Types And Facies Of Metamorphism Writing Sample

Types and Facies of MetamorphismMetamorphism is the process that engages the structural and compositional changes that took place during solid rock information as imposed by physical and chemical elements whereby the change is subjected at near-earth’s exterior zone of weathering and diagenesis (200oC, 300 MPa). There are many types of metamorphism but the most common are the contact and regional types. The less common include the local, orogenic, burial, ocean-floor, dislocation, impact, pyrometamorphism, hydrothermal, hot slab, combustion, lightning, monometamorphism, polymetamorphism, and plurifacial metamorphism.

The contact metamorphism (high temperature, low pressure metamorphism) is locally situated and is caused by the local intrusion of the magma bodies into the country rocks. The intrusion area is referred to as the contact aureole and metamorphism is restricted at this site. The grade is directed towards the center of intrusion. Temperature range is wide with or without deformation.

Rocks produced are fine grained exhibiting no foliation, commonly referred to as hornfels.Regional metamorphism covers massive volume of rocks resultant of the physiologic effects of the tectonic processes (e.g deep basin subsidence). Commonly the change is triggered by deformation under non-hydrostatic/thermal, differential stress and pressure conditions.

The process during the formation of regional metamorphism is termed as orogenic event.Metamorphic/mineral facies is the concept of classifying and grouping rocks according to their mineral constituent and their origination. Variables like temperature, pressure and water pressure is of import in this concept. Mineralization must be definite and must occur at the expense of space and time and correlated to the aforementioned variables.

There facies are the following: (1)greenschist [Actinolite-albite-epidote-chlorite], (2)epidote-amphibolite [Hornblende-albite-epidote], (3) amphibolite[Hornblende-plagioclase], (4) pyroxene-hornfels [Clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-plagioclase], (5) sanidinite [pigeonite, K-rich labradorite], (6) granulite [Clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-plagioclase], (7)glaucophane-schist [Glaucophane-epidote-(garnet), glaucophane-lawsonite, glaucophane-lawsonite-jadeite ] (8) eclogite [Omphacite-garnet-quartz ], (9) zeolite [laumontite and heulandite] and (10) prehnite-pumpellyite/prehnite-pumpellyite metagraywacke /prehnite-pumpellyite facies.The radiation series for the facies in the orogenic event are based on the range of pressure and temperature hence they are classified into three major series: low, medium and high P-T types. The gradation sequence for the low grade area is greenschist-amphibolite-granulite, and is termed as andalusite-sillimanite series or Abukuma type. For the medium grade, the sequence includes the epidote-amphibolite-amphibolite-granulite series.

This is commonly named asthe kyanite-sillimanite series or Barrovian type. The high grade sequence involves subsgreenschist-bluischist and referred to as the glaucophanic metamorphism. Obviously, the common names were derived from the rock compositions.Metamorphism is an important study under petrology.

Although I explicated only two types above, the science of petrology generally accepts the existence of other types (not explained in the paper). The facies, their paragenesis, the series are also widely recognized. Works CitedBucher K. and Frey M.

Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks. Berlin: Springer, 1994.Eskola P., “The mineral facies of rocks”.

Norsk. Geol. Tidsskr. 6 (1922): 143-194.

Turner F.J. Metamorphic petrology, mineralogical and field aspects. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Differences Between Husserl’s And Heidegger’s Transcendental Phenomenologies

1) What are the main differences between Husserl’s and Heidegger’s transcendental phenomenologies?

Transcendental phenomenology is defined in general as the study of essence. It designates two things: a new kind of descriptive method which made a breakthrough in philosophy at the turn of the century, and an a priori science derived from it; a science which is intended to supply the basic instrument for a rigorously scientific philosophy and, in its consequent application, to make possible a methodical reform of all the sciences. (Husserl, p15)

Essentially, transcendental phenomenology then is a description of phenomena. Husserl, then, laid down the method to achieve the objective of reforming all the sciences. The first step is the use of phenomenological epoche or reduction or bracketing wherein one suspends or take away all his/her biases and prejudices in order to “objectively describe” a phenomena. By doing this, we can arrived at a universal description of a phenomena. This will be followed by the compare and contrast method, which one will have to undergo in order to arrive at the pure data of things. It appears then that by suspending one’s judgment and undergoing the intersubjectivity test, we can arrive at the “pure data of things”.

