Understanding Putinism And Its Future Sample College Essay


Under international law order, territorial sovereignty, as espoused under United Nations Charter, is a fundamental principle that requires other states not to meddle with another nation’s affairs unless the prevailing circumstances allow such actions (Goldsmith and jack 1999, pp 29). For a recent couple of weeks, Russia invaded Ukraine for the same reason that article 2 of the United Nations Charter was crafted to cure, such act of aggression and assault to sovereign independent states. As Article 2 (1) of the United Nations Charter gravely affirms, territory and its normative translation, territorial sovereignty, remain the cornerstone of the current international legal order (Annan and Kofi, 1999 pp 13).

Since the end of the Second World War and the advent of the Cold War, world superpowers were found on two divides. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) consisted of the western and the Warsaw Pact of the Eastern champion by the USSR, these two divides were formed by states to watch each other’s back in case war breaks out. In 1991, the USSR fell and was disintegrated into many states, including Ukraine and present-day Russia. When he rose to power, Vladimir Putin had the ambition to revive the Russian lost glory and unite the former USSR (Krastev and Holmes 2012 pp 36). During his over two decades reign, Putin has embarked on building and modernizing Russian military power to exceed that of the United States and, by use of his military capability, annexed some of the former USSR territories like Crimea. This article will examine realism as a theory in political science and further expound Putinism by looking at how Putinism plays out power politics, state-centrism, anarchy, and egoism to its neighboring states and world politics?


Vladimir Putin’s Russia is a significant danger to global liberalism and democracy in the twenty-first century after the fall of the Soviet Union (Mamonova and Natalia 2019 pp 201). Provocatively manipulating existing democracies, creating an international media network, supporting despots abroad, and aggressively expanding weaponry contribute to the war (Fish 2017 pp 71). There is a more prominent tendency behind Russia’s current policies: the country is once again being run by an elite that believes it can provide a better alternative to liberal democracy than the Soviet Union did before Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms (1985–91). Also, as they see politicians from other nations, including the United States, rise to prominence with mentalities similar to their own, Russia’s leaders have become more optimistic, therefore Russia therefore has shaped its policy to fit this kind of rise to world power.

Vladimir Putin’s form of dictatorship is conservative, populist, and personal. There are considerable differences between this regime and other transformative dictatorships, such as the former Soviet party-state. Keeping the status quo is essential to Putinism, but so is expressing antipathy toward potential sources of upheaval, which makes Putinism both conservative domestically and globally. These impulses are inexorably intertwined because of Russia’s extraction and rent-seeking economy. On issues like gay rights, women’s equality, and homosexuality, Putinism combines its populism with its conservatism to counteract what Russian leaders regard as an outmoded liberal ideology (Simma and Bruno 1995 pp26).

In contrast, Putinism’s conservatism restricts the employment of populist measures such as excessive social spending. Furthermore, it explains why Putin’s kind of populism, as opposed to Western populism, stresses multi-ethnic and multi-religious cohabitation. A personalist autocrat such as Putin has little regard for political parties, institutions, or anybody other than himself when running the country (Taylor 2018 pp 19). As a result, Putinism’s self-described role as an anti-instability bulwark may be compromised by this close relationship with one man.

Realism, therefore, best fits the description of Putinism, Putin and his associates embrace at home and trumpet abroad? Putinism is a form of autocracy that is conservative, populist, and personalistic. Thus, characteristics of Putinism exhibit all the four propositions of realism theory, which includes; power politics, state-centrism, anarchy, and egoism. It stresses maintaining the status quo and rejects any transformational measures (Gudkov 2011 pp 47). Although most rulers value stability, Putin regards it as holy (Laqueur and Walter 2015 pp 40). Unlike Islamists who aim to restore the immaculate Muslim community of Muhammad’s time (570–632 C.E.) or interwar fascists who exalted a mythical lost period of martial righteousness and racial purity, Putin and his entourage reject reactionary views that need significantly modifying current circumstances or using techniques that endanger peace, like mass mobilization and violence (Gudkov 2011 pp 37).

There are several ways Putinism’s goals collide with any kind of development. Because it needs a lot of money upfront, the rich will have to settle for just a few bites rather than devouring the whole cake. Second, developmentalism threatens the ruler’s monopoly on power, especially in technologically advanced contemporary economies. It may also lead to societal unrest, including mobilizing social movements calling for a more transparent and responsible administration. Fourth, it necessitates that officials be hired and promoted based on their abilities rather than their devotion (Applebaum 2013 pp 109).

