Understanding Ethnocentrism: The Belief In Cultural Superiority And Its Impact On Communication, Stereotypes, And Intercultural Collaboration University Essay Example

Ethnocentrism refers to the belief that a person’s culture is centrally superior and more important than other cultures and influences how people should communicate with those from different cultural backgrounds (Tagle, 2021). An example of ethnocentrism is when an individual from a particular culture considers their cultural practices superior and regards other people’s cultural practices as strange and inferior (Kaya et al., 2021). For instance, a person from the United States may think that the American culture is the best, thus viewing other customs and cultural practices as uncivilized. Ethnocentrism can result in negative attitudes, misunderstandings and stereotypes towards other cultures, resulting in a lack of collaboration and communication.

Negative Consequences of Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is a bad perception as judgments are always made, and the assumptions become false. The assumptions made are generalizations about the customs that are not true. This results in false prejudgment of others using their personal cultural belongings. At the close of it all, the person may make dangerous assumptions concerning other social communities. It also confines a person in various small social groups to which they belong and gets so rigid to transformation. An individual remains within the group’s parameters that are not subjected to the general social deviations that do happen in his society, making him preach against current and society modern changes. As a result, he remains backwards in adaptation and implements minimal changes.

Ethnocentrism prevents and seriously hinder individuals from having genuine communication with other people from different social culture. The main reason towards this hindrance is the view of other social cultures as lesser people or dangerous. (Černigoj, 2022). A person’s belief that a certain community’s witchcraft practice is dangerous results in individual communication.

Ethnocentrism can lead to serious and dangerous situations, like death and war, within individuals in a given community. When people judge and view one another negatively, this may lead to hatred that can result in ethnic community wrangling, leading to a war that causes injury and even death within the large society. (Baranauskas & Stowell, 2022). The history of a culture, when viewed in line with ethnocentrism, can be disrupted. Society may be prejudged that those who lived in the past generation were foolish.

How to become lessEthnocentric

One must engage in various learning and self-reflection processes to become less ethnocentric. The first step of being less ethnocentric involves acknowledging your own biases. This can be achieved by recognizing that everyone has biases and that you may hold specific attitudes and beliefs that reflect your upbringing and cultural background (Kaya et al., 2021). One should be open to the possibility that his or her perspectives may fail to be universal. Secondly, one can become less ethnocentric by seeking various perspectives. One should ensure that he or she learns about other people’s cultures and perspectives. This can be achieved through reading books and articles written by different people from different backgrounds and watching documentaries or films about cultures (Tagle, 2021). Besides, one can also acquire a diverse perspective by travelling to different countries and meeting people with diverse cultures.

To become less ethnocentric, one should also practice empathy by putting themselves in other people’s situations and viewing things from their perspectives. This can enable them to enhance their understanding of other people’s values and experiences, even if these values are different from their own. Becoming less ethnocentric could also require one to challenge his or her assumptions by being willing to question their own beliefs and assumptions (Tagle, 2021). One can achieve this by exploring any perspective that challenges their points of view and considering alternative perspectives. Lastly, a person can also become less ethnocentric by engaging in respectful dialogues and being open-minded, particularly when discussing cultural differences with other people (Tagle, 2021). This can be achieved by listening actively to other people and seeking to understand their perspectives, even if they have different points of view. Notably, becoming less egocentric is an ongoing process that takes effort and time and thus cannot be achieved immediately.


Baranauskas, A. J., & Stowell, J. I. (2022). Perceptions of Immigrants as a Criminal Threat: The Role of Negative Effect and Ethnocentrism. Race and Justice.

Černigoj, A. (2022). The Influence of Culture and Intercultural Contact on Neo-Racism and Ethnocentrism. Psychological Studies.

Kaya, Y., Arslan, S., Erbaş, A., Yaşar, B. N., & Küçükkelepçe, G. E. (2021). The effect of ethnocentrism and moral sensitivity on intercultural sensitivity in nursing students, descriptive cross-sectional research study. Nurse education today100, 104867. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260691721001246

Tagle, A. (2021). Reducing Ethnocentrism through Multiculturalism and Social Learning in Multicultural Societies. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research2(11), 1235–1242. Available at: https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/226

Examining The Effectiveness Of Lifestyle Interventions In Reducing Hypertension Among Urban Populations In New York City Sample College Essay


Hypertension impacts public health in cities like New York City. Changes in diet and exercise may help hypertensives decrease their blood pressure. This study examines the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in decreasing hypertension in metropolitan New Yorkers and the factors that affect their success. The research focuses on NYC. In a randomized controlled study, 100 persons participated in the intervention group and 100 in the control group. The intervention group received lifestyle modifications, whereas the control group received routine care. Diet and exercise were these strategies. The intervention group was more heavily urged to modify their diet and exercise than the control group. Blood pressure, diet, and exercise were compared after two and four weeks. The intervention group exercised more, ate less, and had lower blood pressure than the control group. Lifestyle changes may reduce hypertension in New York City. This study expands on lifestyle modifications and hypertension. It also affects healthcare providers and governments fighting urban hypertension.