In relation to this, Husserl claims that this method should be followed by all the sciences in order to answer their primordial condition. It is held that sciences cannot escape their dogmas because they failed to question how they come to be. What they are just doing is a mere adaptation of established principles proven in the past to be true. It has constructed ready-made answers to all things – their nature, existence, feature, et al; grounded on the preconceived notion that science has already provided sufficient answers to the primitiveness of these objects.  While sciences are busy in explaining these things [the ready-made answers], they failed to realize that they were not able to arrive at the Isness of these objects, on how they come into being.

By destroying the “tradition” institutionalized by science and overcoming relativism and subjectivism by the use of phenomenological reduction, it is held that one can arrive at the pure data of consciousness. It is in this sense, that phenomenology becomes transcendental.

Essentially, for Husserl phenomenology is the science of consciousness. It is the process of describing the things and events themselves in their primordial sense through the use of phenomenological reduction. It only thru this process that we can arrive at pure reflection because this is the only method wherein objects and events are describe as themselves without concurring to any established principle or assumption.

Heidegger begins his conception of phenomenology as a critique of Husserl’s reliance on absolute consciousness for his model of intentionality. Heidegger stresses the ontological difference between being and Being which aims to avoid the reduction of ontology to the mere categorization of entities. As such, for any study of Being-in-general, he sees “the need to establish “fundamental ontology” that elucidates the conditions of intelligibility required for things to “be” or show up for us in any way at all”. (Heidegger, p24)

Phenomenology, then, for Heidegger follows the maxim – to the things themeselves. As such, phenomenology neither designates nor characterizes the object to be subjected for phenomenological conception. Thus, it informs one on how a specific field is exhibited and demonstrated not with what is to exhibited and treated.

In this regard, he views phenomenology as a means of access to what is to be the subject matter of ontology and a way of giving it demonstrative precision in relation to phenomena or to the Being of entities which as he asserted remains to be hidden, discovered and then has been deteriorated which eventually been buried again, and lastly which show itself only in disguise. Essentially, the process of arriving to the ontology of the Being of entities makes phenomenology transcendental for Heidegger with the recognition that being is accessible only through one’s practical engagement with a world already understood because of its relevance to one’s ongoing projects

It can be deuced then that phenomenology is the science of the Being of entities – its ontology. As such, in order to provide an answer to the Being-in-general, one has to necessarily take the supposition that the Dasein as an ontologico-ontically distinctive entity is the fundamental grounding to ontology. As consequent, Heidegger asserted that the meaning of one’s phenomenological description as a method lies in what he termed as interpretation.

However, this interpretation has primordial signification in the sense that the process of interpreting aims to uncover the meaning of Being as well as the basic structures the Dasein possesses in order for latter to know and understand his Being. In this regard, the hermeneutic character of Dasein in its primordial signification takes the specific sense of the existentiality of existence or more precisely, on the analytic ontology of the Dasein.

To wit: Being is the transcendens pure and simple. And the transcendence of Dasein’s Being is distinctive in that it implies the possibility and the necessity of the most radical individuation. Every disclosure of Being as the transcendens is transcendental knowledge. Phenomenological truth (the disclosedness of Being) is veritas transcendentalis. (Heidegger, p47).

Essentially, the difference between the Husserl’s and Heidegger’s conception of transcendental phenomenology lies in four points: first, Heidegger’s belief that possibility is greater than actuality as opposed to what Husserl belief that actuality is essential in philosophical movement; second, Heidegger rejects the theoretical view that one encounter objects out-there, somehow laundered in a subjective consciousness through neutral perception which results to specific and limited comportment of perceiving at things which is evident on Husserl’s philosophy; third, on their focus –  Heidegger’s focused on providing an answer on how one can transcend to his facticity in order to ontologically know his Being while Husserl focused in discovering the essence and the ontological existence of the objects in the material world; and lastly, on the methods to be employed in order to achieve the ontology of an entity, Husserl asserted the effectiveness of using phenomenological reduction together with the intersubjectivity test while Heidegger posits the redefining of the question of Being as the measure to arrive at the ontological status of knowing and understanding the Dasein.

2. What is the “they”? Why does Dasein need the “they”? What dangers does the “they” pose for some particular Dasein, if any? How does the “they” disclose the world to itself (in other words, what is fallenness)?

