Understanding The Incidence And Mortality Of Lung Cancer


The lungs are made up of 2 sponge-looking tissues in the chest. The right lung consists of 3 parts, referred to as lobes, while the left has two lobes. Given that the heart is located on the left side and takes some space, it means the left lung is smaller. The alveoli are tiny air sacks that are responsible for the absorption of oxygen into the blood. Additionally, the alveoli get rid of the carbon dioxide during exhalation. The primary function of the lungs is to take in oxygen and dispense carbon dioxide. Typically, lung cancer begins in the bronchi cell lining and segments of the lungs, like the alveoli and bronchioles. This essay will highlight the risk factors for lung cancer, the incidence rates, and mortality rates of the disease.

Risk factors

Tobacco (Firsthand and Secondhand smoke)

The leading cause of lung cancer is tobacco smoking. Approximately 80% of deaths related to lung cancer are believed to be a result of tobacco, with the figure probably being greater for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lung cancer risk for smokers is significantly higher than for nonsmokers. The more one smokes, and the more cigarette packets one smokes, the higher the risk for diagnosis. Pipe smoking and cigar smoking have an almost equal likelihood of cigarette smoking causing lung cancer. Smoking “light” or low-tar cigarettes also has an equal likelihood of causing lung cancer as smoking regular cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes might exacerbate the risk of lung cancer compared to regular cigarettes because menthol may make it easier for smokers to inhale even more deeply (American Cancer Society, 2023). For nonsmokers, inhaling the smoke from smokers (referred to as secondhand smoke) has the likelihood of increasing one’s risk of being diagnosed with lung cancer. Secondhand smoke is the USA’s third most frequent cause of lung cancer.

Radon exposure

Radon is a radioactive gas that naturally occurs and is an outcome of uranium breakdown in rocks and soil. It is invisible to the naked eye and cannot be smelled or tasted. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) asserts that the second most common risk factor for nonsmokers in the US is radon. There is an insignificant amount of radon outside that is unlikely to cause any danger, although this gas might be highly concentrated indoors. Inhaling radon subjects the lungs to minor radiation amounts, thus heightening the individual’s risk of lung cancer (American Cancer Society, 2023). Houses, among other buildings in almost every location of the USA, could potentially have elevated amounts of radon indoors.

Asbestos Exposure

People whose work involves contact with asbestos, such as insulation jobs, mills, mines, shipyards, and textile plants, have a higher likelihood of dying from lung cancer. There is a greater risk for lung cancer diagnoses among workers subjected to environments with asbestos who smoke as well. Individuals subjected to great amounts of asbestos are at a higher risk of acquiring mesothelioma, a form of cancer that begins in the lungs’ surrounding lining known as the pleura (American Cancer Society, 2023). Government regulations have, in recent years, considerably reduced asbestos use in industrial and commercial products. Asbestos still remains present in many houses, although it is regarded harmless as long as there is no renovation, demolition, or deterioration that might cause its release into the atmosphere.


Lung cancer has, in the last several decades, been the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer globally (Bray et al., 2018). Statistics from 2018 on lung cancer showed an approximated 2.1 million novel cases of lung cancer diagnosis, which was 12% of the world’s total cancer affliction. Lung cancer still continues to be the most popular cancer diagnosis among men, with an estimated 1.37 million diagnoses. Regions with the highest incidents include Eastern Asia, Micronesia, Eastern and Central Europe, and Polynesia. Rates of incidence among women are largely lower compared to men, with an estimated 720,000 novel diagnoses in 2018. There are differences in the geographical rates of incidences for women in comparison to men. Such variations can be credited to cigarette smoking’s historical differences. The highest rates of incidences among women appear in North America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe (Schabath & Cote, 2019).

Among men, lung cancer in the US is the second highest prevalent cancer after prostate cancer, while in women, it is the second highest prevalent cancer after breast cancer (Siegel et al., 2019). There were a projected 228,150 novel incidents of lung cancer in 2019. The rate of occurrence among women is 52 for every 100,000 and 71 for every 100,000 among men. Despite the dwindling rate among men beginning in the mid-1980s, rates of occurrence for women did not begin to go down until the mid-2000s due to historical sex-centered disparities of uptake in smoking as well as its consequent cessation. The fall in occurrence has seen a momentum gain in the last decade, with a decrease in rates from 2011 to 2015 at 1.5% annually in women and 3% annually in men. The occurrence of lung cancer is geographically higher in the South, Midwest, and the East (Schabath & Cote, 2019).


