Ukraine Cultural Construction On Social Security Essay Example For College

Cultural descriptions play a critical role in the construction of life trends in society. Social security is one of the factors that a culture of a specific community constructs. Social security is a factor that involves upholding practices that promote one’s daily life, especially from a community perspective. The practices are communal, therefore being a standard way of life for the community. Culture is influential because it not only protects social life but enhances the construction of identity. From the illustration, the Ukrainian culture protects its social construction by first helping describe the society’s identity and freedom. The population identifies itself as a free population, which has promoted political concepts such as democratic and anti-tyrannical. To explore how the Ukrainian culture constructs social security, this discussion will focus on Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk’s (2021) literature on “cultural security of Ukraine.” The essay will identify various techniques and explain how and why they have been used to describe Ukrainian social security as an attribute of its culture.


Expository is the primary technique Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) use in the literature on the cultural security of Ukraine; therefore, the article is relevant for this essay as it will help in the deification of aspects that enhance the construction of social security in Ukraine. Under the technique, one of the impactful approaches is the use of statistics. In order to explain the cultural security of Ukraine, the authors explore the concept of language. Language is a prominent factor in cultural security, further enhancing social security. A common language enhances communication across all population groups, creating a sense of mutual understanding. In the article, the authors use statistical data to explain the construction and evolution of the Ukrainian language. First, the article presents that a significant population in the country speaks a common language and further provides data on language and nationality.

The data given and explained is “According to the results of the All-Ukrainian Census of 2001, major part (77.8%) out of the total population of Ukraine (48 million 457 thousand) were Ukrainians. The largest ethnic minority was Russians (17.3%). Belarusians, Moldovans, and Crimean Tatars accounted for 0.5% each; Bulgarians – 0.4%; Hungarians, Romanians, and Poles– 0.3%, Jews – 0.2% (Pro kinkiest ta sklad asplenia…, 2001). At the same time, ac- cording to the results of the All-Ukrainian Census of 2001, the Ukrainian language was considered the native language by about 70% of the population of our state (Pro kilkistta sklad naselennia…, 2001) (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.476).” Additional information provided which is vital for this illustration is “Data from opinion polls conducted in March 2017 by leading Ukrainian sociological centers, such as Kyiv International Institute of Sociology, Rating, SOCIS, Razumkov Center, showed that 90.6% of the population considered themselves Ukrainians by nationality, 6,3% – Russians, and 2.7% of citizens considered themselves representatives of other national minorities. At this, young people aged from 18 to 24 declared their Ukrainian national identity most often (Bilshe 90% hromadian…, 2017) (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.476).”

The authors use the technique to explain the magnitude of the Ukrainian language in constructing the respective culture, protecting the respective social perspective. Language, as identified, promotes mutual understanding because of its ability to enhance social interactions. Enhanced social interactions promote social security because of the potential high ability to resist irrelevant and contrary values within the community (Sterling et al., 2020, p.8050). Further exploration of the concept of language, massive reception, and recognition by the population result in its declaration as the state language through the Law of Ukraine. The law revolves around “On Ensuring the Functioning of the Ukrainian Language as the State Language (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.476).” The Ukrainian language is, therefore, the only state language used to perform critical issues such as interethnic communication, which further promotes the protection of human rights for every citizen in Ukraine, regardless of their ethnic origin. The language also promotes national unity and security in Ukraine. The illustrations that are derived from the statistics promote Ukrainian social security. A common language will promote easy categorization of vices and values.

Other than statistical focus, the authors use the expository technique by focusing on factual information. First, the authors explore culture as a symbol of national identity in Ukraine. From the focus, the authors identify that cultural principles are contained in vital ethnic actors, and the principles the authors present are memories, myths, symbols, values, and historical configurations. The utilization of facts in this scenario influences the identification of the creation of nations and ethnic groups by the respective cultures. Additionally, Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk’s (2021) audience the article understand the connection between culture, national identity, ethnic groups, and social practices from a historical perspective. From the connection, social security unfolds within the process of forming a socio-cultural space. The process includes the socio-cultural self-identification of the individual. The manifestation of a personal activity influences self-representation in a sociocultural space, and that is through an aim to meet unique values and spiritual, cognitive, and economic needs (Nesterova and Spulber, 2020, p.122).

The above process and connections promote social security in Ukraine by enhancing the development of values such as trust and social cohesion. Through trust, the population undergoes the process, and by referencing on self and enhancing self-identification, they trust each other because of the potential common system. The common system manifests in the respective culture and practices (Samborska, 2020, p.333). The primary influence is a common practice influenced by a common language. Through this dimension, it will not be possible for external forces to interrupt the existing social description of Ukraine. In this context, external forces include foreign cultural influences, prominent through tourism.

