This report comprehensively overviews the United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS). The report critically examines the UK’s health and healthcare provisions, exploring the NHS’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as the challenges it faces in the present day. The organization of healthcare and payment systems, as well as how finite resources are distributed within the UK health sector, are also examined in the paper. The research also examines the positive and negative effects of the health economic techniques utilized on the health outcomes for the entire UK population. The report concludes that the NHS is a vital and valuable service that requires continued investment and improvement to ensure high-quality healthcare for all citizens of the UK. The report suggests potential solutions to the issues that the NHS faces, including a lack of funding, staff shortage, and integration, to ensure that the NHS can continue to provide high-quality healthcare for all citizens of the UK.
Keywords: Health, NHS, health economy, payment systems, UK, health insurance, health outcomes, healthcare, scarce resources, healthcare system.
The National Health Service (NHS) of the UK is a publicly financed healthcare system that offers free medical care to all residents of the country (Maguire, 2020). Almost 66 million people in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are served by the NHS, one of the biggest and most complicated healthcare systems in the world (Guest et al., 2020). Health Boards in England, local health groups in Wales, and Primary Care Partnerships in Northern Ireland are in charge of national healthcare procurement. Despite this, 12% of the population purchases private health insurance in addition to their public plan (Buswell, 2022). Almost 58 million individuals who are permanent residents of the UK have access to free, universal healthcare (Talks et al., 2022). Medical care is free for the patient since everyone pays for it. The average healthcare tax paid by residents is 4.5%, or approximately 18% of their income (Sheikh et al., 2021).
In order to critically assess the UK’s health and healthcare systems, this research will look at how the country’s health economy allocates its limited resources, including how the country’s healthcare and payment systems are set up. The study will also consider the good and negative effects that various health economic methods have had on the health of the entire UK population. The report will take into account the NHS’s advantages and disadvantages, how resources are distributed within the health economy, and how health economic policies affect the health outcomes of the UK population. The report’s overall goal is to give a thorough overview of the NHS in the UK, identifying its successes and problems while also outlining potential remedies.
2.0 Critical Examination of the Health and Healthcare Provisions of the UK
The healthcare system of the UK is widely regarded as being among the very best in all of the countries of the globe. Every individual who resides in the UK is eligible to get medical treatment through the NHS, which is a healthcare system that is publicly financed (Guest et al., 2020). Since its inception in 1948, the NHS has been an essential element of the welfare state in the UK (Sheikh et al., 2021). With a budget of over 124 billion pounds in 2020-2021, the NHS is one of the world’s largest and most complicated healthcare systems (Buswell, 2022). The healthcare system in the UK is something that many people in the nation take great pride in, and it is frequently regarded as a representation of the country’s ideals and dedication to social justice.
2.1 Provision of services
The NHS provides a wide range of services, with primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care being just a few of them (Maguire, 2020). When individuals are concerned about their health, their primary care physician (also known as a general practitioner or GP) is the first person they see (Talks et al., 2022). Primary care services are distributed by general practitioners (Sheikh et al., 2021). Hospitals and other specialized healthcare providers give secondary care services, including emergency treatment, surgical care, and specialist care (Papanicolas et al., 2019). These services may also be referred to as “tertiary care.” Services for patients with complicated or chronic conditions are given by professionals and are referred to as tertiary care (Buswell, 2022). In addition, the NHS offers services in public health, community health, and mental health.
General taxes and contributions to National Insurance fund the NHS (Sheikh et al., 2021). The government decides the total budget for the NHS, as is the amount of funding allotted to the various services and geographic areas (Majeed et al., 2020). The NHS is subject to further oversight from a variety of administrations, for instance, the Care Quality Commission (CQC) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (Buswell, 2022). The CQC regulates and inspects healthcare services, while the National Institute for NICE offers advice on making the most use of available medications and treatments.
2.3 Contextualization of the Past
Historically, the UK’s church and other philanthropic organizations provided a significant portion of the nation’s healthcare (Papanicolas et al., 2019). Hospitals were initially founded in large towns such as London and Bristol in the 1500s, primarily providing medical treatment to the needy and the ill (Maguire, 2020). These early hospitals were frequently unsanitary and overcrowded, and the medical treatment available consisted of only the most fundamental procedures, such as bloodletting and purging (Majeed et al., 2020). The beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s coincided with a rise in population as well as an increase in urbanization (Buswell, 2022). This resulted in overcrowding as well as poor living conditions, both of which contributed to an increase in the incidence of infectious diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis.
In the 1800s, the government started playing a more active role in ensuring people had access to medical treatment. The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 established a system of workhouses for the underprivileged, including the provision of fundamental medical treatment (Buswell, 2022). However, this method was roundly condemned for its lack of medical knowledge and brutal working conditions for the prisoners (Rodrigues and Plotkin, 2020). The Public Health Act was enacted in 1848, and its passage led to the formation of a network of municipal boards of health and gave those boards the authority to deal with matters such as disease prevention and cleanliness (Ince et al., 2022). This act is recognized as the formal start of the administration’s attempts to improve the health of the general people in the UK. In the early decades of the 20th century, the UK witnessed considerable advancements in healthcare delivery (Fahy et al., 2017). The National Insurance Act of 1911 formed a system of health insurance for working-class residents, which granted them access to medical treatment and financial support if they were unable to work due to a sickness or accident (Bloom, 2019). In 1948, the NHS was formed to offer free medical treatment to all people of the UK, irrespective of their level of wealth or social standing (Ince et al., 2022). The NHS was an impressive feat that marked a substantial step toward achieving universal healthcare coverage (Ghafur et al., 2019).
The current healthcare system in the UK is rather intricate since it integrates aspects of both publicly financed universal healthcare and the provision of private healthcare services (Papanicolas et al., 2019). The NHS is the principal healthcare provider in the nation. It provides a comprehensive variety of services, such as primary care, hospital care, and mental health services. The NHS is reinforced by general taxation and payments to National Insurance (Buswell, 2022). Despite its many accomplishments, the NHS continues to struggle with financial restrictions, staffing shortages, and lengthy wait periods for some procedures.