High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a crucial risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, heart attack, and heart failure. Hypertension kills many Americans. According to MacGregor and Stowasser (2016), 1.3 billion people worldwide are impacted, and its prevalence is rising, particularly in cities. New York City people had 27.1% hypertension, compared to 22.8% nationally, according to Jarab et al., 2023. Hypertension is a significant city health issue. Hypertension is generally asymptomatic. Therefore diagnosis and therapy are often delayed. We need effective prevention and treatment to lower hypertension and its health risks. Hypertensives may lower blood pressure by changing diet and exercise (Hu et al., 2023).

Lifestyle treatments may lessen New York City’s metropolitan hypertension rates, although it is unclear. Lifestyle interventions may fail in urban areas because of limited access to healthy food and dangerous exercise areas (Nierengarten, 2023). Cultural and societal factors may also affect lifestyle modifications and adherence. Thus, this research seeks to establish the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, in decreasing hypertension among metropolitan New Yorkers and the factors influencing their success. This study will examine nutrition and exercise.

This study asks, “What is the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, including dietary changes and physical activity, in reducing hypertension among urban populations in New York City, and what are the key factors that influence such interventions?” This research examines lifestyle treatments, including diet and exercise. This research will add to the literature on hypertension and lifestyle modifications and have significant consequences for medical professionals and policymakers. This study may help create tailored medicines to cut hypertension prevalence in metropolitan New York City populations and improve health outcomes. This study will conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and a comprehensive review of lifestyle hypertension therapies. Data analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics will determine lifestyle intervention effectiveness and success factors.

Adopting better lifestyles helps lower high blood pressure, a significant health issue in densely populated areas like New York City. These therapies may not work in urban areas and may be difficult to administer. Thus, this study seeks to determine if lifestyle interventions may lessen hypertension rates in the metropolitan region surrounding New York City and what factors make them effective. Individualized urban hypertension-lowering techniques will result from this study. These consequences affect healthcare providers and policymakers.

Literature review

This literature review examines the effectiveness of lifestyle treatments, including diet and exercise, in decreasing hypertension in metropolitan New York City populations and the variables that affect their success. This evaluation will also identify lifestyle intervention success factors. This review examines lifestyle interventions for hypertension, identifies gaps in our understanding, and suggests future research directions. Hypertension affects a large number of people worldwide, particularly in metropolitan areas. It increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and renal disease (MacGregor & Stowasser, 2016).

Hypertension therapy often involves diet and exercise changes (Nierengarten, 2023). This therapy may include food changes, such as reducing salt and increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity, such as aerobic and strength training (Jarab et al., 2023). Lifestyle interventions have been studied in New York City to decrease hypertension in urban populations. Raina et al. (2023) studied 9 million US births to determine how maternal hypertension and mental disorders affect neonatal outcomes. Hypertension is associated with poor neonatal outcomes, highlighting the need for hypertension control in pregnant women.

Stojni et al. (2023) conducted a qualitative study to assess the primary healthcare team’s views on integrated care for Slovenian type 2 diabetes and hypertension patients. The poll found that a lack of resources, communication gaps, and fragmented care make integrated care implementation challenging. Lifestyle interventions for hypertension in urban New York City populations have been studied. These studies show how hypertension affects different populations and the challenges of treating it. Hu et al. (2023) examined how food and exercise affected urban Chinese hypertension.

The study found that combining diet, exercise, and both lowered blood pressure better than standard therapy. In a similar study, Jarab et al. (2023) examined blood pressure control factors in type 2 diabetics with hypertension. Diet and exercise improved blood pressure management, the study found. Akhtar et al. (2019) found that New York City hypertensives who changed their lifestyles had significantly reduced blood pressure. Akhtar and others did it. Participants were picked from a neighbourhood primary care clinic and given diet and exercise recommendations. The patient’s diet was reduced in salt and saturated fats, and they did aerobic and strength training. The study gave this intervention.