Tourism, especially international tourism, involves interaction with groups with different cultures from those of Ukraine. From the interactions, Ukrainians can develop interests in foreign cultures. However, a common language and other processes, such as self-reflection and identification, will protect the respective individuals and the culture from the forces (Bui et al., 2020, p.1022). As a result, they can resist foreign cultures because the common language enhances the comprehensive illustration of Ukrainian culture. With significant understanding, there is significant loyalty, therefore, a healthy interaction between Ukrainians and other nationals in Ukraine.


Application is a crucial presentation technique Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) use to describe how Ukraine’s culture constructs social security. In this context, the application has been used through the illustration of a concept of how it promotes social security in Ukraine. The concept explored is the Ukrainian culture, and the authors explain that the culture is a marker of national identity. From the literature, culture in Ukraine builds the national values the country’s population practices. Cultural principles that contain Ukrainian ethnicity are memories, values, myths, symbols, and unique characteristics of historical configurations (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472). Other general features contributing to a country’s identity are size, external relations, mobility, loyalty, civil rights, population feelings and beliefs, and economic integration (Komisarof and Leong, 2020, p.3).

The reflection technique has been used to identify major cultural components and how they interact with society to promote its social practices. Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) apply culture by stating that “(relevant) cultures create nations and ethnic groups, and it is “a particular culture inherent to the nation that distinguishes it from among other nations and is its presentation card in the international community” (Hibernau, 2012: 26). Awareness of common culture and history, love for the mother land, myths and symbols able to generate emotional ties – these are the “core of national identity,” “the main components of national identity,” without which there is no social solidarity and cohesion (Hibernau, 2012: 200) (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472).”

One of the primary rationales for using the application technique by the authors is for emphasis, whereby the audience understands the significance and the gravity of the importance of culture in Ukrainian social life. One of the practices protecting the country’s social security is its language. The Ukrainian language is symbolic, a value that developed after formally acknowledging the Ukrainian language as a priority status. That is further enhanced by the population dynamics, whereby in 2001, 77.8% of the total Ukraine population was composed of native Ukrainians (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.475). The significance of the population description is a prominent aspect of language construction. Because of the vast nature of how the language is used, there is significant security that the language will remain a national symbol (Makarova et al., 2019, p.97). Language is a major cultural construction factor, and because of a larger population using the same language, the community’s respective social practices and scopes are protected.

Ukraine has taken significant measures to bolster its language as a primary social security, which has been through support for the Ukraine language to be the only state and official language. The support has gradually and significantly increased, as Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) illustrate. In May 2014, 34% of the Ukrainians supported making the language the only official state language. In May 2019, the support grew by 31% to 65% (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.477). The administration further enhanced the initiative to support the Ukrainian culture by bolstering its language to secure social construction. As a result, there was the development of the Law of Ukraine “On Ensuring the Functioning of the Ukrainian Language as the State Language (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.477).”

The law makes the Ukrainian language the sole state language, and the citizens must use it throughout the country in public authorities and governments. On the same note, the Ukrainian language performs the role of interethnic communication. Interethnic communication is vital to social security because it significantly promotes national cohesion, unity, and mutual understanding (Hogan and O’Flaherty, 2022, p.1). The primary contributor to the law in the country is the protection of human rights, especially their ethnic origin. The authors evaluate the law and present critical tasks of the law. The first task is the protection of the Ukrainian language status, and, secondly, officiate the language as a language of interethnic communication in the country (Olzacka, 2023, p.11). The third task is ensuring that the Ukrainian language strengthens the national identity and preserving the national culture, customs, traditions, and historical memory.


Reflection is another crucial technique Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) used to explore how Ukraine’s culture constructs social security. Through reflection, the authors focus on the historical perspective of Ukraine and discuss how it enhances its social security. First, Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) emphasize historical awareness. Through a reflection on Ukrainian history, the population, through its culture, will protect its social constructs. From the article, the core of national identity originates from a historical reflection. In the context of Ukraine, the core of national identity through a historical reflection is enhanced by awareness of various concepts: a common culture, love for the motherland, and symbols and myths (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472).

