Types Of Speech Used In Everyday Life University Essay Example

Social speech is usually used in a casual setting with either friends, classmates, family, acquaintances, or strangers. The vocabulary and stylization of the speech can vary vastly depending on who I am speaking to, but the purpose of this kind of speech is almost always the same, to relate, entertain, or listen to the other party. Social speech with close friends is likely to include a lot of references, slang, humor, talk about memories, or other details that are only known to an inner circle. Social speech with less familiar individuals is likely to be more polite, standard, and have the intention of finding common interests with the other person while still being casual. A common example of social speech with familiar people can include talking about what is happening in our lives such as personal and professional news, gossip, or making plans to go out all together.

In-classroom conversation refers to everyday language used between myself, the teachers, and peers. It can still be casual in nature but has a vastly different vocabulary and sentence structure. The main purpose of this kind of conversation is to clearly communicate ideas and knowledge to everyone in the class or ask a question in a concise way. However, as it is used daily with people with which I am familiar, it is not overtly formal or rigid. Classroom conversations can often become good-natured debates, inquiries, or just discussion on the topic. Additionally, the somewhat casual but structured format of the conversation allows me to draw parallels of the topics in the classroom with aspects of my own life or the world in general. These conversations usually manifest themselves as discussions after classroom readings, questions and answers after presentations, and problem solving tasks given by the teacher.

Professional speech is a very formal and impersonal type of speech that is used not only in terms of work but also in school settings. Unlike classroom conversations, professional speech is reserved for occasions in which a more serious approach is essential. As such, the dialogue is usually with an authority and therefore includes attentive listening, neutral language, precise word choice, and other characteristics of speech that prioritize respect, focus, and critical thinking. In a professional setting, this can occur as a job interview, an important presentation or pitch, and conversations with clients or an employer. In these situations professional speech ensures clear, concise, and prepared approaches to any task, which is vital within a work setting that is fast-paced. Within a school environment, I use professional speech during very important presentations, especially those outside of class, speeches, debates, and during events outside of school. Additionally, when working with a program or movement, professional speech is essential to clearly defining the purposes of these events.

Opinion talk is an interesting and often ignored change in speech that has psychosocial causes and differs from social speech. According to studies, an interesting phenomenon in which we mimic the speech patterns of people with whom we share opinions can occur (Bürki, 2018). It is quite commonly known that as social beings we mimic a substantial amount of behavior between each other, however, our social judgment is just as likely to orient our speech to mimic those that we agree with. It goes beyond using similar vocabulary, which can occur due to a myriad of reasons such as similar interests, education, or living environemnt. Hearing and recognizing the sentence structure of a person with whom you share an opinion can alter your own sentence structure the same way listening to a dialect can. After learning this, I have found that opinion talk is a common speech type in my own life. It is often found during debates about media, politics, special interests which I am knowledgeable about, or philosophy and religion.

Reference

Bürki, A. (2018). Variation in the speech signal as a window into the cognitive architecture of language production. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 1973–2004.

Comparison Of Thomas Hobbes’ And John Locke’s Social Contract Theories

Since the beginning of civilization, people have been asking questions about the nature of authority. The suggestion of seeing a political society as an advantageous arrangement could be found in Ancient Greek philosophers’ works. Related conceptions were used to justify feudal leaders’ power. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke developed their systematic theories of a social contract based on the idea of a mutually beneficial political agreement. However, sharing a similar concept of a deliberate and mutual agreement, Hobbes and Locke articulate different views on a range of essential details. Still, both their theories do not comply with the complicated modern reality. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke’s social contract theories are significantly different: operating with similar terminology, they present contrasting views on human nature, ideal government, and its functions and have various limitations describing current political society in the USA.

Hobbes’ and Locke’s Social Contract Theories

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote his works De Cive (1641) and Leviathan (1651) inspired by the legacies of the English Civil War, the Thirty Years War, and the rational scientific ideas. Hobbes saw political society as an artificial creation, invented by free and equal individuals previously living in a world of natural anarchy (Plotica, 2017). Being afraid of war, people willingly transfer their natural rights to the Leviathan by unanimous agreement (Baumgold, 2017, p. 114). The name “Leviathan” serves as a bright metaphor for a mighty ruler. People may revolt if the ruler could not guarantee safety, but these efforts always end with a disaster: “the civill troubles, divisions, and calamities of the Nation” (Baumgold, 2017, p. 450). Thus, Hobbes created his theory of social conflict to convince people that establishing a strong government with absolute power is essential: being unable to overcome their violent tendencies, individuals resort to social contract as the only method to achieve peace.