Russian President Vladimir Putin’s adamant opposition to social movements such as revolution, homosexuality, and women’s rights is more than simply a ploy to elevate Russia to the top of the worldwide anti-liberal hierarchy. In addition to his more considerable efforts to restore Russia’s global prestige, which it lost after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, these positions are targeted at home audiences and constitute elements of Putinism’s populism (Mamovova and natalia, 2019 pp 222). As a result of Russia’s turmoil under Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin, Putin’s dedication to preventing regime change resonates with Russian citizens. They are well-versed in polling data and are well aware of Russians’ inclination toward social conservatism. When asked, “should society tolerate homosexuality?” in a Pew study in 2013, 74% of them said no, compared to 57% of Chinese, 36% of Japanese, 36% of Brazilians, 33% of Americans, and 11% of Spaniards (Krastev and Holmes 2012 pp 39). Russians are also opposed to feminist views on gender equality and gender roles (Gudkov 2011 pp 37). One recent World Values Survey found that when asked whether men or women make better political leaders, 57 percent of Russians said that men do.

Future of Putinism

It is difficult to deny that Putin’s conservative populist autocracy is among the twenty-first century’s most successful and imposing authoritarian governments. Its petroeconomy’s parasitic practices can’t support the ideology, economic development, and social fairness; its ideology cannot provide an appealing vision for the future. Its extreme personalization makes it utterly reliant on one flawed man.

Limits exist in Russia’s present economic paradigm, which is a source of legitimacy. As long as the nation has an ample supply of hydrocarbons, the ruler will always be able to reward his favorites and support social programs that maintain popular peace. Still, the overarching aim of keeping things the exact and avoiding change will always remain (Applebaum 2013 pp 109), allowing elite predation to rule out measures that may lead to healthy economic growth. Private ownership and investment played an essential part in nations that have grown effectively over the last decades, notwithstanding the critical role played by the state.

Works Cited

Applebaum, Anne. “Putinism: the ideology.” (2013).

Fish, M. Steven. “The Kremlin emboldened: what is Putinism?.” Journal of Democracy 28.4 (2017): 61-75.

Gudkov, Lev. “The Nature of” Putinism.” Russian Social Science Review 52.6 (2011): 21-47.

Krastev, Ivan, and Stephen Holmes. “Putinism Under Siege: An Autopsy of Managed Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 23.3 (2012): 33-45.

Mamonova, Natalia. “Understanding the silent majority in authoritarian populism: what can we learn from popular support for Putin in rural Russia?.” Critical Agrarian Studies (2019): 201.

Taylor, Brian D. The code of Putinism. Oxford University Press, 2018.

Goldsmith, Jack. “Sovereignty, international relations theory, and international law.” (1999): 959.

Simma, Bruno, ed. The charter of the United Nations. oup, 1995.

Annan, Kofi. “Two concepts of sovereignty.” The economist 18.9 (1999): 1999.

Laqueur, Walter. Putinism: Russia and its Future with the West. Macmillan, 2015.

Understanding Service Delivery At Starbucks Writing Sample


Service delivery in the hospitality industry is a great issue of interest and a challenge that continues to face service providers. The hospitality industry continues to receive attention due to becoming highly competitive. Service delivery is one of the difficult tasks hospitality faces due to its unique features such as variability, intangibility, inseparability, and labor intense nature. An efficient and effective service design ensures businesses are able to achieve the goal of excellence in service. The process involves planning and organizing various internal factors that finally make up the delivery service to the end customer. Service delivery is essential in allowing the hospitality industry to create a baseline that ensures consistent service provision to the customer and developing a systematic mechanism that provides a better experience while allowing the organization to understand factors that are effective in terms of service delivery. On the other hand, delivery of delivery of high-quality services is linked to increased profits, savings costs, and creating a corporate image. The reputation of an organization or institution is considered as good as the service provided. This paper will provide a service blueprint that provides an overview of the service process at Starbucks.

Company Profile

Starbucks was established in 1971with a coffee shop focusing on whole bean and ground coffee, tea, and spices in Seattle pike place market. The Starbucks currently serves millions of people with over thirty thousand retail stores in eighty-three markets (Starbucks, 2021). The company started by selling roasted coffee beans which eventually transitioned into serving coffee. The company grew from a humble beginning of owning 17 stores in 1987 to more than thirty thousand stores around the world.