These concepts result in a generation of emotional ties, which contribute to developing values such as ethical practices, identification, love for one another, and national cohesion. Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) identify that Ukraine would need more social solidarity with these concepts, principles, and values. In this context, social solidarity is essential as it ensures that the population has standard social practices and that the common practices enhance national cohesion (Reimer et al., 2021, p.1049). On the same note, Ukrainians have established a single cultural space through a historical perspective of cultural practices. A single cultural space involves the practice of common cultural values, sharing myths and symbols, and sharing goals, values, and objectives (Holbeche, 2019, p.124). A single cultural space plays a critical role in the security of the social dimension of Ukraine. Social practices include religion, peace-building practices, language, and shared education scopes and concepts. In such a situation, a single culture space will allow ease of the practice of societal factors. Moreover, because of the existing single-space culture in the country, Ukrainians already have the factors within their daily activities.

From the illustration above, a single-space culture significantly protects Ukrainian social values. First, the culture promotes everyday cultural activities, observations, and beliefs. That promotes national unity as the practices bring the population together. Social protection manifests when a person or a group attempts to introduce foreign cultural practices and beliefs. The new practices will face resistance from the entire population (Filatotchev et al., 2022, p.1036). As a result, the Ukrainian culture cannot experience degradation.

Secondly, a single-space culture promotes common educational values and principles. Every nation has objectives it needs to achieve, which dictate its education system. That is by influencing teaching methods, teaching content, and the entire education system (Kayumov, 2020, p.10). The country implements such measures because it is through education that it will be able to solve its problems. Furthermore, because these problems vary from one nation to another, the systems must be based on the cultural beliefs of the country in line with the specific issues of the country. A single-space culture is very impactful in such a situation.

Because of the culture, education standards will be common in the entire country, which is a prominent concept towards social security. During childhood to adulthood, Ukrainians will not be exposed to irrelevant foreign beliefs and will adhere to the respective social practices (Kayumov, 2020, p.10). As a result, the values are stringer, well-rooted, and rigid, making it impossible to change or influence their abandoning. Thirdly, a single-space culture will enhance social protection by promoting sound and positive religious teachings. Focusing on Ukrainian identity, this culture is based on freedom. As a result, religious teachings, regardless of the denominations and other characteristics, will revolve around freedom (Shwed, 2021, p.130). The population will therefore enjoy enhanced freedom attributes. As a result, it will be possible to detect contrary religious teachings. As a result, proper measures will be taken to counter the negative attributes of the wrong religious teachings.

The third way the single-culture space protects the Ukrainian social perspective is through the sense of dynamism that a single-space culture presents. Although a single-space culture has been identified to be rigid, thus preventing the introduction of foreign culture, the concept is flexible to the Ukrainians (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472). The flexibility of the single-space culture allows the Ukrainians to adjust their cultural perspectives concerning their issues within the country. Two major factors influence the need to change or adjust cultural perspectives. These two factors are emerging trends and environmental orientations. Focusing on emerging trends, new events which were not typical or expected in the country could change the country’s social life.

For instance, COVID-19 is a practical example in this context which changed the way of interactions in Ukraine. In such an event, social security was not threatened but was protected by the flexible nature of the country’s culture. It was, therefore, more accessible for the population to accept and adopt preventive measures such as reduced interactions and gatherings (Barchielli et al., 2022, p.11929). As a result, the community, through its leaders, could practice alternative practices to uphold its culture. Focusing on environmental descriptions, despite the nation having potentially common problems, either some of the problems are intense in some regions or some regions have unique problems.

Recognizing these variations makes it possible to develop alternative practices in specific regions that will enhance cultural practice more safely. In this scenario, social security is constructed by considering others’ needs and their integration into national and standard practices (Barchielli et al., 2022, p.11929). There is an enhanced sense of freedom as certain groups within the country will not feel coerced into specific practices and beliefs which are irrelevant or impractical according to their individual and immediate characteristics.

The primary rationale for the use of the technique of reflection in the article is to create a sense of the experiences of the Ukraine population concerning their cultural constructs (Huang et al., 2020, p.596). That further enhances the identification of conditions that influence the article creation. Focusing on the article, the reader can associate with the population as it is possible to understand how its culture constructs effective practices. For example, Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) help the reader realize that Ukraine’s National culture is polytechnic, and its spatial structure is under the influence of semantic and symbolic forms of reproducing cultural codes. Collective and individual consciousness also helps in cultural development aided by actual practices and a possible perspective of the image of man and their place in the world (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472). Another understanding is that Ukrainian culture is dynamic in that it can change anytime, with primary contributing factors being historical conditions.