Hobbes’ Theory and the USA

Hobbes’ theory includes some thoughts which are relevant these days: government should be powerful to protect stability. However, according to Hobbes, an effective sovereign does not transfer his right to self-government and is not bound by any law. If the USA adopted Hobbes’ theory in practice, it should have been an absolute monarchy. On the contrary, the USA is a representative democracy with the separation of powers.

Major Conceptions of Locke’s Theory

Lock was a son of the Reformation and supported the regime founded by the Glorious Revolution and further justified the American Revolution, inspired the American Declaration of Independence, and legitimized the French Revolution. According to Locke’s Second Treatise of Government (2016), the state of nature is a peaceful condition, and a government should protect the people’s natural rights. He says that the state of nature is a “State of perfect Freedom”, but not a “State of Licence” (Locke, 2016, p. 4-5). After enacting a social contract, individuals collectively hold the powers of sovereignty, entrusting some of them to a government for protection. Lock upholds majoritarian rule and the separation of powers, distinguishing the federative, executive, and legislative. Individuals maintain a right to rebel against tyranny because “self-defence is a part of the Law of Nature” (Locke, 2016, p. 115). Thus, Locke establishes his theory believing that he follows God’s prescriptions promoting the liberal traditions of governance.

Locke’s Theory and the USA

Although Locke’s work served as a basis for liberal establishments, it describes some utopian ideas. For example, it is obtaining property through labor. Moreover, society is a complicated unit: it consists of interdependent individuals with unique psychology (Seabright et al., 2021). The US political society could not be considered operating according to Locke’s social contract theory because this theory fails to describe the multitude of factors influencing political decisions.

Comparison of Hobbes’ and Locke’s Theories

The analysis of Hobbes’ and Locke’s social contract theories shows that both philosophers justify political authority through logic and dispute kings’ divine right, emphasizing self-interested human nature. They employ analogous vocabularies and admit that the main purpose of a government is the protection of equals. Both contracts could be broken if a government could not ensure safety. However, the results of resentment will be different.

Differences of Hobbes’ and Locke’s Theories

The dissimilarities of theories stem from their authors’ purposes and life circumstances: while Hobbes rationalizes an absolute monarchy, Lock’s theory supports liberal ideas. Locke’s concept of majoritarian power opposes Hobbes’ notion of an all-mighty ruler (Seabright et al., 2021). The philosophers also present opposing perceptions of the state of nature. In addition, Hobbes creates his Leviathan to establish the source of morality, while Locke’s main reason for a social contract is the protection of human’s natural law to property (Sasan, 2021). Thus, both theories reflect the main aspirations and inclinations of two generations living in a period when the institution of the absolute monarchy was substituted by a more progressive form of governance – a parliamentary monarchy.

Conclusion

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke greatly influenced political philosophy thought. Similar in their core concepts, they present two opposing views on humanity and governance. Hobbes promotes an absolute monarchy as a rational outcome of a social contract between equals to cease the state of war, while Locke supports liberal ideas and describes his perfect government as an entity designed to protect people’s natural rights imposing the will of the majority. Therefore, Locke’s theory created the reasoning for the American and French liberal revolutions. Although these theories could be utilized to describe the operation of political society, they could not be applied to the description of the US system. While Hobbes’ ideal of absolute monarchy contradicts the US traditions of democracy, Locke’s approach is too simplistic to explain the complex mechanism of politics.

References

Baumgold, D. (2017). Three-text edition of Thomas Hobbes’s political theory: The Elements of Law, De Cive and Leviathan. Cambridge University Press.

Locke, J. (2016). Second Treatise of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration (M. Goldie, Ed.). Oxford University Press.

Plotica, L. P. (2017). Social contract. In B. S. Turner, C. Kyung-Sup, C. F. Epstein, J. M. Ryan, P. Kivisto, W. Outhwaite & J. M. Ryan (eds.), Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sasan, J. M. V. (2021). The social contract theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Comparative analysis. Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities, 9(1), 34-45. Web.

Seabright, P., Stieglitz, J., & Van der Straeten, K. (2021). Evaluating social contract theory in the light of evolutionary social science. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 3, E20. Web.