The geographical patterns worldwide regarding deaths caused by lung cancer are close to the ones in incidence as a result of this disease’s high rate of fatality and poor survival. Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer mortality among males and the second most common cause of cancer deaths among females. The approximate number of deaths that occurred in 2018 was 1.8 million, which made up 1 out of 5 global cancer mortalities. The disparities in terms of geography and between women and men can mostly be ascribed to tobacco smoking’s historical patterns as well as the tobacco epidemic maturity (Bray et al., 2018).

Lung cancer is the number one cause of death caused by cancer in the US among both women and men (Siegel et al., 2019). There were an approximated 142,670 mortalities that were projected to occur in 2019, which accounts for 23.5% of every cancer-related mortality. Men’s mortality rate is around 51.6 for every 100,000 individuals and 34.4 for every 100,000 individuals for females. As a result of the decline in smoking, there has been a decrease in lung cancer mortalities by 48%, beginning with 1990 among males and by 23% among females in 2002. There was a decline in mortality rate from 2012 to 2016 by approximately 3% annually in females and 4% annually in males. Lung cancer-related deaths geographically follow a parallel trend in occurrence, inclusive of the highest rates as seen in the south (Schabath & Cote, 2019).


Overall, significant progress has been made over the past decades across the continuum for cancer control concerning prevention, etiology, diagnosis, early detection, survivorship, treatment, and end-of-life. Nevertheless, lung cancer still remains a significant global public health affliction. In terms of etiology, concerted efforts are necessary for the identification of lung cancer causal risk factors among nonsmokers and the identification of nonsmokers with the highest probability of getting lung cancer that could profit from a program for lung cancer screening.


American Cancer Society. (2023). Lung cancer risk factors: Smoking & lung cancer. Smoking & Lung Cancer | American Cancer Society. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/types/lung-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html

Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R. L., Torre, L. A., & Jemal, A. (2018). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A cancer journal for clinicians68(6), 394-424.

Schabath, M. B., & Cote, M. L. (2019). Cancer Progress and Priorities: Lung Cancer. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology28(10), 1563–1579. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0221

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., & Jemal, A. (2019). Cancer statistics, 2019. CA: A cancer journal for clinicians69(1), 7-34.

Effective Marketing Strategies

Developing useful marketing strategies necessitates a comprehensive interpretation of the four key approaches, which are market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification. It is important to stress the value of doing good marketing research before we dive into these tactics. This study forms the base for smart choices, helping companies move toward success. In this task, we first look at the mission statement, followed by a comprehensive examination of the situation analysis grounded in the local context. The initial focus is to research the business type and background marketing. This helps build a strong plan for future strategy making.

Part 1: Mission

Lee’s job needs to change from focusing on things they make to caring more about what customers want. A new goal statement could show the true worth that Lee’s Auto Part Store gives to its customers. For instance, a goal like “Giving car owners good and cheap auto parts solutions so their journey is easy with no problems” shows they care about customers. This idea connects well with the expected audience.

Part 2: Situation Analysis

Organization Strengths and Weaknesses:

Lee can use different ways to find his firm and weak points. Listening to employees’ thoughts, getting customer input, and checking how things are done gives helpful information(Kriz et al., 2021). Mystery buyers can be essential in checking how well customer service is doing. Reviewing sales and money data reveals whether things are working well or not. This helps make important strategy choices for the future.


Lee uses numbers from the U.S. Census Bureau to learn more about their nearby people in detail. Looking at things like age, money earned, and who owns cars helps to make products better for people in the community. This information about age groups is beneficial in making marketing plans that will connect with the people who live nearby.

Technology Impact:

In the fast-moving auto parts business, technology is vital for winning. Lee should use online selling websites, internet lists, and digital ads to reach more people (Verhoef et al., 2021). It is essential to know what new technology comes out. This helps Lee’s Auto Part Store stay ahead, ensure it does not get left behind, and always keep up with changes in the market.

Competitive Analysis:

It is crucial to find the city’s direct and indirect competitors. A good look at their best and worst gives important information. Lee’s edge could come from a particular set of products, fantastic customer service, or intelligent pricing. This study helps establish a good position and find places where Lee’s Auto Part Business can do better than others.

Sustainable Competitive Advantage:

The idea of having a long-lasting edge over rivals is very important for success in the future. For Lee, this might mean creating solid ties with nearby suppliers. It could also involve giving outstanding customer service all the time or providing unique price cuts for customers who always shop there. The important part is to keep these things going constantly, making something special that’s hard for others to copy.

Part 3: Marketing Objectives

Set Marketing Plan Objectives:

It is imperative to set clear goals in marketing if you want success. Lee’s Auto Part Store wants to grow its share in the market by 15% within a year. At the same time, improving your online presence by starting an e-commerce site aligns with how people now shop (Dwivedi et al., 2021). This idea aims to increase sales from internet shopping by 20% in just six months.

