Type II Diabetes: Pathophysiology, Initial Signs, Symptoms, Free Writing Sample

Pathophysiology associated with Type 2 Diabetes

Type II Diabetes results from insufficient insulin in the blood (Nolan, Damm & Prentki, 2011). In the pathophysiology of the disease, there are two conditions related to it. For example, patients suffer from increased resistance to insulin and impaired insulin secretion (Nolan et al. 2011). Some patients experience one of the two conditions. On the contrary, others suffer from the two. Insulin resistance leads to a condition known as metabolic syndrome that defines the direction that the illness takes (Nolan et al., 2011). Mostly, Type II Diabetes results from genetic orders because several genetic factors contribute to the development of the condition (Nolan et al., 2011). However, the real cause of passing it from one generation to another comes from the abnormal molecular composition that the people hold. Environmental factors also have a say in the development of the condition. According to doctors and researchers, aging and obesity act as the main factors to the development of Type II Diabetes (Nolan et al., 2011). Other conditions include insufficient energy consumption, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption. Impaired insulin secretion enhances the development of the disease because it has a progressive nature (Nolan et al.i, 2011). In the process, glucose control is affected, which leads to glucose toxicity.

Initial Signs, Symptoms, and Type of Vascular Changes that occur Early in Type II Diabetes

People suffering from Type II Diabetes have similar symptoms. However, the extent differs depending on how far the disease has progressed. On the other hand, some of the patients may experience all the symptoms and signs while others may not. Having wounds that take a long time to heal acts as the main symptom (Inzucchi et al., 2012). If a person suffers from prolonged healing, he should test for Type II Diabetes as early as possible. Insulin insufficiency and resistance lead to dry eyes (Inzucchi et al., 2012). When the condition happens, patients experience blurred vision. In addition, patients experience unusual tiredness or fatigue that does not seem to go away (Inzucchi et al., 2012). The fatigue comes along with increased thirst and frequent urination (Inzucchi et al., 2012). Other rare but first symptoms include unexplained weight loss and itching in one’s private area. In some situations, thrush accompanies the itching (Inzucchi et al., 2012). Metabolic abnormalities develop, causing overproduction and overreaction of oxygen in the body. On the other hand, endothelial dysfunction also occurs because of the presence of Type II Diabetes in the body.

Vascular Changes that Occur with More Advanced Disease

In advanced Type II Diabetes, diabetic retinopathy is among the vascular conditions associated with the illness (Inzucchi et al., 2012). The situation leads to complicated vascular issues, including the peripheral retina and the macula (Nolan et al., 2011). In the process, abnormal vessels appear to complicate retina functioning. In addition, advanced Type II Diabetes through vascular changes enhances vision loss. Another vascular disorder in the advanced stage of the disease affects the neuropathy order of the body (Nolan et al., 2011). Severe renal dysfunction comes from the development of the condition that attributes to increased urination and microalbuminuria presence in the body. According to research studies, microvascular conditions cause more than 70% of deaths in patients suffering from Type II Diabetes (Inzucchi et al., 2012). Thus, in the advanced stage of the disease, the conditions develop. Other vascular complications include cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery diseases, among others (Inzucchi et al., 2012). All these conditions increase the chances of patients dying because of their severity. However, patients start to receive treatment in the early stages as a way of preventing the condition from moving to the advanced stage.


Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M.,… & Matthews, D. R. (2012). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes care, 35(6), 1364-1379.

Nolan, C. J., Damm, P., & Prentki, M. (2011). Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management. The Lancet, 378(9786), 169-181.

Healing Hospital As A Daring Paradigm


As stated by Chaplain Fowler (2014), healing hospitals have been some of the most convenient health facilities filled with a myriad of great health benefits to both the patients and the health practitioners in the military (Fowler, 2014, p. 11). This particular paradigm that involves the use of spiritual healing to help patients has proved to be the best alternative for major medical puzzles. As a result of the unrelenting prevalence of diseases with no specific medical diagnosis, healing hospitals have become blessings in disguise for many patients. Indeed, the aspect of spirituality has become one of the major driving forces in many healing hospitals.

Ideally, caregiving has changed from health care-based to spiritual aspects in healing hospitals. In fact, hospitals have always been places where people undergo painful diagnostics and treatments, spiritual healing has emerged as one of the most intrinsic pain relievers and curative procedures that do not involve medication. Spiritual healing is an aspect that has been in existence from the Biblical era. According to Fowler (2014), using clergymen to help soldiers in the battlefield has greatly helped in fighting trauma that comes because of various activities that take place in wars across the world (Fowler, 2014, p. 12).