Essay Voice-over

The Bible Book Of Revelation

In this chapter, John continues to observe the events on earth from multiple angles in Heaven. He primarily God’s wrath against the unfaithful, which was spilled upon people of the earth since they chose to pursue false religions and prophets and worship the Beast. John hears God’s command from the temple, ordering His seven angels to “go, pour out the seven bowls of God’s wrath on the earth” (The Bible, New International Version, Rev. 16.1).

Each angel carries a bowl. As the first angel pours out the bowl on the land, those who had the mark of the beast and worshipped its image were covered in sores. The second angel then poured out the bowl into the sea, turning it into the blood and killing everything in it. The third angel then turns the rivers, streams, and lakes into the blood as well. The angel who is in charge says, that these punishments are deserving because the unfaithful and those who worship the beast spilled the blood of holy people and prophets, so now they must drink blood. The altar then responds with a voice, saying that the judgment made by God is truly just.

The fourth angel then poured the bowl on the sun, scorching people with intense heat. Then the fifth angel pours out the bowl on the throne of the beast, plunging his kingdom into darkness, and people gnawed their tongues and were in complete torture. Both times, these unfaithful cursed God who could control the plagues, but they refused to repent their deeds and recognize His glory.

The sixth angel poured out his bowl in the Euphrates, drying up the water which was meant to prepare the way for kings from the East. Then, John describes a strange occurrence. He saw three evil spirits, which resembled frogs, which came from the mouth of the Beast, the dragon, and the false prophet. These demonic spirits would go out to the leaders of the world to gather them and their armies for the battle on the upcoming day of the Lord. Finally, the seventh bowl was poured as the kings gathered in a place known in Hebrew as Armageddon. At this point, the city split in three, and there came a flash of lightning, an earthquake-like never seen before. Mountains collapsed and islands were drowned, as people died of huge hail and lightning. Nations were destroyed, and God remembered Babylon the Great which symbolizes false religions, and gave her the cup filled with the fine of the fury of his wrath. Even with all this horror unfolding, people continued to curse God because of these plagues.

Lessons for Believers

One of the primary lessons from this chapter for believers is that it is critical to remain strong with the faith and recognize the true God and repent. Otherwise, those who were unfaithful or knowingly turned away from God, and those who followed false prophets, their fate is sealed, which is to be destroyed by God through these seven bowls of wrath. These scenes of judgment and battle highlight that the wicked never repent, all the way up to Judgment, and for that, they will be punished accordingly. One of the main elements emphasized is the deceitfulness of the devil, which is a common theme in the Bible, but especially relevant here, as he uses his spirits to fool people or draw them to him with false promises. However, in the end, even those who are coerced or fooled, experience the punishment. Meanwhile, the persecuted Christians, those that have died or may yet have to die for their faith, will be rewarded, while those who chose to abuse the faithful, punished in these horrific ways. The chapter demonstrates that God’s power is overwhelming, and despite the forces of evil trying to gather their forces and “fight” with God, they are despicably unworthy and weak before Him.

Another interesting lesson is inserted into one line that is often overlooked, “Look, I come like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake and remains clothed, so as not to go naked and be shamefully exposed” (Revelation 16.15). It is assumed to be a commentary by Jesus Christ, suggesting that He will come quietly to judge, not with grandiose. This will allow Him to observe those who are truly faithful and those who are superficial and fake, will be exposed. It is a reference to practice at the time when men wore loose-fitting robes and running somewhere up the stairs quickly could easily result in it being undone. Therefore, one had to be careful and patient. Similarly, the faith calls upon Christians to be trepid about the wrath of God, but also understand that it is people’s behavior and beliefs that ultimately decide the outcome of the judgment that they face.

Summary

The chapter begins with one of the seven angels approaching John, saying that he should come to see the judgment of the “great whore” who sits on many glasses of water. The angel describes that kings have fornicated with this woman, and inhabitants of the earth were made drunk with her wine. John is carried to the wilderness, where a woman is sitting on a scarlet beast that’s full of blasphemy and with seven heads and ten horns. The woman is adorned in jewelry and beautiful scarlet clothing, holding a cup that is full of her filth and abominations. On the forehead of the woman, it is identified that the woman is Babylon the Great. The woman is drunk with the blood of saints and martyrs.