“They”, in Heidegger’s Being and Time refers to the conditions and/or factors which contributes to the inauthenticity of the Dasein. In this process, the Dasein “falls” and turns away from itself. To wit: That in the face of which it thus shrinks back must, in any case, be an entity with the character of threatening; yet this entity has the same kind of Being as the one that shrinks back: it is Dasein itself.  That in the face of which it thus shrinks back cannot be taken as something fearsome, for anything fearsome is always encountered as an entity within-the-world. The only threatening which can be fearsome and which gets discovered in fear always comes from entities within-the-world. (Heidegger, p48).

In this regard, he posited that this process is not “fleeing” in the face of oneself as what people conventionally hold. It is because in fleeing, the Being shrinks back or turns way from something due to fear. And this fear arises because of entities within-the-world which the Dasein eventually stay away. On the process of fallenness, however, Dasein turn away from itself because of itself not due to entities within-the-world. This is rather grounded on anxiety, which as Heidegger asserted, makes fear possible. Thus, he claims: the turning ways of falling is not fleeing that is founded upon a fear of entities within-the-world. Fleeing that is so grounded is still less a character of this turning away, when this turning away does is precisely to turn thither towards entities within-the-world by absorbing itself in them. (Heidegger, p48).

The concept of fallenness works on the supposition that the Dasein is a Being-in-the-world. As such, in the face of which one has anxiety proves that the Dasein is a Being-in-the-world with the recognition that the latter is the Dasein’s basic state. In this case, the face of which one is being anxious is not within the entities in the world. One is completely indefinite in his anxiety with regards to the definite detrimentality it may cause him. More so, to the things which might cause this anxiety. As Heidegger puts it, “not only does this indefiniteness leave factically undecided which entity within-the-world is threatening us, but it also tells us that entities within-the-world are not relevant to us”. (Heidegger, p48).

It is stated that the “they” can contribute to the inauthenticity of the Dasein but this same “they” can also be a means to authenticate one’s Being. It is because as a Being-in-the-world, one is always faced with anxiety. In this regard, one always feels the need to authenticate his being for it is only through one’s authentication of his Being can one know and understand his being. Hence, there is a need for the “they” in order for the Dasein to distinguish the condition and/or things which can lead to his authenticity or inauthenticity.

As Heidegger, puts it, “being-anxious discloses, primordially and directly, the world as world. It is not the case, say, that world first gets thought of by deliberating about it, just by itself, without regard for the entities within-the world, and that, in the face of this word, anxiety then arises; what is rather the case is that the world as world is disclosed first and foremost by anxiety, as a mode of state-of-mind. This does not signify, however, that in anxiety the worldhood of the world gets conceptualized.” (Heidegger, p50).

However, the Dasein in his state of anxiety might be too absorbed in the world and thus, would consequently fall or turn away from his Being. This can happen if the Dasein cannot choose for itself as a Being-in-the world and cannot hold of itself. To wit: In anxiety, what is environmentally ready-to-hand sinks away, and so, in general, do entities within-the-world. The world can offer nothing more and neither can the Dasein with the others. Anxiety takes away the  from Dasein the possibility of understanding itself, as it falls, in terms of the world and the way things have been publicly interpreted. (Heidegger, p50).

Yet, this same anxiety brings the Dasein from its absorption to the world and publicness to the state of moving to its authenticity as a Being-in-the-world. As such, as Heidegger posits: Anxiety throws Dasein back upon that which it is anxious about – its authentic potentiality-for-Being-in-the world. Anxiety individualizes Dasein for its ownmost Being-in-the-world, which as something that understands, projects itself essentially upon possibilities. Therefore, with that which it is anxious about, anxiety discloses Dasein as Being-possible and indeed as the only kind of thing which it can be of its own accord as something individualizes in individualization. (Heidegger, p50).

It can be deduced then that as anxiety individualizes the Dasein, it also reveals the two possibilities of the Being – to be authentic and to be inauthentic. As such, the Dasein can freely choose it ownmost potentiality-for-Being.  The presence of the ready-to-hand makes it possible for the Dasein to know its Being. The Dasein in his continuous struggle to know his ontic-ontological character is confine to inevitably experience anxiety as this determines his willingness to arrive at his existential authentically.

3. What is death, according to Heidegger? What is Dasein’s end, and how is it related to Dasein’s death? How does it further Heidegger’s project to claim that Being-towards-death is an existential? What special role can anxiety play in revealing death to us?