Accessibility is seen as one of the most important advantages of the NHS. The NHS provides medical care to all residents of the UK, regardless of whether they can pay for it (Ince et al., 2022). Some members of the population, including pregnant children and pregnant women, are eligible for free medical treatment thanks to the NHS (Fahy et al., 2017). The NHS places significant importance on primary care, which is important in ensuring that patients receive the appropriate care at the appropriate time (Papanicolas et al., 2019). General practitioners are responsible for providing continuity of care (Miles et al., 2021), which means that they are responsible for their patient’s overall care, including referring them to specialists when necessary (Majeed et al., 2020). This responsibility includes making sure that their patients receive timely and appropriate treatment.
The NHS’s attention to public health is another one of its many strengths. The NHS significantly emphasizes disease prevention and health promotion (Ince et al., 2022). The government has made significant investments in programs aimed at improving public health, including campaigns to encourage healthy diet and regular physical activity (Buswell, 2022). The NHS also offers a wide variety of public health services, including immunization programs and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles, amongst other things.
The NHS also significantly emphasizes research and new product development (Bloom, 2019). The research community working in the field of healthcare in the UK is well-regarded across the globe, and the NHS has made significant investments in research and development (Ince et al., 2022). The NHS has also been at the forefront of inventing new treatments and technology. Some examples include the implementation of telemedicine and creating of novel medications (Fahy et al., 2017).
The NHS has a lot of shortcomings in addition to its many virtues. Lack of funds is a primary issue plaguing the NHS (Ince et al., 2022). Because of years of inadequate funding, the NHS is currently suffering from a scarcity of personnel and resources. This has resulted in extended wait times for certain procedures like surgery and has also contributed to a lack of beds in hospitals nationwide (McCartney et al., 2019).
Another of the NHS’s many flaws is that it is poorly integrated. The NHS comprises several distinct services, and the coordination between these services is not always strong (Ghafur et al., 2019). Because of this, patients could be transferred between different services without receiving the appropriate care at the appropriate time as a result (Ince et al., 2022). As a result of the NHS’s poor integration with social care services, patients may be released from the hospital before they are physically or mentally prepared to do so.
The NHS also suffers from a staffing crisis, notably in certain fields like nursing and primary care. Because of the scarcity of workers, the duties of the remaining employees may have to be increased, which can lead to burnout and attrition among employees (Papanicolas et al., 2019). Because fewer staff members are devoted to the patient’s requirements, this also affects the quality of care they receive.
One of the shortcomings of the NHS is that patients do not have many options to choose from (Majeed et al., 2020). Because the NHS is a centralized system, patients are frequently not allowed to choose which hospital to go to or which physician to see (Guest et al., 2020). Many patients suffering from chronic diseases requiring specialist care might find this situation challenging. Lastly, an aging population is a big obstacle for the NHS. The need for medical care in the UK is expected to rise in the coming years as the population ages (Papanicolas et al., 2019). Because elderly individuals typically have more complicated health demands than younger people, this will place an additional load on the NHS.
In addition to the NHS, the UK also has a private healthcare industry, which offers supplementary medical services to those in a financial position to pay for them (McCartney et al., 2019). The regime’s efforts to enhance the general public’s health in the UK are officially recognized to have begun with this legislation (Guest et al., 2020). The Care Quality Commission is in charge of policing the private medical industry to ensure that all its service providers adhere to acceptable levels of quality and safety (Miles et al., 2021).
Beginning in the early 1500s, the UK has had a long tradition of supplying its population with medical treatment throughout its history (McCartney et al., 2019). The delivery of medical treatment has undergone tremendous change throughout history and remains an issue that is the subject of continuing discussion and reform (Rodrigues and Plotkin, 2020). The NHS is the principal healthcare provider in the nation. It provides various services, for example, primary care, hospital care, and mental health services (Papanicolas et al., 2019). Despite its many accomplishments, the NHS continues to struggle with financial restrictions, staffing shortages, and lengthy wait periods for some procedures (Majeed et al., 2020). In addition, the private healthcare sector offers extra medical treatments to individuals who are financially able to pay for them.
Since the 1500s, the provision of healthcare in the UK has made significant strides, yet ongoing difficulties always need to be addressed (Rodrigues and Plotkin, 2020). The NHS is a vast and complicated institution seeing increased demand for its services. As a result, there have been calls for change to the system’s financing and administration (Guest et al., 2020). In addition, there is a severe lack of staff, which results in lengthy wait periods for specific treatments. This is one of the primary difficulties that have to be solved. Additional medical treatments are made available to people with the financial means to pay for them through the private healthcare industry (Ghafur et al., 2019). In general, the provision of healthcare in the UK is a problem that requires ongoing attention and development to fulfill the expectations of the inhabitants and stay up with the always-advancing medical technology (Majeed et al., 2020).
3.0 Examination of the UK Health Economy’s Organizational and Payment Structures and the Distribution of Its Inadequate Resources
The distribution of resources within the healthcare economy of the UK is a process that is intricate and multi-faceted, including some distinct organizations and payment methods (Majeed et al., 2020). The NHS is the primary body accountable for the distribution of resources within the health sector (Maguire, 2020). It receives its funding from general taxes and payments to National Insurance.
The NHS is structured with many tiers of treatment, the most common of which are primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care (Lange and Vollmer, 2017). When people are concerned about their health, the first person they see is a primary care physician, often known as a general practitioner (GP). Primary care is the initial level of medical treatment (Guest et al., 2020). Hospitals and other specialized healthcare providers offer secondary care services, which are provided in a hospital setting and include emergency treatment, surgical care, and specialty care (Papanicolas et al., 2019). Services for patients with complicated or long-term conditions are provided by professionals and are referred to as tertiary care.