John is almost fascinated and begins to wonder, but the angel offers to tell him the story of the woman and the beast. The beast is from the depths of hell, with its 7 hears being mountains on which the woman sits, and there are seven kings – five have fallen, 1 is now, and 1 is to come. The 10 horns are the 10 kings which have not received a kingdom yet. However, they share a mind and provide power and strength for the beast. They will wage war on the Lamb, but they would be defeated since those who are with the Lord are chosen and faithful, but those who are against God will fall.

The angel describes Babylon the Great sitting on waters, which represent many nations and peoples of various languages. However, the ten horns will end up hating the whore, and make her desolate and torture her, because God put His will in their heart, and the ten kings agreed to give up their kingdoms to the beast until God’s prophecy of judgment. However, Babylon the Great still commanded great influence over the kings of the earth.

It is evident in this chapter that John is also intrigued by the significance and symbolism of the prostitute. The seductive woman ultimately represented the earthly spoils of Rome, drawing everyone with beauty and glamor, but being just a harlot that is full of false promises. Meanwhile, the Beast represents Rome and the antichrist. Later in the chapter, the angel warns that there will be a call for wisdom to reward the faithful, while those who do not repent will perish.

Lessons for Believers

As a religious system, Babylon existed long before Christianity. According to legend, the Babylonian religion was founded by the wife of Nimrod (great-grandson of Noah). She was a high priestess of idol worship and gave birth to a son whose conception was claimed to be immaculate. The religion also anticipated the coming of the true Messiah but in a Satanic imitation. The born son Tammuz was believed to be a savior. Due to the idle-worshipping and false religion promoting the nature of Babylon, it was condemned and destroyed. Similarly, the angel says that he will show the judgment of the great harlot, as her judgment is assured without any doubt of the fate and failure of Babylon. The harlot is symbolic of all false religions and beliefs not coming from God. It is a universal aspect of the people of the world, and the aspects of fornication, deceit, and manipulation that she brings, are representative of the way that false religion is used to manipulate the masses and leaders. Despite some religions seemingly accepted, spiritual, and attractive, they are not moral (Guzak)

The explanation of the beast that the harlot rode is a basis for Antichrist’s system, using religion to manipulate and rule for his evil purposes, attempting to subvert as many people as possible. However, the chapter warns that all that will be destroyed, including the beast itself. Overall, the chapter creates a stark eye-opening example through a metaphor on the power and influence of false religion and practices. The biggest lesson for Christians is to carefully evaluate their beliefs and faith. Sometimes, false religions can even arise seeming a lot like Christianity, just with some additional perks or messaging. The key characteristic of this false faith is being attractive on the outside, but inherently rotten and evil internally, eventually pulling down a path of sin that is difficult to come back from.

Summary

The chapter begins with John seeing another angel which announces the fall of Babylon the Great, likely both the entity and the city which is symbolized (many thought to be Rome). The angel shouts that Babylon the Great was a dwelling for demons, wickedness, and much evil influence that had befallen human kingdoms and their rulers.

Then John hears a voice from heaven, calling upon the people to distance themselves from Babylon the Great before judgment strikes. It is God calling upon humans to repent and curse Babylon, and He shall forgive them and spare them from the tribulations to come because it is Lord God himself that judges her. God highlights the evil-doing that the harlot was doing in the kingdoms of men and what truly lies within her heart. He then describes the appropriate punishment for her, as she is overtaken by plagues and then consumed by fire.

However, humans and their kings are unable to see the truth, but rather mourn the destruction of Babylon. They are terrified and worried not about their fates or souls, but rather their riches and luxury, the economics of it all. The merchants who have profited will stand and weep at the ruin that was brought to so many trades and businesses. They will promote it to be the greatest city of them all. It seems that the angels are attempting to convince them otherwise, saying that she received the appropriate punishment, and the faithful should rejoice.

An angel then picks up a large boulder and throws it into the sea, comparing it to the destruction of the city. He says that it will never see arts or hear music, there will be no artisans or trade-in it again, and there will not be marriages or celebrations. The angel notes that the city promoted merchants and the rich as the most important people, and by doing that led astray many people and other nations. The city was also responsible for the slaughter of so many of God’s prophets and holy people. The angel makes it clear; that it will never occur again (Revelation 18.1-24).