In Being and Time, Heidegger attempted to redefine the ontological question of Being. He stated the improper way on how one questions the Isness of Being leads to varying responds which failed to answer the question of “What is a Being”. He further stated that one should fully understand the ontological question of Being in order to come up with an ontological answer of the Being which is beyond the Being’s facticity.

In this regard, only a being can know his Being because he is consciousness to his Being by his being. His starting point is the fact that a being is a Being-in-the-World.  He is a being situated in this world. As such, it is him who can know his being by virtue of his ontic-ontological character. It is only him who can know and understand his being because it is only him who can determine his possibility by virtue of being a spatio-temporal entity.

It can be deduced then that the task of Dasein is to transcend to his existentiell in order to arrive at his ontological status. It is the supposed that a being is a being-for-itself which explores his probabilities in his spatio-temporal existence. It is only when a person has transcended from his facticity that one can indeed be called as such – being-for-itself. It is only then that one can know the being of one’s Being.

Heidegger maintains that one’s exploration of his probabilities ends with his demise as a spatio-temporal being – or simply put, with death. As such, an attitude which one should have is to be a Being-towards-death not neglecting the fact that we are being situated in this world. The Dasein’s end then is to know the Being of oneself while becoming a Being-toward-death with the recognition that death is inevitable for every human being. With this, he sated the importance of the world as it reveals itself to us with the concept of presence-at-hand and ready-to-hand. The former which refers to the entities which do not help one to know one’s being while the latter refer refers to entities which help one to reveal one’s Being to himself.

Hence, the death of Dasein implies the end of his opportunity to realize his end – that is to know his Being while becoming a Being-towards-death. It is because he cannot anymore explore and carry out his probabilities because he already ceases to exist as a spatio-tempotal being. Let it be reiterated that it is only by virtue of his being a spatio-temporal can one explores his probabilities in the world.

It can be inferred then that Heidegger’s suggesting a seemingly dual task” one is to know the being of oneself while becoming a Being-toward-death. However, one should not view it as two separate things for one necessarily necessitates the other. It should be emphasized that one can only become a Being-towards-death only if one can become a being-for-itself. And that by virtue of Being-towards-death, one can know one’s being on its ontological stage. And this can only be revealled by one’s probabilities as a being situated in this world. In this regard, being is transcending to his existentiell in order to arrive at his existential – his ontological status.

One can come up with the conclusion that Heidegger’s notion of Being is circular yet he maintains that the process is not a hermeneutic circle rather a back and forth condition. It is because only through one’s spatio-temporal existence one can know himself and that would only be probable when one arrives to his Being ontologically.

Evidently, Heidegger’s notion of Dasein greatly gives importance to the relationship of the Being and the world which focuses on providing an answer on how one can transcend to his facticity in order to ontologically know his Being.

From these, arise the prevalent thought Heidegger was known for – that existence precedes essence wherein he posits an a priori structure of existentialia that is constitutive of Dasein. Since one is thrown into the world without notice and carry the burden of facticity, then one find himself already disposed toward the world in specific ways that manifest as moods or attunement.

As such, the mood of anxiety serves to authentically awaken a person to the precariousness of one’s situation as Being-towards-death. Anxiety alienates oneself from the inauthentic conformity and security of the crowd. In this case, the nothing or the world as such wherein anxiety lies in any regions or exhibits itself means that the Dasein as Being-in-the-world is anxious in its own world.

Anxiety, then, as Heidegger posits make manifest in Dasein its Being toward its ownmost potentiality-for-Being. He is free to choose itself and takes hold of itself. To wit: Anxiety brings Dasein face to face with its Being-free, the authenticity of its Being and for this authenticity as a possibility which it always it. (Heidegger, p50)






Works Cited:

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson: Oxford: Blackwell, 1967.

Husserl, Edmund. “Cartesian Meditations.” An Introduction to Phenomenology: Springer, 1977.

—. “The Crises of European Sciences and Transcedental Phenomenology.” An Introduction to Phenomenology: Northwestern University Press, 1970.



Motivational Enhancement Therapy

The MET approach comes in five strategies taken from Miller and Rollnick (1991).  The following are the main strategies used in the application of MET approach intended for adolescents:Expressing Empathy and AcceptanceCommunicating respect for the client is very important under MET treatment.  While this treatment approach is not based on confrontation, implications of a superior or inferior relationship between the client and the therapist are to be avoided.