The NHS allocates its resources according to various considerations, the most important of which is the total budget for the NHS and the particular requirements of the various areas and populations (Talks et al., 2022). The government decides the total budget for the NHS, as is the amount of funding allotted to the various services and geographic areas (Guest et al., 2020). The NHS is subject to further oversight from a variety of administrations, such as the Care Quality Commission (CQC) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE (Ince et al., 2022)). The CQC is in charge of regulating and inspecting healthcare services, while the NICE offers advice on making the most use of available medications and treatments.
The utilization of various payment systems is among the most important means by which the NHS (NHS) distributes its resources. The Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) system is the payment method utilized most of the time within the NHS (Talks et al., 2022). This technique is used to distribute resources to various areas and populations depending on a variety of criteria, such as the size of the population, the density of the population, and the specific requirements of each community in terms of their health (Majeed et al., 2020). The RAWP method was developed to guarantee that resources are distributed fairly and equitably across the nation (Fahy et al., 2017).
The Payment by Results, or PbR, system is another payment utilized inside the NHS (Miles et al., 2021). This is a method for compensating medical professionals that takes into account both the number of people they see and the kinds of services they render (Guest et al., 2020). The goal of implementing this system is to incentivize healthcare professionals to improve their level of productivity and bring down overall expenses.
The NHS also uses various payment methods for individual types of care, such as mental health treatments and community health services (Talks et al., 2022). For instance, the NHS does resource allocation for mental health care using a system called the Mental Health Minimum Data Set (MHMDS) (Sigfrid et al., 2021). This is a method for compensating medical professionals that takes into account both the number of patients they see and the treatments they provide to those patients who have a mental illness.
The NHS is not the only body that is active in the distribution of resources within the health economy; other organizations do as well (Talks et al., 2022). As an illustration, private healthcare providers also have a part to play in resource distribution. It is common practice for private healthcare providers to be compensated on a fee-for-service basis, and they are not required to comply with the same rules or undergo the same levels of monitoring as the NHS (Guest et al., 2020). The NHS and private healthcare providers are not mandated to use identical payment methods, and instead, private healthcare providers are often compensated on an individual patient basis.
The pharmaceutical business is another entity that plays a role in the allocation of resources within the context of the health economy (Papanicolas et al., 2019). In addition to being in charge of the design and production of pharmaceuticals, the pharmaceutical industry is also an essential cog in the machinery that drives the distribution of resources within the healthcare economy (Ince et al., 2022). The pharmaceutical sector is often compensated on a fee-for-service basis and is not subject to the same laws and control as the NHS. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry is not subject to government subsidies.
In conclusion, allocating resources within the health economy of the UK is intricate and multi-faceted, including several different institutions and payment systems (Talks et al., 2022). The NHS is the primary body accountable for the distribution of resources within the health sector (Guest et al., 2020). It receives its funding from general taxes and payments to National Insurance. Combining several payment methods, such as the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) and Payment by Results (PbR) systems, for example (Maguire, 2020). These systems are intended to incentivize healthcare providers to be more efficient, save costs, and guarantee that resources are distributed fairly and evenly across the country.
However, the distribution of resources within the healthcare industry is fraught with difficulties of varying degrees (Sigfrid et al., 2021). Finding a happy medium between the need for high-quality medical treatment and the imperative to keep expenses under control is one of the most difficult tasks. The NHS is under growing pressure to reduce costs (Majeed et al., 2020), which has the potential to result in a decrease in the quality of treatment that patients get (Buswell, 2022).
A further obstacle is the necessity of ensuring that resources are distributed properly and evenly across a variety of geographical areas and people (Guest et al., 2020). The NHS places a significant emphasis on primary care, which plays an important role in ensuring that patients receive the appropriate care at the appropriate time. Nevertheless, certain geographic areas and populations have a greater demand for healthcare services than others; thus, this can contribute to a difference in the quality of treatment that patients get from various providers (Papanicolas et al., 2019).
In conclusion, the continual evolution of medical technology and treatment methods has an impact on the distribution of resources within the health industry and the economy as a whole (Ghafur et al., 2019). The NHS is under added pressure to keep expenditures under control as a result of the high cost of new technology and medical treatments (Guest et al., 2020). Therefore, allocating resources within the health economy of the UK is intricate and multi-faceted, including several different institutions and payment systems (McCartney et al., 2019). The NHS is the primary body accountable for the distribution of resources within the health sector (Guest et al., 2020). In order to guarantee that these resources are distributed fairly and equally across the country, the NHS utilizes a variety of distinct payment methods (Maguire, 2020). Nevertheless, the distribution of resources within the health economy is not without its difficulties, and there is a need to strike a balance between the requirement for high-quality medical treatment and the requirement to keep expenses under control (Majeed et al., 2020). The NHS must continue to receive financial support from the government to maintain its capacity to deliver comprehensive, high-quality medical treatment to all residents of the UK.
4.0 Investigating the Positive and Negative Effects of Health Economic Initiatives on Population Health Consequences
The distribution of resources within the health economy of the UK is a complicated and multi-faceted process that has the potential to have both good and negative effects on the health outcomes of the entire population (Guest et al., 2020). Health economic techniques are utilized to guarantee that resources are distributed fairly and equitably across a variety of locations and populations (Majeed et al., 2020) and encourage healthcare providers to be more efficient and minimize costs; health economic techniques are utilized (McCartney et al., 2019).
One of the most important advantages of adopting a health economics perspective is the contribution it makes toward ensuring that available resources are distributed justly and equitably across various geographical areas and demographic groups (Fahy et al., 2017). The Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) system, for instance, is utilized to allocate resources to various regions and populations based on some factors, such as the size of the population, the density of the population, and the specific requirements of each population in terms of their health (Buswell, 2022). This helps to guarantee that resources are distributed fairly and equitably and that all areas and people have access to high-quality healthcare.