Components of healing hospitals and their relationship to spiritually

As Chapman (2011) states in Radical Loving Care the whole aspect of healing hospitals is not only built on prudent spiritual guidelines but also on cultural beliefs of various individuals. There are three key components that need to be discussed in relation to healing hospitals. The first component in relation to healing hospitals is healing physical environment. Notably, the physical environment possesses an exclusive significance to the entire spiritual healing and helps in defining the entire healing process (Chapman, 2011, p 26).

Based on the physical environment, it has been possible for most spiritual healers to create an environment that is caring, loving and compassionate. The environment also needs to be aesthetically pleasing so as to help in reducing stress among the patients and their close relatives. In handling human beings, it is essential to understand that the physical human body is not the main element to consider. Indeed, human spirituality is another important element that a healer needs to make sure is incorporated in the healing environment (Chapman, 2011, p. 29).

A number of diseases in the current medical environment are directly related to human stress and feeling. From the patients to their close family members, creating a physical environment that is highly conducive is a major step towards achieving spiritual healing (Chapman, 2011, p. 33).

The second component that has greatly affected hospital healing is a combination of work design in the spiritual aspect and technology. Admittedly, integrating various components of hospital healing such as work design and technology can create a great understanding of the major elements that come up with spirituality. Combining various elements in the form of golden framework would greatly help in achieving extensive caregiving and understanding of various needs of patients.

In order to understand the integration of various healing frameworks, it is important to comprehend the key relationship between spiritual healing and the entire aspect of medical therapies. Moreover, using various medical procedures such as aromatherapy, massage and music therapy can form the best integration in attaining spiritual healing. In healing hospitals, several natural aromas are used to create a more conducive environment so as to help the patients feel the effect of such aromas in increasing the chances of being cured (Cozolino, 2010, p. 10).

Another major component that needs to be verified in creating a healing hospital is the culture of Radical Loving and Caring situation. In order to promote the main elements associated with hospital healing, it is of great significance to fathom the emotions patients. Besides, the patient should explain some of the major prerequisites that would help increase the chances of eventually getting healed.

Challenges of creating a healing environment

Before creating a healing environment, the practitioners should ensure challenges are minimized. First, there are a number of cultural values that need to be analyzed. Specifically, the environment should be designed in a way that it is universally acceptable by patients of distinct cultural orientations. For instance, it is crucial for the spiritual healers to include incantations and chanting that do not provoke the patient in any way that is not pleasant (Chapman, 2011, p. 36).

Another challenge that has reduced the effectiveness of creating a healing environment is noise. In most hospitals, there is always congestion of patients that creates some sort of disruption and ineffectiveness in healing processes. Conversely, a healing environment should create a peaceful mind that will in turn help in enabling harmony and quietness in the mind of the patients. According to Cozolino (2010), neuroscience has proven that a peaceful brain is one of the major drivers towards healing. In creating a healing environment, understanding the psychological needs of patients is an essential element that needs to be considered before any measures are taken to help the patient emotionally (Cozolino, 2010, p. 9).

Biblical passage that supports the concept of a healing hospital

In understanding the main elements of healing hospitals, it is paramount to draw reference on the biblical passages that put emphasis on healing hospitals. According to John chapter 9, (verses 1-7), there is an occurrence where Jesus heals a blind man. In the story, as Jesus moved across Jerusalem, he saw a man who was initially born blind not because of anyone’s fault, but in order to display the great works of God. In the incident, Jesus spit on the ground and used the saliva to make some mud of clay. Consequently, Jesus put the mud on both eyes of the blind man and commanded him to go wash off the mud in the Pool of Siloam. As instructed, the blind man went and washed his eyes and came back seeing. He had been healed.

In the story, it is evident that the blind man is a symbol of humanity and Jesus represents the light through which the blind can be able to see. Evidently, Jesus represents an illumination that has been sent by God to heal the world. The incident where Jesus restores the sight of the man who was born blind is a sign that healing can take place as a result of spiritual beliefs in God’s ability to heal the sick (John, 9:1-7). From my view, this event presents the best evidence of spiritual healing.