It is imperative that the therapist does not give the impression of trying to convince clients of the error of their ways but act as a supportive listener and a knowledgeable consultant.Seeing that MET treatment is much more on listening rather than telling, empathic listening and accurate reflection play a vital role in facilitating change.  Understanding and acceptance by the therapist is very important to adolescent clients so that they view therapist as consultant for their personal change process.The therapist expresses empathy to the ambivalence of the client’s thought on quitting marijuana use and at the same time reflects accurately to their mixed feelings through double-sided reflections.

The MET treatment helps clients in recognizing the discrepancy between the effects of cannabis abuse on their lives now and how they would like their lives to be.  By the time people realize and gain awareness of this discrepancy, motivation and desire for change occurs.  This treatment is not about conveying the client with a degrading impression of being a marijuana abuser.  It is about making them realize and reflect on how the client’s marijuana use interferes with goal attainment.

Moreover, therapists have to listen for what is important to the client in the immediate future since most of marijuana-smoking adolescents do not have many expressed goals for their immediate future.Regardless of the fact that some adolescents are unable to verbalize any specific goals, they certainly have vague belief that quitting marijuana could change their lives for the better.  It is in this case that MET therapists are of great help in reflecting this positive expectation back to the client giving them chance to correct an inaccurate reflection and allowing them to feel better understood eventually.Avoiding ArgumentationDirect argumentation has the tendency of evoking resistance as the therapist and the client interact.

The MET approach strictly avoids argument in proving or convincing the client.  According to Miller and Rollnick (1991), it is the client who will voice out the arguments for change and not the therapist in the MET session.  Clients usually become defensive or even hostile possibly due to the previous comments of the therapist.  This is a drift to a confrontational approach from a MET approach entailing the need for resuming the motivational interviewing style.

Therapist should treat the client’s ambivalence as normal in order to avoid argumentation.  The use of double-sided reflections helps client to feel that they are understood, therefore, decreasing their defensiveness.Rolling with ResistanceThe MET approach deals with resistance through rolling with it rather than meeting it head on.  Rolling with resistance necessitates empathy in reflecting the client’s hesitancy to change.

Otherwise, the client will likely to defend and further strengthen their opposition to change seeing that therapist responds with a counter argument.  Hence, rolling with resistance means letting the client know that it will be up to them to decide if and when to change.  Giving this freedom of decision to change sometimes provides more information for the client to decide whether smoking weed is a problem for them or not.  Giving assurance to the client that decisions about change are up to them will often make client become more open to looking at the issue with an open mind.

Supporting Self-efficacyThe MET approach helps to develop and encourage the client’s belief that they can change successfully.  Most adolescent clients have this fear that they will not succeed of making change even though they admit that smoking weed is a problem.  In fact, people recognizing that they have serious problem are still unlikely to move toward change except when they know there is hope for success.  Developing and/or strengthening their sense of self-efficacy is very important to encourage the client that they can reduce or even stop using marijuana.

The therapist will have to ask the client regarding previous successful experiences they have had in areas relevant to cannabis abuse like success in quitting other drugs or alcohol and control on problematic habits.  Though some clients may not make the connection between their previous accomplishments and the possibility of their success in quitting marijuana, it will certainly boost their self-efficacy to changeTherapy approach begins with the assumption that the responsibility and capability for change lie within the client.  The task of the therapist is to create a set of conditions that will enhance the client’s own motivation for and commitment to change.

Rather than relying upon therapy sessions as the primary locus of change, the therapist seeks to mobilize the client’s inner resources, as well as those inherent in the client’s natural helping relationships.  MET seeks to support the intrinsic motivation for change, which will lead the client to initiate, persists in, and comply with behavior change efforts.

This part of the treatment is very important since it is during this period that therapist and client first get to know each other and eventually will help client create the feeling that the therapy sessions will be safe and supportive.  This process is initiated by the therapist through an introduction of himself/herself along with a brief explanation of the purpose of the first meeting.In this phase, the therapist starts with some casual conversation and a review of demographic facts, and attempt to learn a bit more about the client.  In order to leave enough time for the remainder of the session, this discussion should be fairly general and brief.