Lessons for Believers

The destruction of Babylon described in this chapter suggests that this is a different entity than the one in Chapter 17. Scholars see it as there are two manifestations of Babylon, the religious false prophets one, and the commercial and material ones. Furthermore, this city which is described is also believed to potentially be Rome, which circa repeated the history of Babylon centuries prior. Nevertheless, it is evident that both Babylons are under the rule of the Antichrist, promote blasphemy and ungodly values, and both fornicate with the kings – all of which lead to destruction. They are potentially intertwined but at the same time district.

Whilst commercial Babylon may have been a city in the description, it is also symbolic just like the religion-oriented Babylon the Great. It is symbolic of a commercial and social system that is built on greed and satanic principles that corrupt men. The political and economic aspects have driven people away from the faith but towards an obsession with riches and luxury. These are parallel with sins such as gluttony and lust, which are just as serious as worshipping false idols. For that, Babylon in this chapter was destroyed, and despite being called upon to repent and distance themselves, people wept because they were so blinded by the superficial.

It is a lesson for the faithful as basic as it possibly gets. Do not place worldly possessions on a pedestal and before God, do not let the material wealth become an obsession that takes over the mind and soul. The chapter describes not just an individual or several people, but a whole culture that was permeated by this economic ambition, much like the modern-day. In this context, many truths are forgotten, and God’s voice is drowned out. However, as shown, this wealth is temporary and superficial. It takes over the soul but does not offer nearly the same prosperity and peace that faith does. Therefore, the lesson is to reexamine one’s values and what one holds dear, as most of what is valued in our lives is nothing more than an object which is a temptation into sin.

In Revelation 17, when John is carried by the Spirit to the Wilderness, he sees a woman sitting on a scarlet beast. She is horrific visually, but adorned with jewels and other decorations, while “holding in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of her sexual immorality. And on her forehead was written a name of mystery: “Babylon the great, mother of prostitutes and earth’s abominations.” And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of the martyrs of Jesus” (Revelation 17.4-6). Named after the highly blasphemous and idol-worshipping Babylon Empire which saw its demise in the book of Isaiah, the woman Babylon the Great is a symbol of the seductive culture, false religions, and potentially new age secularism – any religious entity which seeks to destroy or drive away from faith those who are people of God (Carter).

Therefore, Babylon the Great is a symbol, associated directly with the Beast and evil. Scholars generally agree that the symbol in Revelations specifically represents a collective body of false religions or beliefs that would be condemned by God. It likely represents an international presence and scope, influencing people of all cultures as she “sits on many glasses of water” affecting “peoples and crowds and nations and tongues” (Revelation 17.15). The imagery of a prostitute is a reference back to “spiritual prostitution” (Leviticus 20:6) which seeks to use false religion to lead people away from the true God and worship some other forms of deities or spirits. A common element in false religion is its theatrics and showy display, combined with wealth – the opposite of the humility that the Bible calls for, which is why Babylon the Great is described as adorned in these luxurious beautiful decorations while in reality being horrifically evil inside.

In Revelation 19.7, there is a line that states, “Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! For the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready.” It is important to note ‘who’ the bride is – it is symbolic of the church as an entity. Specifically, the church that is present on earth in the real world. After Jesus had sacrificed his life for the church, it is prophesized that He will return and escort the bride to heaven, where the marriage supper will be celebrated. To make herself ready, the bride of Christ clothes herself in white linen which represents all the righteous acts, with the implication that she is worthy and had overcome sin to take the place beside Him in Heaven. In the words of John, when Christians encounter Jesus either in death or at the Second Coming, they will be like Him (John 3.2).

The marriage supper is heavy symbolism for the relationship between Christ and the Church. This relationship between a husband and wife that humans perceive to be very intimate, both from an emotional and sexual point of view is representative of the relationship with God when elevated to the spiritual level. The intimacy of connection with the one and only God is what drives the metaphor of the bride. God created man as a being that is in His image, so He loves them, and people have the free will to love Him back (Ritenbaugh). In a sense, it is a happy ending to the eternal struggle between God and Satan for the human soul and faith.

When referring to those that are raised in the first resurrection, the Bible quotes, “And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. They[a] had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. 5 (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection.” (Revelation 20.4-5). The first resurrection refers to those who are faithful, pure, and Holy. While the passage makes it seem like these are the holiest of individuals such as saints and martyrs, those who committed their life and death to Christ, it may go deeper. Largely, as scholars agree, the second resurrection is one of the resurrections of the wicked and unbelievers, where they are judged before being cast in the lake of fire. Therefore, the first resurrection would encompass those who are truly faithful and righteous in the name of Christ (“What is the first resurrection”).