Another advantageous effect of health economic techniques is the potential to contribute to cost reduction (Majeed et al., 2020). For instance, the Payment by Results (PbR) method is used to compensate healthcare professionals based on the number of people they treat as well as the services they offer (Ince et al., 2022). The goal of implementing this system is to incentivize healthcare professionals to improve their level of productivity and bring down overall expenses (Guest et al., 2020). This can assist in guaranteeing that the NHS has the resources it requires to provide inhabitants of the UK with high-quality healthcare accessible to everyone.
The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one of the primary health economic methodologies employed in the UK (Buswell, 2022). CBA is employed to assess the costs and benefits of various healthcare interventions, with the end goal of identifying those interventions that are the most cost-effective. Because it helps to guarantee that resources are allocated to activities that deliver the most benefit to patients, CBA is a beneficial tool for the NHS (Talks et al., 2022).
The cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)is yet another health economics method utilized in the UK (Guest et al., 2020). CEA is utilized to analyze the prices of various healthcare interventions, as well as their levels of efficacy, with the end goal of determining which therapies are the most cost-effective. CEA is a helpful tool for the NHS since it helps to ensure that resources are directed to activities that deliver the most value to patients (Lange and Vollmer, 2017).
Within the context of the health economy, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, generally known as NICE, plays a significant part in the distribution of available resources (McCartney et al., 2019). The NICE gives guidelines on the use of pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, and it also helps to ensure that resources are devoted to programs that are going to be of the most value to patients (Ince et al., 2022).
On the other hand, health economic initiatives may potentially have unintended consequences on the overall health of the population as a whole. One of the most significant adverse effects is the possibility that they may result in a decline in the level of medical treatment provided to patients. The NHS is under growing pressure to reduce costs, which has the potential to result in a decrease in the quality of treatment that patients get (Buswell, 2022). Many patients suffering from chronic diseases requiring specialist care might find this situation challenging.
Another unfavorable effect that health economic methods might have is that they can result in a variation in the level of treatment that patients get from one facility to another (McCartney et al., 2019). Some geographic areas and demographics have a greater demand for medical services than others, which can contribute to a difference in the quality of treatment that patients get in those locations and groups (Fahy et al., 2017). This may be particularly challenging for patients who reside in places with a high demand for medical services, such as the more densely populated parts of inner cities or rural areas.
In conclusion, health economic techniques are susceptible to change as a result of continual developments in medical technology and treatment methods (McCartney et al., 2019). The NHS is under added pressure to keep expenditures under control as a result of the high cost of new technology and medical treatments (Talks et al., 2022). Because of this, the NHS might not be able to finance the most cutting-edge technology and medical treatments, which could decrease the quality of care that patients get.
In conclusion, using health economic concepts may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the overall health outcomes for a community as a whole. They have the potential to contribute to the reduction of expenses and the fair and equitable distribution of resources across various geographical areas and populations (Talks et al., 2022). On the other hand, they can also result in a decrease in the quality of care that patients get, a discrepancy in the quality of care that patients receive, and a reduction in the quality of care that patients receive as a result of the constant advances in technology and medical treatments (Buswell, 2022). Continued investment in the National Health Service (NHS) is required by the government to ensure that it will be able to provide high-quality medical care to every resident of the United Kingdom (UK), as well as to guarantee that the health economic strategies will not have a negative impact on the health consequences for the population. Both of these guarantees are necessary in order to meet the requirements of the government.
In conclusion, the NHS of the UK is a healthcare system that is publicly supported and offers people of the UK access to healthcare for themselves and their families. The NHS possesses a variety of qualities, the most notable of which are its accessibility, emphasis on primary care and public health, and concentration on research and innovation (Ince et al., 2022). However, the NHS suffers from a variety of flaws, the most notable of which are a scarcity of staff, inadequate financing, inadequate integration, and an absence of patient options. The NHS likewise sees severe difficulties as a result of an aging population (McCartney et al., 2019).
The distribution of resources within the healthcare economy of the UK is a process that is intricate and multi-faceted, including a number of distinct organizations and payment methods (Miles et al., 2021). The NHS is the primary body accountable for the distribution of resources within the health sector. In order to guarantee that these resources are distributed fairly and equally across the country, the NHS utilizes a variety of distinct payment methods (Guest et al., 2020). Nevertheless, the distribution of resources within the health economy is not without its difficulties, and there is a need to strike a balance between the requirement for high-quality medical treatment and the requirement to keep expenses under control (Lange and Vollmer, 2017).
The health economic methodologies that are utilized in the UK, such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), have a considerable influence on the health outcomes for the entirety of the population (Ince et al., 2022). These approaches help to ensure that resources are distributed effectively and efficiently; however, they also have some negative impacts, such as a reduction in the quality of care that patients receive, a reduction in the choice of treatments that are available to patients, and a disparity in the quality of care that patients receive across different regions and population groups (Miles et al., 2021).
Overall, it is abundantly evident that the NHS is an essential and useful service highly valued by the people of the UK (McCartney et al., 2019). However, it is also obvious that some obstacles need to be overcome before the NHS can continue providing high-quality healthcare to all people who live in the UK. In order to ensure that the NHS can continue providing high-quality healthcare for all of the UK’s residents, the government must continue to invest in the NHS and address the problems that have been identified (Talks et al., 2022). These problems include a lack of funding, a shortage of staff, and a lack of integration.
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Using Climate Data To Inform Decision-Making Essay Example For College
Climate change has become an increasingly pressing issue, with the impacts of global warming and extreme weather events being felt worldwide. This has been especially evident in the City of Toronto, where two significant intense rainfall events in the past decade have resulted in extensive flooding of public infrastructure, causing damage to transportation assets and delaying and disrupting transit services. This has raised concerns among the general public, elected officials, and members of the senior management team across Transit agencies, as they are confronted with the vulnerability of transit infrastructure to current extreme weather events and potential future risks that may materialize with climate change.