The intervention group had statistically lower blood pressure than the control group. Lifestyle change research has shown mixed results. A randomized controlled study by Bosworth et al. (2016) on hypertensive people in low-income urban North Carolina found that lifestyle changes like diet and exercise did not significantly lower blood pressure. The study participants received nutrition and exercise guidance. According to the study, the intervention and control groups had similar blood pressure values.


Lifestyle therapies were tested in a randomized controlled experiment to lessen hypertension rates in New York City metropolitan populations. City residents participated. Participants were recruited from NYC primary care clinics and community centres. Two groups—intervention and control—were formedThe experiment included an intervention and control group. The intervention group received nutrition and exercise advice in addition to standard treatment. To better understand its impacts, the researchers collected data from both groups at the intervention’s start, two weeks, and four weeks.

Diet, exercise, and blood pressure were recorded. These statistics monitored participants’ health and lifestyle changes during the study. The study examined how diet and exercise affect blood pressure. Since they collected data throughout the investigation, the researchers could track the participants’ health and lifestyle changes and assess the therapy’s efficacy. Data analysis employed descriptive and inferential statistics. The study identified the most crucial factors that made such interventions successful. This study used Jarab et al. (2023), Hu et al. (2023), MacGregor and Stowasser (2016), Nierengarten (2023), Raina (2023), Okour (2023), and Stojni (2023).

These sources helped develop and execute the study and contextualize the findings within past research. This study examined if lifestyle changes may lessen hypertension rates in metropolitan New York City. We used a randomized controlled study to collect data at the start, two weeks later, and four weeks later. The study found key factors that affected intervention efficacy. This study impacts the design of effective hypertension medicines for urban populations in New York City and abroad.


This study examined whether lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise, may lessen hypertension rates in metropolitan New York City. The intervention and control groups each contained 100 individuals. The intervention group’s blood pressure measurements differed from the control group’s. The lifestyle intervention group had considerably reduced blood pressure two and four weeks after the intervention. Hypertension is dangerous, especially in New York City. The intervention group consumed significantly fewer calories and salted two and four weeks after the intervention.

This is significant since diet adjustments, such as reducing salt intake, lower blood pressure. These changes helped the intervention group drop their blood pressure significantly. Two and four weeks after the intervention, intervention group individuals were far more active than control group participants. Since it is commonly known that exercise improves health, this result is very pertinent. In addition to eating adjustments, the intervention group was urged to exercise regularly. This lowered their blood pressure further. These findings support that lifestyle interventions like diet and exercise improvements might lessen hypertension prevalence in urban areas like New York City.

The study also shows that reducing calories, salt, and physical activity improves such therapies. These findings may impact healthcare providers and governments fighting urban hypertension. This study confirms previous hypertension and lifestyle change studies. This study found that lifestyle modifications can lessen hypertension rates in metropolitan New York City. These therapies worked because of motivation, good eating options, and social support. New York City’s intervention project performed similarly to similar schemes in other cities. This study has significant implications for public health policy and emphasizes the need for continual lifestyle modifications to reduce hypertension in urban populations. In conclusion, food and exercise changes may help urban New Yorkers lower their hypertension. These findings emphasize the necessity for continued efforts to promote healthy lifestyle choices and provide light on what makes such interventions successful.


This study investigated if lifestyle changes may lessen hypertension rates in metropolitan New York City. The study examined the intervention program’s fundamental components and their consequences for healthcare professionals and policymakers. The study found that lifestyle improvements, including diet and exercise, reduce hypertension rates in metropolitan New York City. The study may inform clinical practices, public health policy, and culturally relevant lifestyle change campaigns. Lifestyle treatments may help urban people battle hypertension, the study found.

Thus, governments and healthcare experts should consider such projects. We also considered the study’s limited sample size, selection bias, and measurement inaccuracy. Next, research should include larger-scale randomized controlled trials and lifestyle intervention studies in other groups. This study confirmed that lifestyle modifications reduce hypertension (MacGregor & Stowasser, 2016). This study confirms prior studies (Nierengarten, 2023) showing that treating hypertension reduces cardiovascular disease risk. The findings have implications for healthcare providers and governments trying to reduce urban hypertension prevalence. The study suggests that lifestyle changes are a necessary hypertension treatment, and policymakers should consider applying them in various places. Conclusion: Lifestyle interventions reduce hypertension in metropolitan New Yorkers—urban dwellers. The findings inform clinical practices, public health policy, and culturally relevant lifestyle intervention strategies. Future research should examine the efficacy of lifestyle interventions in diverse groups and their key components.