The therapist then asks an open-ended question on what led to the client’s involvement in marijuana treatment in initiating some of MET strategies for the treatment.Orientation to TreatmentThe therapist hands out a copy of orientation sheet to the client and summarizes the main points in order to introduce the client to the treatment.

The PFR included in this manual illustrates all possible items that could appear on a PFR.  The client’s PFE will include some subset of the illustrated items, based on the client’s responses during the intake or research assessment.  The PFR is most useful for developing motivation when the client is given the opportunity to elaborate on each point.Sometimes clients may respond to the PFE review by attempting to argue about the validity of the items on their personal report.

In such cases, therapist must not try to debate the client, instead, maintain a non-defensive tone and acknowledge that the client knows best what areas of his or her life have and have not been affected by marijuana use, and move on to the next item.Reviewing PFR is expected to take approximately thirty minutes.  This allows for quite a bit of discussion and related comments.  Use double-sided reflections, develop discrepancy, and employ other MET strategies where relevant.

Reviewing the PFR provides an excellent opportunity to explore the client’s ambivalence and to begin developing motivation for change.  After reviewing the entire PFR, the therapist asks the client about his or her reactions to it, and listens with empathy.Session Summary and Preparation for Next SessionIn the final phase of the MET session, the therapist summarizes the main points heard from the client.  Then, the therapist asks the client about his or her readiness for change in a way not to pressure the client in doing so.

Whether the client plans to quit or reduce marijuana use at this point, the therapist should tell the client that he or she will continue discussing this issue during the next session.  It is also important to ask the client on what today’s session has been like for him or her.  Lastly, the therapist sets up an appointment to meet again the following week.II.

  1. Goal-Setting
  2. Progress Review. The therapist starts the review of treatment progress by asking the client how he or she has been doing over the past week regarding the marijuana issue.  The therapist should be prepared to listen for possible changes in the client’s behaviors, thoughts, and feelings regarding marijuana.  It is imperative that therapist responds with reflective comments and attempts to elicit the client’s own motivation-enhancing statements.
  3. Goal-Setting. The therapist will summarize statements heard from the client that indicates motivation for change.  It is during this phase that the therapist explains to the client that having a written goal increases the likelihood that the rest of the therapy will be useful to him or her and that he or she will be more likely to succeed.
  4. Functional Analysis. In this part, clients should be ready to examine the function of marijuana in their lives.  This helps clients to understand that marijuana use does not just happen but is rather a function of antecedents and consequences that is aimed at increasing the client’s awareness of those factors, providing better focus for the ensuing CBT interventions, and enabling better decision making on a daily basis.

By research, motivational enhancement therapy has shown to induce change in some other areas like alcohol problems.  Studies of Bien, Miller, and Tonigan (1993) have shown that therapeutic interventions containing some or all of motivational elements presented above have been demonstrated in over two dozen studies to be effective in initiating treatment, and in reducing long-term alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and health consequences of drinking.

The study Stephens and Roffman (1993) reported that motivational interviewing is effective with marijuana dependent adults. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Individual)ApproachThis treatment approach is based on a social learning model focusing on training clients in interpersonal and self-management skills.  In order for clients to master the skills needed to maintain long-term abstinence from marijuana, it is important that the client develops his or her identification of high-risk situations that may increase the likelihood of relapse.  These high-risk situations include external precipitants of using, as well as internal events such as cognitions and emotions.

Seeing that such situations may create high risk for relapse, the client has the need to develop skills in coping with them.  All throughout the three CBT individualized sessions, the client is taught basic skill elements for dealing with common high-risk problem areas and is encouraged to engage in role-playing and real life practice exercises that will enable them to apply these skills to meet their own needs.In the CBT sessions, the client receives constructive feedback from the therapist using relevant problems that can build their skills.  Active practice with positive and corrective feedback is the most effective way to modify self-efficacy expectations and create long-lasting behavior change.

CBT treatment also requires active participation from the client along with his or her assumption of responsibility for using the new self-control skills to prevent future abuse.  In a training program, active participation can replace an individual’s maladaptive habits into healthy behaviors regulated by cognitive processes that involve awareness and responsible planning. Cognitive behavioral therapy is designed to remediate deficits in skills for coping with antecedents to marijuana use.  Individuals who rely primarily on marijuana to cope have little choice but to resort to substance use when the need to cope arises.