In response to these growing concerns, a Climate Risk Task Force (CRTF) was created with the support of all levels/groups of Government, with a mandate to assess the state of knowledge regarding the current and future flood risk to public infrastructure and to recommend cost-effective adaptation and resilience measures. The team of researchers is tasked with providing expert judgment regarding future intense rainfall events that could occur with climate change and preparing a briefing note, PowerPoint Deck, and in-person presentation for the CRTF’s next meeting. As the leader of the CRTF’s research team, I aim to provide an accurate assessment of the flood risk to key transit infrastructure assets to identify and mitigate any potential risks and ensure the safety of transit customers and employees.
Details about the two rainfalls
The two major rainfall events that the City of Toronto has experienced in the past decade occurred in July 2013 and August 2018, respectively (Briley et al., 2023). The July 2013 rainfall event was characterized by intense thunderstorms that caused over 200mm of rainfall in a single day, leading to flooding of local infrastructure and disruption of transit services(Girvetz et al., 2019). The August 2018 rainfall event was even more intense, with over 300mm of rainfall in a single day, causing more extensive flooding and damage to transportation assets.
Both were considered extreme events, as their intensities far exceeded the historical 1-50 year rainfall event based on the 1986-2005 baseline. This was demonstrated by the fact that the intensities of the storms were more than quadruple the average rainfall in Toronto for July and August, respectively (Wratt et al., 2019). Furthermore, the rainfall depths and durations of the storms were much higher than what would normally be expected, leading to significant flooding and disruption of transit services. These events indicate the increasing intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events that are expected to occur due to climate change (Del Corral et al., 2020).
Affirmation or denial of the potential for future weather catastrophes like these
Based on the data collected from Environment and Climate Change Canada, projections of future IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) statistics from two reputable climate change data portals (MTO/University of Waterloo and Western University), and examples of best practices for stormwater management system design from the City of Thunder Bay, the City of Barrie, and the Town of Markham, Ontario, it is clear that there is a strong likelihood of comparable (or even more severe) weather events occurring in the future(Girvetz et al., 2019).
Environment and Climate Change Canada data shows that intense and frequent extreme rainfall events are increasing in the City of Toronto and across Canada. The projections of future IDF statistics from the two climate change data portals demonstrate that the historical 1-50 year rainfall event based on the 1986-2005 baseline is likely to become a 1-20 year event by 2050 and almost a 1-10 year event by the end of this century (Wratt et al., 2019). This indicates that extreme rainfall events may become much more frequent in the future, with an average of one event every 10, 20, or 50 years, depending on the climate change scenario.
Furthermore, the best practices for stormwater management system design provided by the City of Thunder Bay, the City of Barrie, and the Town of Markham, Ontario, demonstrate that municipalities are already taking steps to prepare for the increased frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events. These practices include the installation of stormwater retention ponds, rain gardens, and other green infrastructure designed to capture and manage stormwater runoff (Del Corral et al., 2020). These practices are expected to become increasingly important in the future, as they will help to mitigate the impacts of more frequent and intense extreme rainfall events.
In addition to the data and best practices mentioned above, evidence from the 2015 Paris Agreement supports the view that heavy rainfall events and flood conditions could occur more often in the future. Under the Agreement, signatories committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions to limit global warming to 2°C (Briley et al., 2023). However, due to a lack of progress in meeting these commitments, the global mean temperature is projected to increase by 2.2°C by 2100 and even higher if emissions continue to increase unabated. This means that extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall and flooding, will likely become even more common in the future (Del Corral et al., 2020). The evidence indicates that heavy rainfall events and flood conditions could occur more often due to climate change. The data from Environment and Climate Change Canada, projections of future IDF statistics, and best practices for stormwater management systems all point to increased frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events.
How projections of key rainfall events differ among IDF data portals and between climate change scenarios
Projections of key rainfall events differ among IDF data portals and between climate change scenarios due to the various methods used to generate the data and the assumptions made about future climate conditions (Brönnimann & Wintzer, 2019). The IDF data portals used by the CRTF team, the MTO/University of Waterloo portal, and the Western University portal use different methods to generate their data. The MTO/University of Waterloo portal uses a statistical modeling approach to generate its projections, while the Western University portal uses a physically-based modeling approach (Girvetz et al., 2019). The two portals also make different assumptions about future climate conditions, such as the intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events.
Furthermore, the projections of key rainfall events differ between climate change scenarios. For example, the RCP8.5 climate change scenario predicts that the historical 1-50 year rainfall event (based on the 1986-2005 baseline) could become a 1-20 year event by 2050 and almost a 1-10 year event by the end of this century. On the other hand, the RCP4.5 scenario predicts that the 1-50 year rainfall event will remain the same by 2050 and only increase slightly to a 1-30 year event by the end of the century (Wratt et al., 2019). These differences in projections among IDF data portals and between climate change scenarios are due to the various assumptions made about future climate conditions. The projections are also based on the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere, which is also different between the two scenarios. Therefore, it is important to consider the assumptions and methods used when interpreting the projections of key rainfall events among IDF data portals and between climate change scenarios (Del Corral et al., 2020).
How specific storm events are projected and compared to become more frequent under the worst-case high emissions scenario.
The RCP8.5 climate change scenario, which is considered the worst-case high emissions scenario, predicts that the historical 1-50 year rainfall event (based on the 1986-2005 baseline) could become a 1-20 year event by 2050 and almost a 1-10 year event by the end of this century (Daly et al., 2022). This means that extreme rainfall events, such as the two major rainfall events experienced in the City of Toronto in the past decade, could become much more frequent in the future(Brönnimann & Wintzer, 2019). The intensities of the two rainfall events, as well as the rainfall depths and durations, were much higher than what would normally be expected. This demonstrates that the events were extreme, and their intensities far exceeded the historical 1-50 year rainfall event based on the 1986-2005 baseline (Briley et al., 2023).
Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the frequency of such extreme events is expected to increase significantly. This scenario predicts that the historical 1-50 year event could become a 1-20 year event by 2050 and almost a 1-10 year event by the end of this century (Girvetz et al., 2019). This indicates that such extreme events could occur on average once every 10, 20, or 50 years, depending on the climate change scenario. The increased frequency of extreme rainfall events represents a major risk to public infrastructure and transit services, as these events can cause significant disruption and damage. Therefore, it is important to consider adaptation and resilience measures to mitigate the impacts of extreme rainfall events in the future.
Projections are the most plausible, given the methodology adopted.
The projections of future IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) statistics from the MTO/University of Waterloo and Western University data portals are the most plausible, given the methods used. The MTO/University of Waterloo portal uses a statistical modeling approach to generate its projections, while the Western University portal uses a physically-based modeling approach (Briley et al., 2023). These two methods have been developed to more accurately represent the conditions of extreme rainfall events and account for various factors, such as the intensity, duration, and frequency of storms (Wratt et al., 2019).
The two portals also make different assumptions about future climate conditions, such as the intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events. The MTO/University of Waterloo portal assumes that climate change will increase extreme rainfall events. In contrast, the Western University portal assumes that climate change will decrease extreme rainfall events (Girvetz et al., 2019). This means that the projections of future IDF statistics from the two portals can be used to compare different climate change scenarios and determine which is more likely.
The projections of key rainfall events also differ between climate change scenarios. The RCP8.5 climate change scenario, for example, predicts that the historical 1-50 year rainfall event (based on the 1986-2005 baseline) could become a 1-20 year event by 2050 and almost a 1-10 year event by the end of this century(Hamilton et al., 2022). On the other hand, the RCP4.5 scenario predicts that the 1-50 year rainfall event will remain the same by 2050 and only increase slightly to a 1-30 year event by the end of the century (Girvetz et al., 2019). This means that the RCP8.5 scenario is more likely to result in more frequent extreme rainfall events and is, therefore, the most plausible given the methodology adopted.
How do these projections compare to expressing future rainfall based on temperature scaling?
The projections of future IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) statistics from the MTO/University of Waterloo and Western University data portals are based on the assumption that increased temperatures due to climate change will lead to increased intensity, duration, and frequency of extreme rainfall events(Hamilton et al., 2022). This is in contrast to expressing future rainfall based on temperature scaling, which assumes that increased temperatures will lead to decreased rainfall intensity.
However, it is important to note that projections of future IDF statistics are more reliable than expressing future rainfall based on temperature scaling, as the former is based on more detailed data and assumptions about future climate conditions. The projections from the two portals also consider other factors, such as storm intensity, duration, and frequency (Wratt et al., 2019). Furthermore, the projections of key rainfall events also differ between climate change scenarios, which needs to be considered when expressing future rainfall based on temperature scaling.
How the three municipalities across Ontario addressed uncertainty and increases in precipitation, as outlined in their respective stormwater management system guidelines.
The City of Thunder Bay addressed uncertainty and increases in precipitation by developing a Stormwater Management Plan that focuses on flooding prevention, protection, and mitigation. The plan includes various best practices, such as using green infrastructure, integrated catchment management, and stormwater management ponds(Briley et al., 2023). The plan also includes monitoring, modeling, and modelling improvements to better understand and address the impacts of climate change on extreme rainfall events.
The City of Barrie addressed the uncertainty and increases in precipitation by establishing a Stormwater Master Plan (Daly et al., 2022). The plan includes a comprehensive review of existing infrastructure, stormwater management guidelines, and climate change impacts. It also outlines criteria for a stormwater management system design, including green infrastructure, integrated catchment management, and ponds (Wratt et al., 2019).
The Town of Markham addressed the uncertainty and increases in precipitation by comparing the IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) relationships generated from the data collected at the Bloor Street gauge with those generated from the data collected at the more proximate Buttonville Airport gauge. The comparison found that the City’s short-duration design intensities based on the Bloor Street gauge are up to 30% above existing Buttonville intensities. The City’s daily average design intensity is 15% above existing intensities (Girvetz et al., 2019). This indicates that the City’s current IDF standards maintain a “buffer” above current climate intensities that are in line with predicted impacts in several Ontario studies, and hence will continue to maintain the use of the Bloor Street gauge to reflect and consider climate change requirements in the short-term.
The key adaptation measure to inform stormwater management system operations, maintenance practices, and design standards, based upon historical data, future projections, and best practices that the Task Force should consider
Green infrastructure and integrated catchment management should both be accounted for in the strategy. Green infrastructure has been proven to be an efficient method of stormwater management due to its ability to slow down the flow rate and absorb and store rainwater. Garden rainwater catchment systems, green roofs, permeable pavements, and various plant life forms are all green infrastructure. Guidelines for stormwater management and criteria for the design of a stormwater management system should be included in the plan. Criteria like these should be adapted to the local climate and conditions and consider the storms’ severity, duration, and frequency. The plan should include a strategy for regularly reviewing and revising the design criteria in light of new information about the environment, such as the increased intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events (Del Corral et al., 2020). Provisions for public interaction and education should round out the proposal. Awareness and comprehension of climate change implications can only be achieved by widespread public participation and education. Involving and educating the public can also guarantee the plan’s successful execution and the participation of all necessary parties.
The City should develop a monitoring and reporting system to track progress on implementing the stormwater management plan. The system should include performance metrics that measure the plan’s effectiveness in addressing the impacts of climate change on stormwater management and the success of public engagement and education efforts. The monitoring and reporting system should be regularly reviewed and updated to ensure that the plan remains effective and relevant. The system should also include provisions for conducting further analysis to better understand the impacts of climate change and the plan’s effectiveness. The City should also consider developing an online platform, such as a website or app, to enable the public to access and track the plan’s progress. This would enable the public to easily access information on the plan and its implementation and provide feedback or comments on the plan.