Starbuck service strategy

The service strategy of a business is essential and needs to reflect on different aspects such as the strategic aims of the company, meeting the market requirements, and developing capabilities of the organization’s service resources and processes. Starbucks has created a service strategy whereby they have positioned themselves in the lifestyle of the customer. In ensuring that the strategy is functional the company has furnished its outlets with comfortable seats and provision of electronic equipment. Ensuring that the customer is comfortable while at the coffee motivates the customer to stay longer hence, allowing the company to engage the consumer on the services offered. Starbucks has diversified the service provision and continues to look for more methods of improving service and broadening the customer base. For instance, in the recent past, Starbucks has increased the number of drive-through locations in spaces where the parking space is limited. Consumers chose Starbucks because of the coffee, the people that over service at the company, and the experience gained in the Starbucks different stores.

Service quality in the business environment is considered important to organizations. The service quality in a business is essential in providing a competitive advantage and ensuring sustainable growth. Different companies in the marketplace work towards ensuring service quality mount pressure in order to have a better understanding of service quality evaluation. Starbucks continues to implement its strategies in ensuring the customer is provided with quality services. The Starbucks provides the customers with comment cards at the condiment stations. The comment cards are essential for the business management to ensure they create a relationship with the customer and learn the services that need to be improved to better the Starbucks experience. Additionally, the comment cards offer the customer the opportunity to judge and evaluate the experience they encounter at Starbucks and provide the company with suggestions on services and products. On the other hand, the Starbucks has a guarantee statement posted in their stores which states that customers are a priority to getting the coffee in the manner that they expect it. The company also ensures that if customers are not satisfied with the drink offered then another one is made to the satisfaction of the customer. The Starbucks stores have a policy where the customer can taste the coffee before they make a purchase, through samples provided by baristas (Paryani, 2011).

The Starbucks is continuously working towards getting feedback from the customers through different forms. The Starbuck can get information from the customer through direct feedback at the counter while making a purchase. Information can also be gathered through the Starbucks websites, corporate social responsibility, and handing the customers questionnaires. The different responses provided by the customers are important for the company to identify issues emphasized and that need improvement. The data collected also provides the overall performance of a Starbucks store in different locations. Ensuring Starbucks provides products that are of great quality and reliable services reflect the consideration of customer satisfaction. The Starbucks puts into consideration the customer requirement while implementing and designing the quality and reliability of drinks and the experience at its stores.

Service quality is an essential aspect of the perception customers have about the services offered. Customers tend to perceive services based on quality and the satisfaction they get from the overall experience. Service perception of customer accumulate over a period of time and depends on the relationship between the customer and the business and the continuity of interactions in the future. The customers in most cases tend to evaluate the quality of service based on their personal expectations. Customers are satisfied if they consider the service provided met their expectations or exceeded the expectation and vice versa. For Starbucks to understand the concept of service quality, it is important to understand customer perception (Michelli, 2007). Services can be intangible and take place during the process of interaction between the employee and the customer. The various services provided are described based on characteristics. The different features include intangibility, perishability, inseparability, and heterogeneity. The intangibility is services that are not seen, touchable, or tasted. The services that are consumed simultaneously are categorized under inseparability.

Service Blueprint at Starbucks

The service blueprint is a diagram that visualizes the relationship that exists in different components of a company. The different aspects of the service blueprint include people, physical and digital evidence, and processes that are directly linked to the specific touchpoints in the customer journey while being served (Gibbons, 2017). Blueprints are essential for a business and help in corresponding to specific customers and aligning to the business goal ensuring that redundancies are reduced and customer experience improved. The service blueprint is essential in enabling Starbucks to have a comprehensive understanding of the services offered and the underlying resources and processes. Once Starbucks focuses on understanding the wider picture of blueprints it gains the strategic benefit as a business entity. On the other hand, service blueprints are essential for Starbucks in enabling the company to understand and discover any weaknesses available. Additionally, a service blueprint is essential in allowing businesses to identify opportunities that need optimization. Critical evaluation and visualization of blueprints help in identifying potential improvements and implementing methods through which redundancy can be eliminated.

  • Elements of Service Blueprint

The service blueprint of a business varies in terms of visual forms whereby some tend to be more detailed than others. The different elements of the service blueprint include customer actions, visible contact employee actions, invisible contact, support process, and physical evidence.