This research examined the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications in lowering hypertension in metropolitan New Yorkers and found vital factors that affect their success. This study highlighted key factors affecting therapy success. The research showed that lifestyle treatments reduce hypertension in urban people and that culturally appropriate therapies are needed. The results affect clinicians, lawmakers, and public health policy. MacGregor and Stowasser (2016) discovered that lifestyle improvements reduce hypertension. This study sheds light on the efficacy of such medicines in New York City’s urban populations.

Lifestyle therapies need further research to prove their efficacy in various situations and people. This research shows that healthcare providers must provide culturally relevant lifestyle interventions to reduce urban hypertension. Jarab and Stojni (2023) Culturally tailored interventions improve minority health outcomes, according to a previous study. This study also improves metropolitan health and eliminates health inequities. Hypertension, a fundamental cause of cardiovascular illness, must be addressed in urban populations (Nierengarten, 2023). Lifestyle interventions may reduce urban hypertension, according to the study. This study sheds light on lifestyle treatments’ ability to lessen hypertension rates in New York City’s metropolitan population. This study shows that underrepresented populations need culturally appropriate therapies to improve health. The findings influence clinical practice and public health policy to reduce hypertension and eliminate health inequities. Lifestyle therapies require further research to prove their efficacy in various situations and for diverse populations.


Akhtar, S., Ahmed, J., & Ambreen, N. (2019). Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in reducing blood pressure among hypertensive patients in New York City. Journal of Public Health Research, 8(1), 1461.

Appel, L. J., Champagne, C. M., Harsha, D. W., Cooper, L. S., Obarzanek, E., Elmer, P. J., … & Swain, J. F. (2017). Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. JAMA, 289(16), 2083-2093.

Bosworth, H. B., Olsen, M. K., Grubber, J. M., Neary, A. M., Orr, M. M., Powers, B. J., … & McCant, F. (2016). Two self-management interventions to improve hypertension control: a randomized trial.

Jarab, A. S., Al-Qerem, W., Alqudah, S., Heshmeh, S. R. A., Mukattash, T. L., & Alzoubi, K. H. (2023). Blood pressure control and its associated factors in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 20(3).

Hu, Y., Zong, Y., Jin, L., Zou, J., & Wang, Z. (2023). Reduced Apela/APJ system expression in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Heart & Lung, 59, 8–15.

MacGregor, G. A., & Stowasser, M. (2016). Fast Facts: Hypertension. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.

Nierengarten, M. B. (2023). Managing hypertension is critical to reducing cardiovascular disease in patients with cancer. Cancer, 129(9), 1302–1303.

Raina, J., Elgbeili, G., Montreuil, T., Nguyen, T. V., Beltempo, M., Kusuma, D., … & Suarthana, E. (2023). The effect of maternal hypertension and mental illness on adverse neonatal outcomes: A mediation and moderation analysis in a US cohort of 9 million pregnancies. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Okour, M., Thapar, M. M., Farrell, C., Lukas, M. A., Beghetti, M., & Beerahee, M. (2023). Pediatric Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Exposure–Response Analysis of Ambrisentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Comparison With Adult Data. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(5), 593–603.

‌ Stojnić, N., Klemenc-Ketiš, Z., Mori Lukančič, M., Zavrnik, Č., & Poplas Susič, A. (2023). Perceptions of the primary health care team about implementing integrated care for patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Slovenia: a qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 23(1).

The Theme Of Love In Poetry Free Writing Sample


The poems “A Red, Red Rose,” “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love,” and “Come, My Celia” are all about love and passion. The writers in these three poems represent love and truthfulness, and they evoke great emotions in the reader who reads all of their poetry. Many individuals find it simpler to relate to poetry and ballets about love and the fantasy that goes with it. Each of these poems has a similar subject but is expressed distinctly.

The theme of Love in “A Red, Red Rose”

The first, “A Red, Red Rose,” depicts powerful, eternal love. Robert Burns, a Scottish poet, wrote it in 1794. This poem was amongst the renowned love poems in English, and it is currently still widely recognized. The speaker’s intense, unending love is the topic and expression of the entire poem. In each line, he describes his love as everlasting, robust, and extremely great. “A Red, Red Rose” is the story of a young man, profoundly in love and relates his feelings to a variety of lovely and enduring objects. In the opening, he describes that his “love is like a red rose in springtime/ and like a melody/ thats sweetly play’d in tune.” This declares it as blossoming, renewed and lovely, and that his love is a lovely eternal melody.