In conclusion, the City of Toronto should develop a stormwater management plan considering the projected increases in extreme rainfall events due to climate change. The plan should include provisions for integrated catchment management, the use of green infrastructure, and stormwater management ponds. It should also include guidelines for stormwater management, criteria for a stormwater management system design, and provisions for public engagement and education. The City should also develop a monitoring and reporting system to track progress on the plan’s implementation and an online platform for public access and feedback. Further analysis may be required to better understand the impacts of climate change and the plan’s effectiveness.
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Brönnimann, S., & Wintzer, J. (2019). Climate data empathy. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 10(2), e559.
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Hamilton, J. M., & Lau, M. A. Hamilton, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2022). The role of climate information in tourist destination choice decision making. In Tourism and global environmental change (pp. 243–264). Routledge.
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Concept Of Personality Sample College Essay
Psychologists have emphasized the need to identify one’s personality as one determines career choices and personal preferences. Knowing one’s personality also aids in identifying one’s abilities to manage behavior, as well as their strengths and shortcomings. A person’s personality is made up of a variety of traits that together make up their unique character. These traits include a person’s inclination to introversion, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, or conscientiousness. These personality traits are expounded on by theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, and Myers Briggs. Sigmund Freud explained an individual’s personality through his psychoanalytic theory. Therefore, this paper will review the film ‘Silence of the Lambs, the behavior and personality of Hannibal Lecter, a protagonist in the film, and an analysis of Hannibal Lecter’s Personality using the Sigmund Freud theory.
An Overview of Silence of the Lambs
The Silence of the Lambs is an award-winning film based on the novel authored by Thomas Harris. The Silence of the Lambs is an American psychological thriller released in 1991(Bauer, 2020: p.1). The film starts when Clarice Starling is assigned to interview Doctor Hannibal Lecter. Clarice is an FBI trainee that seeks to advance her career while trying to put her West Virginia roots behavior. Clarice aspired to work in the agency’s Behavioral Science department under the leadership of Jack Crawford. Jack Crawford was eager to engage Clarice in the Buffalo Bill murder investigation since she was the leader in her class. The case involved a serial killer who had murdered five victims in Eastern America. The serial killer targeted young women who were slightly overweight, especially around their hips. The serial killer Jame Gumb would strip large swaths of skin and dump the corpse in large water bodies. Jame Gumb dumps the corpses to hide his DNA, making it hard for investigators to arrest him. Jack Crawford believed that to arrest Jame; he had to engage Doctor Hannibal Lecter, as he was a brilliant psychiatrist. To gain his insight, Jack Crawford sent Clarice, an attractive young woman, to bait him. After her interview, Clarice realized that Lecter interacted with people through psychological games, so she had to read his cryptic lines to understand him. The Buffalo Bill case intensifies when Senator Ruth’s daughter is abducted, making it a high-profile case. Clarice critically analyses Hannibal Lecter’s clues to identify the serial killer, thus saving the Senator’s daughter and closing the case.
Hannibal Lecter’s Behavior and Personality
Observing their behavior makes it possible to distinguish an individual’s personality. According to the Big Five concept, a person’s personality may be used to explain how they think, feel, and engage with others (Forrester et al., 2016: p.113). An introverted individual will be less likely to socialize than an extroverted one. Therefore, one must observe his behavior to understand Hannibal Lecter’s personality.
Hannibal Lecter is vital in Thomas Harris’ work as he portrays psychopathic tendencies in all his stories. Thomas Harris intentionally depicted the plight of psychologically unstable offenders in his work. Lecter’s character depicted psychopathic tendencies in the stories Red Dragon (1981), The Silence of the Lambs (1988), and Hannibal (1999). Hannibal Lecter was a serial killer who ate his victims. The psychopathic traits of Hannibal Lecter’s persona were manifested in his superficial charm, cunning, and lack of empathy for the victims when he murdered and later ate them (DeLisi et al., 2009: p.196). Hannibal is also deceitful, meticulous, selfish, arrogant, and intelligent. Lecter also disrespects the law, which is evident when he attacks and kills law enforcement agents. Without hesitation, Lecter disembowels one officer, who skins his face and later wears it to escape prison. Lecter then kills the other officer, bites off his face, and hangs him. Lecter shows his arrogance when conversing with others. Hannibal scares his victims and everyone around him with his antics and manipulation. Clarice hands a questionnaire to Hannibal in Silence of the Lambs in one scene. He says that the last time someone attempted to analyze him, he devoured them rather than filling them. Therefore, Hannibal is quite a manipulative character with psychopathic tendencies.
Lecter is a very brilliant person, and he exploits his superior intelligence to outwit law enforcement. Researchers propose that most psychopaths have a higher level of intelligence than morally upright people (DeLisi et al., 2009: p.169). Possessing superior intelligence than others facilitates psychopaths’ ability to manipulate others. Before meeting with Lecter, Clarice is warned about his manipulation by Jack Crawford. In their first meeting, Lecter uses his intelligence to study Clarice to have the upper hand during the conversation. Lecter intelligence is also depicted with he uses the hook of a lidded pen to unlock handcuffs during his escape. During his escape, Lecter redresses the police officer in his clothes to avoid detection. He skins off the officer’s face and later wears it to escape prison. Lecter’s intelligence is also depicted when he helps Clarice identify the Buffalo Bill serial killer and reasons why the murderer targets slightly overweight girls. Clarice discovered with Lester’s assistance that Jame was driven by his insecurities and the desire to have a female body. Through Lester’s clue, Clarice also realized she was looking for a skilled tailor. That clue helped her realize that Crawford’s intel was false. Lester also helps Clarice realize that she was unresolved issues from her past. Clarice was orphaned after the death of her father, and therefore she was forced to live with her aunt. As Lester questioned her about her departure, Clarice recognized that she had been troubled by the lamb’s “screams” during their killing. Clarice was left vulnerable after that conversation with Lester. Therefore, Lester was quite intelligent, and he would use his intellect to manipulate his surroundings.