The utilization of these rationales contributes significantly to the research and article development. For example, the author identified and discussed three unique contributors to the flexible nature of the Ukraine culture. First, due to social inheriting, which is a factor that promotes the integration of current practices into unique systems which are vital in the reproduction of generations, conformity in the way of life, and the natural ability of the culture to change itself (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472). The second factor is the formation of identity, whereby this factor coincides with social inheriting. However, in this context, a cultural code is inherited that implements an identity to the population. As a result, unique and comprehensive principles and equal distribution of opportunities will be identified, further enhancing the identification of human factors (Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk, 2021, p.472). From the illustration, the major aspect of forming identity from inherited cultural codes promotes the identification of humanity and their interaction and association with the cultural environment. The third factor is a social construction, which involves identifying and associating symbols specific to Ukraine and its culture. As a result, in the vent, there is a cultural practice change; the symbols will remain symbolic to the community.


Krasivskyy and Pidberezhnyk (2021) use three primary literature presentation techniques to expound their article, further developing this discussion. The first technique is expository, whose development focuses on statistical data and factual information. Through the technique, Ukraine’s cultural construction enhances social security by declaring the Ukrainian language the only state language. That, as a result, transits to mutual understanding and national cohesion. The second technique is the application, which involves the application of Ukrainian culture as a concept in the construction of social security. From the application, the concept of culture has been described as a marker of national identity: freedom. The third technique is reflection, and the authors have utilized the technique by identifying how cultural practices promote social security. The critical practices identified are education, educational practices, cultural rigidity on the external boundaries, and cultural flexibility within the boundaries.


Barchielli, B., Cricenti, C., Gallè, F., Sabella, E.A., Liguori, F., Da Molin, G., Liguori, G., Orsi, G.B., Giannini, A.M., Ferracuti, S. and Napoli, C., 2022. Climate changes, natural resources depletion, COVID-19 pandemic, and Russian-Ukrainian war: What impacts habits change and mental health? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(19), p.11929.

Bui, H.T., Jones, T.E., Weaver, D.B. and Le, A., 2020. The adaptive resilience of living cultural heritage in a tourism destination. Journal of Sustainable Tourism28(7), pp.1022-1040.

Filatotchev, I., Ireland, R.D. and Stahl, G.K., 2022. Contextualizing management research: An open systems perspective. Journal of Management Studies59(4), pp.1036-1056.

Hogan, D. and O’Flaherty, J., 2022. Exploring the nature and culture of science as an academic discipline: implications for integrating education for sustainable development. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education.

Holbeche, L.S., 2019. Shifts in organizational culture when implementing agility. Journal of Creating Value5(2), pp.124-138.

Huang, C.L., Luo, Y.F., Yang, S.C., Lu, C.M. and Chen, A.S., 2020. Influence of students’ learning style, sense of presence, and cognitive load on learning outcomes in an immersive virtual reality learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research58(3), pp.596-615.

Kayumov, I.F., 2020. Values and aesthetic factors in the formation of culture and art. International Engineering Journal For Research & Development12(1), p.10.

Komisarof, A. and Leong, C.H., 2020. Viewing intercultural adaptation and social inclusion through constructs of national identity: An introduction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations78(2020), pp.1-9.

Krasivskyy, O. and Pidberezhnyk, N., 2021. Cultural security of Ukraine. Przegląd Strategiczny, (14), pp.471-488.

Makarova, E.V., Kryukova, N.I., Sizova, Z.M., Grinenko, A.V., Erofeeva, M.A. and Bukalerova, L.A., 2019. Divergence of supreme values of the Russian world and Western civilization social and philosophical analysis. European Journal of Science and Theology15(3), pp.97-107.

Nesterova, M. and Spulber, D., 2020. Values of trust and social cohesion in the modern socio-cultural space. Socio-Cultural Management Journal3(2), pp.122-137.

Olzacka, E., 2023. The development of Ukrainian cultural policy in the context of Russian hybrid aggression against Ukraine. International Journal of Cultural Policy, pp.1-17.

Reimer, N.K., Love, A., Wölfer, R. and Hewstone, M., 2021. Building social cohesion through intergroup contact: Evaluation of a large-scale intervention to improve adolescent intergroup relations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence50, pp.1049-1067.

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Shwed, Z., 2021. Methodological features of the study of the religious situation in the case of Ukraine. European Journal of Science and Theology17(2), pp.13-21.

