor museum. The museum has a lot of historical information on several subjects laid out through three floors. Initially, floor one gives a consolidated view into past exhibits previously displayed such as: Western Cultures, Soil, Orchids (2008 & 2011), Rastafari, Coral Reef Crochet, and Cyprus. I personally enjoyed the displays related to Western Cultures and how it developed. It gave a lot of insight and figurative pictures about the western culture. Also, the Coral Reef Crochet was beautiful. I never knew that something so hidden could be so intriguing; simply a hidden treasure!

The Orchids display was kind of irregular to the museum setting per my personal opinion. Proceeding, floor two then wings the exhibitor into the world of the Rotunda, Mammal Hall, Human Origins, Ocean Hall, African Cultures, Ice Age, Ancient Seas, Fossil Labs, Dinosaurs, Early Life, Fossil Plants, and the fossil café. This was my favorite floor of all. I was flabbergasted by the Early Life & Human Origins displays. It’s amazing how humans have developed and evolved over billions of years. I spent the majority of my viewing time in those areas and became addicted to studying the endless information.

The Ancient Seas exhibit was awesome as well; the ancient whale bone display was breath-taking! It’s ultimately crazy to see the Ice Age artifacts, pictures, and descriptions. I find it hard to imagine the world during the Ice Age timeframe. Lastly, the third floor portrays Butterflies & Plants, Bones, Insect Zoo, Egyptian Mummies, Geology, Gems, & Minerals, Korea Gallery, and the grand IMAX Theatre for feature viewings. This floor was a little boring for me personally and I only viewed in detail the Bones & Egyptian Mummies exhibits with extent. The insect zoo was kind of creepy for me, and overwhelmingly horrid – I hate insects obviously.

The minerals and gems displayed were beautiful and awe – inspiring. There are so many different minerals and gems in so many shapes, sizes, and colors. Overall, I find that I am attracted to all information and artifacts of human life. I was enveloped in the bones display on this floor and learning about concepts of how these bones were found and excavated. Traditionally, if I would have been at the museum in person – the IMAX Theatre would have been my last endeavor of excitement. I can only imagine what it holds to discover!

Overall the virtual tour was invigorating, informative, easily operational, and very detailed with imagery. The zoom feature for reading the literary descriptions were sub-par, but within measurable limits considering the overall experience. The real-life viewing was amazing and is not found in other virtual tour worlds – as far as I have seen. I also like how the tour details the whole museum on a virtual map, and you can view different exhibits based on your personal interests.

This type of viewing helps to keep the visitor attentive and want to continue the tour. I would highly recommend this site to classmates and will use it in future educational research. I plan to make a trip this coming spring to visit the museum in person. This tour really puts in to perspective the things that are waiting to be discovered and full of learning experiences. I think people think of a museum and underestimate its worth and level of interesting principals.

Works Cited

  1. Institution, S. (2012, 03 19). Smithsonian Natural Museum of Natural History: Panoramic Virtual Tour. Retrieved from http://www.mnh.si.edu/panoramas/

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