  • Physical Evidence

The physical evidence is what both customers and employees come in contact with. Although the physical evidence is the first in line when visualizing the service blueprint, it is usually the last element that is added to the blueprint diagram. The physical evidence for Starbucks entails different features such as the custom-made cup of beverage. Physical evidence also includes a clean and friendly environment with comfortable chairs and sofas for the customers. The Starbucks has also created an alluring menu and tempting coffee picture to entice the customer (Paryani, 2011). The preparation of coffee is made in front of the customer at Starbucks to entice them. The manner in which the pastries are displayed is in a manner that attracts and entices that customer to make a purchase. The coffee seed is placed in a place that leaves the Starbucks having an intriguing smell of the coffee being in the process of grinding. The process creates a pleasant atmosphere for the customer of the quality of the product. Additionally, the lighting in the stores brightens the mood of the space creating a serene atmosphere.

Display of Comfortable space at one of the Starbuck Store

Display of Comfortable space at one of the Starbuck Store






Exterior Parking


Employee dree

Cups for sell

Food and drinks other than coffee for sell

Newspaper for sale


Promotion product information: posters, brochure, comment cards Cashiers Starbucks Exterior Coffee

Coffee addition station

Couch, table, lighting, parking lot
Customer actions

(core activities and experience)

Arrive at Starbucks Wait inline Place coffee order Make payment Waiting for coffee Receive coffee Stay at Starbucks or leave
Line of Interaction
Onstage actions Greet and take orders Process payment Prepare coffee Replenish coffee addition station Clean tables if needed

Take care of customers if they drop coffee on the floor

Line of visibility
Backstage actions Keep up Inventory
Line of Interaction
Support processes Order system POS system Coffee machine

Starbucks Service Blueprint diagram illustration

  • Customer Actions

The customer actions are all the steps that are taken by the customer as part of the process of service delivery at Starbucks. Based on the service blueprint the customer actions are at the top of the visual diagram since they are often created chronologically. The customer actions are essential in the creation of the blueprint and they are developed first to ensure that all other activities are viewed as supporting value proposition offered or that is co-developed with the customer. For instance, Starbucks has created online platforms where customers can visit to make orders and are able to talk to employees. Customers’ actions at Starbucks include face-to-face interaction between employees and the customer. These also include making a purchase, placing an order accepting, and receiving an order.

  • Onstage/ Visible Contact Employee Actions

The onstage or visible contact employee action is differentiated from the customer action by the line of interaction. The onstage element entails face-to-face actions that take place between the customer and the employee. The different activities that take place between the customer and the employee are referred to as onstage actions. The process of customer dealing with computer actions is also carried out once the customer is able to interact with self-service technology for example through a mobile app for Starbucks or company website. For instance, at Starbucks onstage actions take place once the customer walks into the store and is met and greeted by an employee. When using technology an assistant informs the customers of the menu and schedules delivery of the food and beverages orders. During the process of the onstage action, a moment of truth takes place and customers are able to judge the quality of service and make a decision regarding future purchases from Starbucks.

Diagram Illustration of Starbucks Service Blueprint

Diagram Illustration of Starbucks Service Blueprint

  • Back Stage or Invisible Contact Employee Actions

The backstage elements appear above the line of visibility for the customer. These are the different activities that take place behind the scene to ensure that the onstage activities are effective (Tan, 2012). Additionally, the backstage actions can be performed by different employees at Starbucks such as the pastry chef and baristas. On the other hand, the onstage employee can also perform backstage action such as entering the customer order into the system without the visibility of the customer.

Picture showing Backstage actions at Starbucks

Picture showing Backstage actions at Starbucks

  • Support Process

The support process involves the different actions conducted by individuals and units within the Starbucks store that never contact the employee but have the need to take place in order for the service to be effectively delivered (Hossain, Enam, Farhana, 2017). The activities carried out by individuals and units at Starbucks who is not the contact employees are referred to as the support process. The support process at Starbucks entails activities such as sequence service used by the business to ensure queue reduction and contact lea payment such as mobile apps.

Importance of Service Blueprint At Starbucks

The blueprint is important for the business in different ways. The blueprint is essential in helping Starbucks improve service fail points to deliver quality services to the customer. The blueprint also reduces the costs, time, redundancy of random service development. The blueprint is essential in creating a canter point for different unities such as staff management and team members concerned with achieving goals and objectives. Strategic decisions are made through the use of the blueprint and also help in identifying costs, revenue, and capital invested in the different service elements. The blueprint makes it easy for marketing agencies to have an overview of services and allocate essential communication information.