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Analysis Of Recommendations To Galactic CEO Writing Sample

The existing dispute arises from a disagreement over a system integration project between Galactic and Solutions. The fourth integration of a four-part system has been left unfinished by Solutions causing strained communication, threats of legal action, and payment retainment. Both parties blame the other for being responsible for the incomplete integration with Galactic’s sales estimated to be taking a continuous loss of close to $5000 daily from the incomplete integration. This paper intends to provide recommendations to Galactic’s CEO on the various legal matters at play and the best way to move forward while suffering minimal additional loss.

From the information provided, various legal actions would be recommended depending on the initial contract. The first assumption is a breach on the part of Solutions Inc. According to ‘Damages for Breach in Commercial Contracts’, the non-breaching party is entitled to damages to indemnify them due to the losses caused by the fault of the breaching party (Practical Law, n.d). In this case, the losses suffered by Galactic due to the incomplete integration arising from Solutions’ incompetence include daily losses of close to $5000 and the potential risk of turnover. If found in breach of contract by a court of law, Solutions will be required to cover the losses as damages in addition to extra costs arising from breach of contract. As such, Galactic should seek legal help in resolving the matter to avoid further loss.

The issues arising from this dispute highlight the importance of a clear definition of risks and responsibilities of each party in a commercial contract as documented in ‘Risk Allocation in Commercial Contracts’ (Practical Law, n.d). The contract between Solutions and Galactic was in disregarded the risks and responsibilities relating to the integration, therefore, resulting in the current stalemate. Solutions blame Galactic for failure to provide vital information about their systems, while Galactic blames Solutions for not assessing the four integrations more diligently.

A second assumption would be if according to the existing contract between the parties, both of them may be in breach having failed to uphold the terms stated as applicable to each. In this instance, the allocation of risk provisions in the contract may come into play. The provisions guide how to allocate losses in the event of a breach on both sides(Practical Law, n.d). If the contract is silent on risk allocation, the court may apply the principle of “contributory negligence” to allocate damages between the parties. Contributory negligence evaluates the extent to which each party contributed to the loss, and the court may reduce the number of damages payable by the violating party appropriately (Mulheron, 2016).

The non-breaching party may be entitled to damages if only one party broke the agreement. Contract damages are intended to return the non-breaching party to the position they would have been in had the agreement has been upheld. The party who didn’t break the contract must demonstrate the losses they sustained as a result of the breach, and the losses must have been conceivably foreseeable when the deal was struck (Cimino, 2015). In this case, if Galactic is in breach of the contract between itself and Solutions, it would be forced to indemnify Solutions by paying the full amount and the additional damages arising as a result of the withheld payment. As such, a careful examination of the contract binding the two parties will need to be carried out before determining the next course of action.

If Galactic goes to court, a number of claims could be pursued. Firstly, damages for loss of earnings could be sought. Galactic says that they are losing between $2,000 and $5,000 per day in orders because they are unable to access data in the connected systems quickly enough to meet customer demands. Other potential claims include; damages for breach of contract, damages for the cost of remedial work, and damages for the loss of senior sales representatives. Demonstration and proof of these claims will result in recompense. The recoverable amounts would depend on the evidence presented. If the company can prove the sales team’s estimation of daily losses of $2000-$5000, the total loss is the amount recoverable as damages for loss of profits.

Litigation processes are usually long and drawn out. As such, they are often time-consuming and costly. Alternative dispute resolution models could be pursued to reduce the cost incurred and spare the public image of both companies. According to Domke et al., (2022), one of the models applied could be a negotiation. This is a voluntary, non-binding process in which the parties can choose to involve a third party or not. It is advantageous in that it allows the parties to maintain control over the outcome and reach. The main disadvantage is the unwillingness of either party to compromise which will result in failure or an impartial solution.

Another model, mediation includes a neutral third party who assists the parties to conclude (Domke et al., 2022). Its advantage is the opinion of a neutral third party who offers suggestions without bias, therefore, leading to an amicable solution. It may not however be effective if the parties are unwilling to participate or if there exists a big imbalance of power between the parties. A third alternative solution is an arbitration in which the parties present their case to an arbitrator who makes the final decision. This solution provides the parties with a final binding decision that is enforceable in court. It is also faster and less expensive than litigation (Domke et al., 2022). It is however limited and does not provide the same level of procedural protections as in litigation.

Assuming the success of the negotiation model and the presentation of various amounts for settling the dispute, final offer arbitration is applied in case of disagreement on the values suggested. Under this method, Galactic would submit its final offer of $500,000 and Solutions present theirs of $100,000. Following a study of the offers, the arbitrator would decide on the one that, in their opinion, is the most reasonable without making any changes (Domke et al., 2022). The total compensation that Solutions would have to give to Galactic would be this sum. Final Offer Arbitration has the benefits of encouraging parties to submit acceptable proposals and being a reasonably speedy and economical method of dispute resolution.