An Analysis of Hannibal Lecter’s Behavior using Sigmund Freud’s Theory
The theorist Sigmund Freud accomplished a remarkable job of illuminating different personality types and their origins. Sigmund Freud was the founder of the psychoanalytic and psychosexual theories that explained an individual’s development and personality (Zhang, 2020: p.229). Freud examined his dreams to devise his psychoanalytic theory. Freud discovered through his dreams that a person’s impulses are a mental image of internal cues that motivate them to act. From his research, Freud realized that two instincts drive an individual: life and death. The life instinct primarily addresses the essential needs of survival, pleasure, and reproduction, whereas the death impulse pushes a person toward destruction.
To further expound on the psychoanalytic theory, Freud divided it into three stages: id, ego, and superego. Freud believed that the id, ego, and superego formed the basic structure of an individual’s personality (Zhang, 2020: p.229). Freud proposed that id forms the basic component of an individual’s primitive impulses. It is driven by the pleasure principle and an individual’s unconscious thoughts. Hence, the id is in charge of a person’s decision to participate in enjoyable or destructive activities, frequently at the expense of more beneficial ones. The ego is built on the reality principle, which encourages a person to put off satisfying their fundamental urges until the right moment. The ego largely influences one’s decision-making process and acts as an intermediary between the id and superego. One could feel the urge to steal money but afterward decide against it because of moral considerations. Lastly, the superego is a moral compass that prevents one from satisfying their ill desires. It represents the conscious mind that internalizes moral standards and ideals that one acquires from parents and society around an individual. The superego aims to refine and elevate our conduct. It fights to get the ego to behave according to idealistic norms rather than on fundamental principles, suppressing all undesirable id’s inclinations. Therefore, Freud helped explain an individual’s personality through the psychoanalytic theory.
It is essential to remember that the misalignment of Freud’s three personality components might result in psychiatric problems. Freud noted that due to the misalignment, the ego adapts various defense mechanisms to adapt to miscommunication (Zhang, 2020: p.229). These defense mechanisms often include displacement, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation. It is quite evident that Hannibal Lecter’s personality structure was misaligned. Hannibal’s id was dominant and controlled his behavior. Lecter’s superego was underdeveloped, while his ego was distorted as he attempted to rationalize situations, but his mind failed to function normally. Lester’s dominating id is evident as he is quick to satisfy his need to deface the police’s face without hesitation. He is also quick to satisfy his anger urges when he hits an officer until he dies. Despite being very intelligent, Lester’s ego is distorted. Lester uses his intelligence to help Clarice solve the Buffalo Bill case. He does it more for the excitement than because it’s the correct thing to do. Lecter cannot be considered a morally upright individual. Instead of reassuring the Senator, he ridicules her parenting styles and breasts. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that Hannibal Lester’s psychiatric problems result from miscommunication among the id, ego, and superego. His id makes him impulsive; his confused ego makes him retreat from reality, while the underdeveloped superego distorts his morals.
People developed a defense mechanism to protect themselves from distorted emotions, thoughts, and impulses. Some defense mechanisms, such as self-control, are productive, while others, like repression, result in pushing their anxiety into the unconscious, which is not healthy. Freud suggests that when exposed to stressful conditions, a person develops a defensive mechanism to keep them from experiencing anxiousness (Waqas et al., 2015: p.1). Hannibal Lester was not new to these defense mechanisms. Hannibal Lester adopted denial as a coping mechanism. Denial is when an individual blocks unpleasant events from their awareness and refuses to experience them (Zhang, 2020: p.230). Despite his psychotic tendencies, Hannibal Lester unconsciously creates the perfect image of himself. Even in Baltimore State Forensic Hospital prison, Lester elegantly dressed in white, unlike all other prisoners who are dirty and in blue jumpsuits. His hair is also laid back neatly, and the room is well organized. The image depicts an approachable well-organized man, which is not the case, as many are afraid of him. In the first meeting, Clarice hesitates to approach his cell despite the dividing wall separating the two. Another sort of defense that Lester uses is sublimation. Sublimation is when one channels their unacceptable sexual or aggressive desires into acceptable activities. Lester seeks to satisfy his murderous desires by helping Clarice with the Buffalo Bill case. Hannibal is excited by the opportunity to analyze Jame’s psychotic tendencies and provide clues that will help solve the case and save the Senator’s daughter. Therefore, Hannibal Lester uses denial and sublimation to cope with his psychotic impulses.
In conclusion, one needs to understand their personality as it influences behavior. An individual’s personality also influences their preferences. The film ‘Silence of the Lambs’ based on Thomas Harris’s novel, vividly explains how unstable personalities influence criminal behavior. One character was Jame, the Buffalo Bill killer. Jame kidnapped slightly overweight girls, skinned them, stitched up their skin and later wore it as a jumpsuit to mimic the female. Another character the film featured was Hannibal Lester, who acted aggressively. He skinned off an officer’s face to escape prison and bit another to satisfy his aggression. Hannibal was a calm, intelligent, meticulous, manipulative, deceitful, and narcissistic man. He finds satisfaction in preying on an individual’s insecurities and fears. Hannibal Lester also seeks to manipulate his surroundings so they can have the upper hand. In the first meeting, Lester scares Clarice by stating that he ate the last person who interrogated him. Lester knows that Clarice needs him to solve the Buffalo case. Instead of providing simple evidence, Lester gives Clarice clues that are difficult to solve. Lester’s personality can easily be analyzed using Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Based on the theory, one could argue that Lester has a dominating id that drives his impulses. He also has an underdeveloped superego and therefore lacks a moral standing on what might be right or wrong. People use defense mechanisms to control their psychotic impulses. In prison, Lester adopts denial and sublimation to control his aggression. An individual’s personality influences behavior; therefore, a distorted persona could affect their conduct.
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