Service Blueprint Experience at Starbucks

The service blueprint at Starbucks has different components that different services and products. To start with, there are the people of people who are directly and indirectly involved in the process of service offered. During the process when employees or waiters at Starbucks offer services and interact with the customer, the attitudes and behavior exhibited can affect the perception of service offered. The perception of the customer about the quality of service provides can equally affect and impact their satisfaction and intentions of purchasing.

The quality of service provided is based on different aspects. The physical evidence in the blueprint is also linked to the surroundings in which the service is delivered (Michelli, 2006). The environment also included the different tangibles that support service performance. The physical evidence includes all the tangibles provided at the Starbucks such as internet presence, brochures, and business cards among others.

The Starbucks provides the customer with spaces that have ambient conditions for comfort. The color used in the interiors, music, and lighting entice the customer. The different features in the Starbuck stores can affect the manner in which the customer feels, thinks, and responds to a particular service. The relaxing and ambient conditions provided by Starbucks help the customer to feel calm. The impact of customer experience is essential for service provision businesses. The ambiance of the space at Starbucks plays a significant role to make the customer stay longer. The type of music and the volume of the music in the service cape can influence the manner in which the customer perceives the service at Starbucks. The color is also important as it communicates and portrays different messages. For instance, green and grey is the theme color for Starbucks which portrays calmness and relaxation. Additionally, the fragrances used in the coffee shop can draw the customer and extend their staying period.

The spatial layout at Starbucks is based on the décor of the space, furnishing, machinery, and equipment used in the process of offering services. The manner in which Starbucks space has arranged the size of the space, shape of items, and the connection between the different items can influence the customer. The service organization is essential hence, Starbucks needs to put into consideration the modern styles of service, and handling bills of customers. The process conveys the aesthetic strategy of the Starbucks stores. The spatial layout can have a significant influence on the customer experience. The spatial layouts provide décor and furnishing that meet the expectations of the customer. Satisfaction of the customer will root from the point that the Starbucks has considered value on what they offer. Hence, influencing the customer behavior, performance of the store, and satisfaction of the customer.

The appearance of the employee while offering services to customers is an important part of service delivery. The Starbucks uniforms are black and green which offers calmness to the customer. The employee uniform and appearance while delivering services are important. Employees’ appearance and uniform is a way through which they represent the company to the customer and the world at large. Customers perceive the value and quality of the company based on the process of interacting with Starbucks employees. The employee that works at the Starbucks stores passes the passion and knowledge and coffee to the customers. For instance, Baristas at Starbucks are expected to be more than just handlers of the coffee making process.

The Starbucks has invested greatly in the training of employees to ensure they are providing quality coffee and are able to learn about different varieties of coffee served at the stores. Additionally, based on the promise statement of Starbucks stores, the customer is in charge of the manner in which their coffee is made and handled hence baristas make the coffee the way the customer wants. The service blueprint at the Starbucks starts with the barista at the counter making a friendly gesture to the customer by maintaining eye contact and exchanging pleasantries. The customer gives the order, and the barista repeats the order out loud. This process at the Starbucks is referred to as the error-proofing technique which helps in guaranteeing that the drink is made correctly.

Step 1:

Place order

step 2:

Take Payment

step 3:

Determine the type of drink

Step 4:

Make the drink and serve

Error-proofing order is repeated

Service blueprint process at Starbucks

Service blueprint process at Starbucks

Blueprint and impact on Service Quality

The delivery of excellent services is the aim of many businesses in the marketplace. Offering quality services is essential in sustaining the customer confidence and maintaining a competitive advantage. The line of visibility in the blueprint separates activities taking place onstage where customers are able to obtain tangible evidence of the service. Therefore, the line of visibility is important in determining the aspects of the service that the customer should experience and the employee that is to be in contact with the customer. The blueprint can be used in improving the design and quality of an existing service. This also provides information for the management to understand the manner in which to operate in the future. Additionally, the blueprint is task oriented and provides a business with ways of dealing with competition in the market. The blueprint enables a business to perform tasks in a way that attracts the customers towards the company’s services.