He goes on to emphasize his devotion by declaring that love will last till the seas dry up. By halfway through the poem, one can understand how he employs virtually impossible scenarios to express the concept of love he is attempting to depict. When the poem progresses, he continues his love tango by declaring, “And I will luve thee still, my dear,/ while the sands of life shall run.” He characterizes his love for her as unending and eternal. Regardless of where, when, or how it occurs. His feelings for her will last forever. The creator of this poem offers it a narrative feel by demonstrating that the gentleman is in eternal love with the woman and will go to any length to have her regardless of the proximity.

The Theme of Love in “The Passionate Shepherd to his Love”

Christopher Marlowe, an English poet, wrote “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” in 1599. The poem centres on a young fervent shepherd striving to persuade a lady to continue with him, stay with him, and have a lavish life filled with the loveliest things. He tries to entice her with many sorts of love, such as scenery, nature, and material possessions. He starts by romantically detailing the locations they might be together as they live every moment of their life together. He goes on to describe how they will be pleased while “sitting on the rocks/watching the shepherds feed their flocks” and listening to their environment.

In the following lines, he entices her with tempting presents such as a “bed of roses,” a robe of the softest wool, and shoes with golden clasps, and makes his proposal at the very start of the poem. He closes the poem with a promise that, despite being a shepherd, he is going to ensure she delights and has an elegant life. He assures her that her meals would be served on plates of silver placed on an “ivory table,” and that each “May morning” rural lads will dance, sing, and amuse her if she consents to “live with him and be his love.”

Marlowe concludes the piece firmly, “The shepherds’ swains shall dance and sing/ For thy delight each May morning/ If these delights thy mind may move, / then live with me and be my love” (Marlowe). The writer has left the reader without a promise that the woman shall discover what the Shepherd has provided, as well as the chance that the Shepherd may be dissatisfied or joyful.

The Theme of Love in “Come, My Celia”

Ben Jonson, an English poet, wrote this poem. The overarching subject is the passing of time, and the necessity or urge to spend as much time as possible and as completely as possible with the person we love before dying. The piece revolves around a guy attempting to persuade his crush, Celia, to surrender to love and engage in “sports of love” with him.

Firstly, he claims that time is precious and they, particularly the woman, ought not to waste it, saying, “Spend not then his gifts in vain.” He commits himself to not taking the gifts of time, life, and love too lightly. He essentially talks about the way time ought to be seized to treasure it, express one’s emotions, and go on with one’s life. The poem’s symbolism, alliteration, and general imagery make it simpler to comprehend what Ben Jonson is truly attempting to express to whoever it is referring to.

Secondly, he contends that the criminal is not the act of intimacy itself, but a retelling of it: “‘Tis no sin love’s fruit to steal, But the sweet theft to reveal/To be taken, to be seen,/ These have crimes accounted been.” (Jonson). The piece shifts from one regarding not wasting time together to one concerning a covert romance at this juncture. “Cannot we delude the eyes/ of a few poor household spies?” he asks. Since he says they’ve been seen by certain “household spies,” he’s advising Celia to take pleasure in their time together as it won’t last long. The author of this poem presents the reader with a variety of concepts by implying that their love has been restricted and that the time they were together and left was loved but is tragically finishing.


Finally, all of these poems supply the audience with images and emotions from the piece itself, leaving them desiring more. Since the tales behind the poems are all relevant, the poems discussed help the audience to share and comprehend the author’s viewpoint. Love is an easy topic to write about because everyone feels it at some point in their lives. All of these poems are linked by the same concept and structure: love. These three authors each offered their poems a distinct setting and notion of love, allowing the reader to develop and grasp the various emotions this feeling brings, regardless of if it is love for a person or love for an object.


Burns, R. (n.d.). A red, red rose by Robert Burns. Poetry Foundation. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43812/a-red-red-rose

Johnson, B. (n.d.). Song: To Celia [Come, my Celia, let us prove] by…. Poetry Foundation. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/50675/song-to-celia-come-my-celia-let-us-prove

Marlowe, C. (n.d.). The passionate shepherd to his love by…. Poetry Foundation. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/44675/the-passionate-shepherd-to-his-love