The goal of this intervention is to provide some basic alternative skills to cope with situations that might otherwise lead to substance use.  Skill deficits are viewed as central to the relapse process; therefore, the major focus of the CBT groups will be on the development and rehearsal of skills.The cognitive behavioral paradigm assumes that thinking, feeling, and doing are separate realms of human process that become associated through learning.  Cannabis use, like any behavior, can be linked with thoughts, feelings, and other behaviors through direct experience or through observation.

Associations can be strengthened by intense learning experiences or by placing certain thoughts, feelings, or actions in frequent proximity to use.  When they are strong enough, associations can even serve as triggers (i.e. antecedents) that effectively cue or reinforce a person’s desire (i. e. consequences) to use – even when that person is planning to abstain.  From a cognitive behavioral perspective, for individuals to change their patterns of cannabis use, they should attend to the context in which they use, as well as to the decisions that lead to using.  Taking a broad perspective on the context of cannabis use can improve one’s chances for anticipating and thereby avoiding unintended relapse.

A second rationale in the cognitive behavioral framework is that teaching and consulting are appropriate ways of intervening with people who have mental health problems.  As teachers, cognitive behavioral therapists use a classroom teaching style to help clients comprehend coping skills.  They use experiential teaching methods to help clients internalize coping skills that are personally useful.  As consultants, therapists tailor session content to problems raised by an individual or by group members.

The cognitive behavioral therapist is not perceived as an expert by the client but rather as an ally who appreciates the difficulty of balancing personal emotions and ambiguous social demands and who is prepared to share ideas about how to deal with both.

Marijuana Refusal Skills

  • Introduction and Brief Review of Progress. The first part of the session is the client’s introduction along with a brief review of his or her progress.
  • Review of Real Life Practice. The therapist will ask the client for his or her self-monitoring records to pick one episode that he or she wrote and share it with the therapist.
  • Marijuana Refusal SkillsThe therapist sets out the verbal and non-verbal behaviors for refusing marijuana and applies these skills into practice through role-playing.

StudiesIn clinical trials, cognitive behavioral approaches to treatment have been demonstrably effective with other behavior-and motor-related problems experienced in childhood and adolescence, as well as for relapse problems of adult substance abusers.Cognitive behavioral interventions are helpful to children and adolescents with behavior or mood problems and those with conduct disorder or subclinical delinquency.  Cognitive behavioral trials with this population have yielded improvements in problem solving, self-control, prosocial behaviors, and positive communication that have been sustained for at least a year (Kazdin et al., 1989).

Trials with children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been less successful.  Although these trials yield temporary improvements for on-task behavior and self-control, the effects often last less than a year.  The treatment effects also do not generalize to social situations and do not enhance the effects of medication (Kendall & Wilcox, 1980; Douglas et al., 1976).

With respect to internalizing disorders, cognitive behavioral interventions appear effective with adolescents who meet the criteria for having depressive disorders.  Not uncommonly, reduced rates of depression and relapse are sustained within these populations for at least 2 years (Hops & Lewinsohn, 1995).Another type of client that seems to benefit from cognitive behavioral treatment is the adult aftercare recipient in recovery from a substance use disorder.  For this population, the cognitive behavioral paradigm appears to be a useful educational method for helping to organize and anticipate stages of relapse.

Of particular relevance to this manual is Marlatt and Gordon’s (1985) cognitive behavioral model of relapse.  Marlatt and Gordon propose that relapse is a sequence of stages that can be arrested when appropriate cognitive behavioral techniques are introduced to halt the progress from one stage to the next.  According to their stage model, triggers that generate cravings for a substance work synergistically with positive thoughts about a substance’s satisfying effects to undermine resistance.  By using self-talk and social support to check cravings and by mentally challenging the perceived benefits of use, adult aftercare patients can effectively prevent relapse and extend periods of abstinence.

Based on its success rate with children and adolescents with a variety of behavior or mood problems and with substance abusers, CBT was selected as an appropriate component of treatment for participants in the cannabis youth treatment study.


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  2. Douglas, V.I. et al. (1976). Assessment of a cognitive training program for hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, pp. 389-410.
  3. Hops, H. & Lewinsohn, P. (1995). A course for the treatment of depression among adolescents. In D. Craig & K. Dobson (eds. ), Anxiety and depression in adults and children (pp. 230-245).

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