In conclusion service, blueprints are customer journey maps for organizations and help in identifying the bigger picture of service provision. Starbucks is working towards ensuring that the customer experience at their different stores and online apps is friendly. The Starbucks continues to promise the customer the same premium handcrafted coffee and drink. The customers at Starbucks have been given the privilege of customizing their beverage with the kind of milk they want and are able to choose different types of flavours offered. In improving the online platforms, the Starbucks is working towards reducing the process of customers waiting in queues which can be tiresome. The service blueprint consists of five essential elements that help in determining the quality of service delivery. The different components work in unique ways to ensure that the service is offered effectively and efficiently to the satisfaction of the customer. Different components work together while others work separately by they all support the main goal which is quality service delivery. Every stage of the service blueprint is essential in making the customer experience satisfactory while at the Starbucks store.


Gibbons, S. (2017). Service Blueprint: Definitions. Nielsen Norman Group.https://www.nngroup.com/articles/service-blueprints-definition/

Hossain, M., Enam, F., Farhana, S. (2017). Service Blueprint a Tool for Enhancing Service Quality in Restaurant Business. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, vol. 7(7). https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=77585

Michelli, J. (2007). The Starbucks Experience: 5 Principles for Turning ordinary into Extraordinary. McGraw Hill: New York.

Paryani, K. Product Quality, Service Reliability and Management of Operations at Starbucks. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol.3(7), pp. 1-14

Starbucks (2021). Company Profile. Starbucks Stories and News.https://stories.starbucks.com/press/2019/company-profile/

Tan, T. (2012). Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Employee Responses on Services Failure and Recovery. International Journal of Education, vol. 2(1). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271340019_Evaluating_Service_Encounters_The_Effects_of_Employee_Responses_on_Service_Failure_and_Recovery

Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2008). Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Understanding Tattooing Process And Related Complications Essay Sample For College

In contemporary society, most people drawn across all the demographic clusters across the globe have or will have tattoos implanted in their bodies. They are more popular among the students, especially college students as well as young adults aged between 18 to 35 years of age. Demographic statistics on tattoos demonstrate that close to 40 percent of 18 to 34 aged young adults have one or more tattoos on their bodies. Those aged 35 to 54 years old are have a tattoo accounting for at least 35 percent, while for those above 55 years old, at least 16 percent have a tattoo (Cassata, 2018). A rise in the number of tattoos implantations around the human body depicts that the myths regarding the taboo are decreasing. Some industries accept employees with tattoos and tend to prefer the employees. This essay aims to better understand the tattoo culture by focusing on how tattoos are perceived in contemporary society and describing the tattoos process.

Buffy case

Buffer’s parents should allow him to undergo the professional tattoo process. This is because it is safe and less risky than the traditional approach. Denying the opportunity may create some sense of discomfort and hatred amongst himself while interacting with peers. They should not be worried much since tattoos can be removed surgically in case complications arise.

Understanding of tattoo

Isaac, Ngwanya, & Lehloenya (2018) define a tattoo as the implantation of an exogenous pigment to a person’s mucous membranes. They argued that some tattoos on the human body are accidental and others intentional, short-term or permanent, professional or amateur, while others are decorative or for medical purposes. The purpose of tattoos implantation on a personal body thus plays a significant determinant to people taking tattoos or not. For instance, accidental tattoos often result from a traumatic situation because the victim endured uncontrollable scenarios. This may include inoculation into a wound of substances, including asphalt, graphite, ink, or gunpowder. Consequently, the victims do not have an alternative to allow tattoo implantation into their bodies.

Permanent tattoos entail a colorful pigmentation that is implanted below the derma-epidermal junction and are sustained by the macrophages as well as fibroblasts located in the dermis. The temporary tattoos that are short-term in nature have a similar outlook as permanent tattoos. However, these tattoos are mere paints or airbrushes on an individual skin’s surface, often lasting a few days.

Professional tattoos are another category usually implanted by well-trained personnel in a tattoos parlor and imprinted using a machine. In this category, tattoo implantation takes place in the skin’s dermis. The amateur tattoos are done at people’s residential areas, and one is only required to have a needle as well as one color ink. Depending on the person doing the implantation, the ink deposition is more superficial as well as variable.

Cosmetic tattoos are usually taken on an individual skin to enhance the body appearance of the body parts. They have an appearance of make-up or mask deformities. Such tattoos include permanent make-up, tattoos done against the surgical scars as well as nipple tattoos are usually done after the mastectomy. Medical tattoos are employed on an individual’s body with the sole intention of treating against certain medical conditions. They facilitate awareness of the specific medical information as well as mark the person’s body location intended for a patient’s surgery and other procedures and future review. The last category is the invisible tattoos, which are made with dyes. The dyes tend to fluoresce as well as glow visibly in ultraviolet light.