In spiritual healing, faith is one of the most important aspects that the sick are expected to possess. The blind man had faith in God’s power and obeyed the instructions that Jesus gave him on where to wash his eyes and how to wash them. My spirituality is confirmed from such acts in the Bible and other religious teachings on healing. It is worth noting that Jesus’ ability to heal the blind man has greatly sharpened my understanding of the entire aspect of healing and spiritual beliefs. From the incident, it is clear that spiritual healing also works on patients.


In conclusion, the healing hospital has been seen as one of the most daring paradigms that can greatly help in caregiving and provision of emotional support to patients. From the components of the healing environment to the biblical passage that examines the relationship between healing hospitals and spirituality, my philosophy of caregiving has been greatly affected. As a staunch Christian, I believe that healing is a major aspect that should be used to help solve the current medical problems across the globe.


Chapman, E. (2011). Radical loving care: Building the healing hospital in America. Nashville, TN: Sage Publications.

Cozolino, L. (2010). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: Healing the social brain (2nd Ed.) New York, W. W. Norton & Company Publishers.

Fowler, C. T. (2014). You, god and PTSD: Faith-based healing in our Military’s chaplain corps (5th ed.). New York City, WA: Dog Ear Pub LLC publications. John 9; 1-7 The Holy Bible, New International Version. Web.

“Grandmother” By O’Connor

A Good Man is Hard to Find”

The Grandmother is egoistic, self-centered, and hypocritical; she is obsessed with herself and “afraid she’d miss something” (O’Connor 32). She is also judgmental and manipulative with her family and tries to convince everyone to behave as she wants, which leads to tragic consequences. The Grandmother is very racist, mocking the poor black child as a “poor little pickaninny” (O’Connor 34). However, she considers herself a proper lady, showing this with her appearance so that “in case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a lady” (O’Connor 33). All qualities shown in the story do not make her a likable character and do not cause sympathy for her.

The Misfit is a moral antipode of the Grandmother. Like her, he is a bad person, but if the Grandmother denies this fact, hiding behind the mask of hypocrisy, he admits it. The Misfit knows he committed a crime, saying that they had the papers on him (O’Connor 48), but at the same time, he is sure he did the right thing. Meeting him helps the Grandmother recognize her real personality, hiding behind the mask all her life. She finally understood that she was connected with what she had separated herself from for so long.

One of the symbols is the Grandmother’s hat, representing her perception of herself as a lady; even after the accident, the hat, although damaged, remains on her head. After meeting the Misfit, she lets the hat on the ground (O’Connor 45), freeing herself from her lies. The Misfit’s automobile, described as big black battered hearse (O’Connor 42), symbolizes impending death, suggesting the Misfit himself represents the reaper. The Misfit can also be interpreted as Jesus; his two companions can symbolize two criminals, between whom Jesus was crucified. The number three frequently appears in the story as he Misfit shoots the Grandmother three times, the cat appears three times, the family’s journey was supposed to last three days, which hints at a trinity as well.

On Her Own Work”

After reading O’Connor’s essay, it becomes clearer that any good story is open to multiple interpretations. In this particular case, the connection with Christianity and the features of Southern society become more evident. O’Connor notes that the Grandmother faces death, “the most significant position life offers the Christian” (57). Her last minutes ultimately reveal the real essence of the main character to the reader; as a true Christian, at the last moment, she accepts her sins, seeks to atone for them through the interaction with the Misfit. She is not a bad person; she adheres to the traditional Southern values of the old generation to which she belongs.

The Grandmother does not seek to harm anyone; O’Connor notes that “Southern is usually tolerant of those weaknesses that proceed from innocence” (57). This idea suggests that the Misfit is not a prophet, not Jesus, but a devil who comes into conflict with good, because he says that there is “no pleasure but meanness” (O’Connor 54). Perhaps he personifies the force that seeks to bring evil into the world, but everything is not so simple again. O’Connor does not deny that he is a bad person, but she does not “want to equate the Misfit with the devil” (O’Connor 59). He seems to be struggling between accepting faith and denying it.

O’Connor hopes that the insight that the Grandmother had in her last minutes will help him return to the path from which he left to the way of the prophet. The violence presented in the story emphasizes the complex spiritual processes taking place in the characters’ souls, which should be paid attention to. The central theme of the story is, after all, faith, the Christian faith with its postulates, the theme of good and evil, acceptance of faith and redemption. Thus, many symbols get a more religious connotation, which refers to comprehending complex personal and social issues.

Work Cited

O’Connor, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find. Edited by Frederick Asals, Rutgers University Press, 1993.

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