Revelation 20 is considered to be a critical Biblical passage as it describes two physical resurrections separated by one thousand years, during which those who came back to life in the first resurrection “reigned with Christ” for that amount of time. The first resurrection is meant to take place at Christ’s Second Coming when the “last trumpet” sounds.” Those who are raised in the first resurrection cannot die as they have new spiritual bodies and immortality.

In Revelation 21, John describes an awesome occurrence, “Then I saw “a new heaven and a new earth,”[a] for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. 2 I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Look! God’s dwelling place is now among the people, and he will dwell with them. They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God” (Rev. 21.1-3). New Haven and New Earth is the marriage of heaven and earth which symbolizes a new creation as God and his covenant people come together to live in one place. New Heaven and Earth stem from multiple prophecies about the renewal of things, with the glorious fulfillment of God’s promise that the earth will be made new and pure, reversing the curse of Eden. Some believe this transformation would occur when Christ returns and leads the millennial rule with the faithful, while others suggest that the renewal does not occur until after the Last Judgment (Stewart).

In 2 Peter 3.7-13, he prophesizes that the current heavens and earth as we know it will be consumed by fire and destruction. Through this, all would be dissolved, including sin and impurity of humanity. Only those will remain that are deserving of leading lives of holiness and godliness. At this time, God will create a new universe, where He and the faithful can be nearby and living in the Holy City. However, it is ultimately unclear what the renewal entices, will the old heaven and earth be renewed or completely replaced. The Bride which symbolizes the church but also new creation is the final vision of the marriage of earth and heaven. By coming to live with humanity, whom He loves, God is also making all things new (Stewart).

There are two main interpretations of the New Heaven and Earth. Some view it literally as described above, with a metaphysical change to creation at the final judgment, inherently purging Adam’s sin which had contaminated His Creation at the Fall in Genesis. However, other scholars view the concept as purely metaphorical, representing a future when the political and religious circumstances in the world would shift to be ideal for the church and faith, for a millennium. Christ would establish His reign over the physical world as we perceive it currently, with false religions being destroyed, and true religion and its value would prosper. Regardless of the perception of these verses, it is evident that New Heaven and New Earth hold critical importance for the church. Ideally, the faithful should strive to be part of the first resurrection to then join the Holy Trinity in this new entity or creation that would be formed as the true God’s Kingdom.

The verses describe key aspects of the interior of New Jerusalem as Eden is restored. The first verse states, “Then the angel showed me the river of the water of lives, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb 2 down the middle of the great street of the city” (Rev. 22.1). The pure river of the water of life is common imagery utilized by prophets in the Old Testament which demonstrates peace, riches, and provision. The fact that the water is clear as crystal symbolizes that New Jerusalem is pure, with no sin, a city that is a sublime reality unknown to men on Earth. The final part of the verse, indicating that the river flows from the throne of God indicates that it is a gift from God, and it cannot be anything other than holy, pure, and abundant (Guzik).

The second verse focuses on the tree of life, “On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations” (Rev. 22.2). The tree of life is the very tree present in Eden, described in Genesis 3.22-24, from which man was not allowed to eat from. The imagery is also meant to invoke the absolute beauty that was present in New Jerusalem. The yielding of fruit is both an indicator of time, which may still be kept in Heaven but not bound to it, as well as the bountifulness of harvest. Scholars believe that while it may not be necessary to eat in Heaven, God will allow it. Finally, the leaves for the healing of nations is a misinterpretation of translation, which indicates health-giving. The leaves are ultimately providing health and blessing to the people (Guzik).

Works Cited

Carter, Paul. “Who Is The Whore Of Babylon? (And Why Does It Matter?).” The Gospel Coalition.

Guzik, David. “The Fall of Religious Babylon.” Blue Letter Bible.

Guzik, David. “Revelation 22 – Come, Lord Jesus.” Enduring World.

New International Version. Bible Getaway. Web.

Ritenbaugh, John. “Revelation 19:7 Forerunner Commentary.” Bible Tools.

Stewart, Don. “What Are the New Heavens and New Earth?” Blue Letter Bible.

“What Is the First Resurrection? What Is the Second Resurrection?” Got Questions.

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