Brief history and epidemiology of tattoos

Tattoos can trace back more than 5000 years. In 1991, a 5300-year-old body of Otzi the Iceman was found in the Tyrolean Alps and tattooed across his arthritic joints. Since then, the epidemiology of tattooing depicts several evolutions throughout the time, which represents a series of changes in interpersonal, cultural, and political influences. In the recent past, tattoos that were majorly linked to prisoner’s prostitutes as well as seamen, some prominent people in the society, and respected leaders have been tattooed. Some tattooed leaders include Winston Churchill, his mother, Tsar Nicholas II, King George V, Theodore Roosevelt, and present global leaders. During the 1980s, tattoos were utilized to resist reforms against the middle-class conservative norms and practices in society. In the contemporary world, tattoo implantation has generally increased through several cultures, regional areas, social classes, and people from various educational backgrounds.

Tattoo implantation is generally increasing the modern society. The rise in tattoos is attributed to the increased digitalization as well as cultural commercialization. Isaacs, Ngwanya, & Lehloenya (2018) suggest that close to 100 million Europeans have been tattooed. A 2016 United States study explained a drastic change in the number of tattooed personnel. The number encourages people with higher education to recall their loved ones while others take it for entertainment. A study conducted in Germany explains the number of individuals tattooed averaged 35 years of age, lacked a history of drug and alcohol abuse, and were inactive employment.

Graphic images of tattoos

Dolphin tattoo


Romantic tattoo

Source: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=httpscdn2.stylecraze.comwp-contentuploads201305Blackwork-Tattoos.jpg&imgrefurl=httpswww.stylecraze.comarticlesamazing-tattoo-designs-and-their-meanings&tbnid=VsM3s5wSc0yPLM&vet=12ahUKEwiugriutbb2AhUHzioKHQOwDukQMygOegUIARD7AQ..i&docid=bo5n3KJc6QtDBM&w=500&h=650&q=graphicrepresentationsoftattoos&client=firefox-b-d&ved=2ahUKEwiugriutbb2AhUHzioKHQOwDukQMygOegUIARD7AQ

Back Tattoo

Source: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=httpsmedia.istockphoto.comphotostattoo-artist-back-picture-id147444721k20m147444721s612x612w0h9MwUe_ZNu1tff16PZIwPPe_Pm6jT__yqKDbnxCOdz5M&imgrefurl=httpswww.istockphoto.comphotosback-tattoo&tbnid=_aWnyJa1t3J6qM&vet=12ahUKEwiugriutbb2AhUHzioKHQOwDukQMygCegUIARDgAQ..i&docid=cCh027td49lddM&w=408&h=612&q=graphicrepresentationsoftattoos&client=firefox-b-d&ved=2ahUKEwiugriutbb2AhUHzioKHQOwDukQMygCegUIARDgAQ

Motivations for tattooing

There is a need to understand the motivations behind people taking part in tattooing, which assists in addressing any health concerns that may present themselves. There are varied reasons across different population demographics to opt for tattooing. Tattooing in historical times was mainly taken for therapeutic functionality alongside a mechanism to promote transmission of knowledge. However, religious groups such as Christianity and Judaism have always taken a different as well as unfavorable perception towards tattoos.

In recent years, those people tattooing ae motivated by personal identity since they want to be noticed by society members. This is the class of musicians and leaders who want to entertain people who are often tattooed. Another reason for tattooing is to display shared values within a given subculture and a quest for individuality, promoting self-attractiveness and impulsive tattooing when an individual is under the influence of alcohol, drugs, and substance abuse. Moreover, the motivations also vary among the individual social status and education levels. Unlike in the historical era, tattooed people, only 10 percent are under alcohol, drugs, or substance. The only educational level disproportionately represented in such a category is the high school.

Process of tattooing and Integumentary System

Tattooing procedures are usually invasive that inoculates probable hazardous chemicals into a human being’s body. The procedure used in traditional and amateur tattooing entails rubbing pigment into patterned cuts on individual skin (Levy 2008). It can also entail the hand trappings the ink to a human being’s skin using sharp objects. Traditional procedures are usually risky, and one can develop complications. Therefore, a traditional approach to tattooing may have adverse health implications hence the need to avoid it.