In conclusion, the case of Galactic and Solutions is an example of the complexities that may arise from commercial contracts and how they can be addressed. The breakdown of negotiations between the two companies has brought about strained relations and losses on both sides. Through the use of alternative dispute resolution models, the parties can reach a mutually beneficial agreement outside of the courtroom. Going forward, the CEO of Galactic should take into consideration the suggestions put out to determine a valid course of action.


Cimino, C. F. (2015). The relational economics of commercial contract. Tex. A&M L. Rev.3, 91.

Domke M., Wilner G., and Edmonson E.L. (2022). Domke on Commercial Arbitration

Mulheron, R. (2016). Principles of tort law. Cambridge University Press.

Public Law. (n.d). Practical Law articles on Damages for Breach in Commercial Contracts

Public Law. (n.d). Risk Allocation in Commercial Contracts.

Exploring The Multifaceted Role Of Body Language In Human Interaction Free Sample

Body language and nonverbal communication play a critical role in human interaction. The exchange of ideas, emotions, and attitudes between individuals often manifests in physical cues such as posture, facial expressions, gestures, and movement. While often overlooked in favor of spoken or written language, nonverbal communication is equally potent and can convey as much or even more information than words. The article under review provides an in-depth analysis of an instance where body language was the primary means of communication between three participants at a party in 1991. The author describes the setting, the participants, and the social and cultural context to enable a careful interpretation of the nonverbal exchange.

The importance of cultural mediation in nonverbal communication cannot be underestimated. Different cultures imbue simple gestures or expressions with distinct meanings, which may lead to misinterpretation or confusion. In this instance, the article highlights how each participant’s actions communicate meaning based on their cultural background. For example, Mary and Joe’s intimate posturing could be interpreted as contributing to the Latin-style closeness that may be expected at such a party. However, what this means may differ significantly in another cultural context (Fasold et al., 2006). Therefore, it is critical to consider cultural aspects when interpreting nonverbal communication.

The similarities between nonverbal communication between humans and animals are also noteworthy. Animals exhibit physical cues similar to humans, making it possible to decipher intent or meaning. The article illustrates the point by using Mary’s chest-thrusting as an example of a primitive instinct to advertise sexual availability. This gesture might be positively received by males as a mating signal, a reaction consistent with the behavior of certain animals in the wild (Fasold et al., 2006). Similarly, Joe’s chest-puffing could also point to competitive display or dominance, which are uncommon in the animal kingdom.

The influence of cultural stereotypes on nonverbal communication is also evident. Some gestures, facial expressions, and postures do not necessarily indicate an individual’s thoughts or feelings but rather reflect tendencies expected based on the cultural milieu. The author underlines this point in the piece when they discuss how Jack distances himself from the conversation between Mary and Joe. Such behavior is a typical response to being a third wheel, reflecting his awareness of social norms and recognition that he is in the way of a budding romance (Fasold et al., 2006). Considering the context when interpreting nonverbal communication is crucial, as actions may result from pre-existing cultural norms rather than individual expression.

While interpreting body language is not an exact science, the author’s analysis provides some interesting insights. The author primarily focuses on each participant’s posture, gestures, and the meaning behind such physical expressions to provide a window into their hidden perceptions and attitudes. Some participants may not be actively aware of the meaning communicated through their physical expressions, and there may be some variance in interpretation.

Lastly, this exchange provides valuable insight into the culture and broader experiences specific to the time and environment. For instance, Mary’s chest-thrusting could suggest an adherence to traditional gender norms and embody the essential idea of femininity. Similarly, Joe’s chest puffing could reflect the desire for an idealized form of masculinity that plays to social expectations (Fasold et al., 2006). The analysis of the nonverbal communication observed in the piece reveals the touchpoint of different cultural aspects, such as adherence to social norms, traditional gender roles, and male-female sexual dynamics.

In conclusion, the article effectively shows the depths of meaning in nonverbal communication. The piece describes how people use spoken words to convey meaning and how crucial subtle body language is in communication. Understanding the cultural underpinnings of these gestures also aids in deciphering the significance of the communication accurately. Overall, the piece provides an insightful commentary on the use of nonverbal communication, which reflects society’s cultural values and beliefs.


Fasold, Ralph, and Jeffrey Connor-Linton. An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. Cambridge University Press, 2006.