Modern professional tattoos are conducted using a tattoo machine that has a mechanized needle, which inoculates the pigment into a human being’s skin. The method ensures that ink quantities are well standardized controlled and the patterns maintained. The pigment is usually dispensed into the skin using controlled quantities and patterns. The method ensures that the pigment is carefully dispensed into the skin epidermis and dermis. The pigment found in the epidermis is eradicated through desquamation. On the other hand, pigment located at the dermal is generally absorbed by the macrophages alongside maintained at the fibroblasts. There are usually connective tissues that attempt to surround such ink containing fibroblasts, entrap them, and subsequently immobilize them.

Process of tattooing

Source: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=httpsc8.alamy.comcompTTEMEKprocess-of-making-tattoo-closeup-TTEMEK.jpg&imgrefurl=httpswww.alamy.comprocess-of-making-tattoo-closeup-image256020315.html&tbnid=nVyIOJhcRenJ0M&vet=12ahUKEwjQiZO_t7b2AhXJ8bsIHWJOBJIQMygPegUIARDrAQ..i&docid=OcTaL9zc0fvvzM&w=1300&h=956&q=processoftattooing&client=firefox-b-d&ved=2ahUKEwjQiZO_t7b2AhXJ8bsIHWJOBJIQMygPegUIARDrAQ

Tattooing pigments

Several materials are utilized to ensure a successful tattooing operation is undertaken in tattooing. Carbon with shading additives, including titanium oxide, iron oxide, and excipients including the formulants, preservatives, fragrances, and dispersants, are employed to implant a black tattoo into human beings (Liao et al. 2014). On most occasions, the modern tattoos will contain organic pigments, including heavy metals such as titanium, barium, aluminum, and copper. It may also include other materials such as antimony, mercury sulfide, nickel contaminants, cobalt, lead, and chromium. Some of the inks that the professional tattooist are different in terms of purity as well as contain substances that are yet to be tested on for individual human consumption.

Amateur tattooists’ pigments include multiple inks such as India ink, pen ink, carbon particles collected from the burned wood, vegetable matter, cotton, shoe heels, paper, and molten rubber mixed with water sugar. Another component includes the mixture of ash and urine. This practice is widely used in prisons and attested that it lowers the probability of infections.

Complications of tattoos

Some underlying complications are closely linked to the tattooing processes. These complications are primary infections, non-infectious inflammatory, psychosocial, technique, and treatment-related miscellaneous. The complications tend to vary from one party to another with varying complexity. Some complications may be acute, delayed, or even chronic. The colored tattoos, red in red, are more likely to result in chronic complications than the black tattoos. The complications usually impact the individual’s skin, estimated at 70 percent, while 7 percent are believed to be systematic, and only 6 percent believed to be persistent.

Poor procedural, as well as individual hygiene, is responsible for the infectious complications. The infections from bacteria, viruses, and fungi are projected to complicate the tattoos. Whether amateur or professional, the tattooists must ensure that the materials they use to perform the tattooing procedures are well sterilized and clean to prevent infecting other people.

Tattoo removal

People may also seek to remove implanted tattoos from their bodies based on personal reasons and derive complications in tattooing. Personal reasons resonate with a person changing their religious affiliations, boredom, dissatisfaction with a tattoo, dissociation with certain groups, and relationship status (Sapp 2016). People seeking to reintegrate into society can be hampered due to prisoners or gang members with tattoos meanings they still prescribe the ideas of the group. The professional and social pressures have less impact on an individual’s ability to seek tattooing because some careers promote tattoos.

People’s desire to eradicate a tattoo from their bodies is usually more desired than a desire to implant it. A recent study suggests that people are not concerned about the health risks posed while removing a tattoo from their bodies. Most people want to seek complete medical surgery to remove the tattoos without alternative measures.


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Isaacs, T., Ngwanya, R. M., & Lehloenya, R. J. (2018). Tattoos: A summary knowledge for the practicing clinician. South African Medical Journal108(9), 714-720. Retrieved from https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.7196/SAMJ.2018.v108i9.13231

Levy, J. (2008). Tattoos in modern society. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

Liao, P. A., Chang, H. H., & Su, Y. J. (2014). Is tattooing a risk factor for adolescents’ criminal behavior? Empirical evidence from an administrative data set of juvenile detainees in Taiwan. Risk analysis34(12), 2080-2088.

Sapp, J. L. (2016). Evaluation of tattoo artists’ perceptions of tattoo regulations in the United States.