SMART Goals:

SMART goals help to make marketing objectives more transparent. A precise aim of boosting sales through focused marketing is to see a 10% rise in monthly income over the next three months. This goal is achievable. Running unique ads and offers, keeping the market size in mind, will help reach a goal on time by the next three months.


A well-made marketing plan for Lee’s Auto Part Store aims to please customers, thoroughly looking at things that affect it inside and outside the store. It also sets precisely what they want their market goals to be. This method will help Lee’s business stay alive and grow big in the challenging local auto parts market. Lee’s Auto Parts Store is ready to handle problems by continuously changing and improving.


Dwivedi, Y. K., Ismagilova, E., Hughes, D. L., Carlson, J., Raffaele Filieri, Jacobson, J., Jain, V., H. K., Hajer Kéfi, K., A. S., K., V., R., M. M., R., R., R., P. A., R., J., S., J., T., G. A., & Wang, Y. (2021). Setting the future of digital and social media marketing research: Perspectives and research propositions. International Journal of Information Management, p. 59, 102168–102168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102168

Kriz, T. D., Kluger, A. N., & Lyddy, C. J. (2021). Feeling Heard: Experiences of Listening (or not) at Work. Frontiers in Psychology12(659087). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.659087

‌ Verhoef, P. C., Broekhuizen, T., Bart, Y., Bhattacharya, A., John Qi Dong, Nicolai Etienne Fabian, & Haenlein, M. (2021). Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda. Journal of Business Research122, 889–901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.09.022

Critical Insight Into Medications And Depression Among Students

Depression among students is a common worry these days. So, medicines for depression are being used as possible help. The first thing to check is who is using antidepressants, like men or women, and different groups of people from all over. It is essential to know these things when checking if antidepressants work well for students in other groups (Amaral et al., 2021). A close look should check how age and gender might affect the reaction to these medicines. It needs to think about possible differences in side effects and how well they work.

Results of Study

Talking about unknown things that could change the study results is very important. Knowing these reasons is very important to understand the research correctly. This means watching closely if people use drugs, if they could be just sugar pills and differences in how bad depression is among the group of people being studied (Amaral et al., 2021). By understanding and talking about these hard-to-control factors, people can better see the results. This also shows we need more study for these hard issues.

In the end, we need to look closely at medicines for student’s depression in many different ways. We can get a better view of this subject by looking at who is using anti-depression medicine, checking out supporting proof, studying results, and talking about things that were not controlled. This fundamental idea is needed for doctors and scientists to understand the complex parts of helping students with depression.

Psychotherapy vs. Pharmacology in Depression Treatment

Review of Previous Data

Meta-studies, which look at many different studies together, have given essential knowledge about how well psychotherapy and medicine work compared to each other. In 2017, Cuijpers and others did a study that showed both talking-helping therapy (CBT) and particular drugs helped with depression. CBT was better.

Chart showing how much CBT and antidepressants help in treating depression.

Chart showing how much CBT and antidepressants help in treating depression.

It is important to remember how well both treatments work and how they can change depending on the illness, its seriousness, and the patient’s personal traits. Research also shows that combining talk therapy and medicine works better than using only one for some problems. This shows how important it is to create a plan for each person’s needs. It is essential to look at old information carefully in order to find the best way of treating depression (Kappelmann et al., 2020). Studies and comparisons of psychotherapy and medical treatments give us important information. These studies should look at considerable results and go into details like treatment following, long-term results, and possible side effects. It is essential to find out any limits in the studies so we can look at our evidence somewhat.

Symptom-Specific Treatment

Thinking about treatment for specific symptoms is a big part of looking at how psychotherapy and medicines are different. Fixing issues is very important for great help that focuses on certain problems. We need to check how useful and good the Symptom-Oriented Rating Test (SORT) is in finding things early. The Sort test can help find main feelings in someone. This will lead to deciding between talking therapy and drugs (Kappelmann et al., 2020). We need to check if SORT works well and if it’s good for people from all kinds of cultures.

Application and Efficacy of SORT as a Screening Tool

Using SORT as a test tool helps to find right treatment options for people often. Looking at its use means checking if it can correctly find different signs of sickness and how simple it is to use in many places. We need to ensure that SORT is skilled at predicting treatment outcomes. This means you have to see if cures based on SORT make people healthier than those without this advice. (Kappelmann et al., 2020) We also need to find out when these improvements take place in specific circumstances or patient groups.

In the end, we need to check current information and use symptom-focused ways when deciding between talking therapy or drug treatment for depression. We can get more information by closely checking studies and meta-analyses. Make sure SORT works well as a tool to find problems in the beginning. This critical thought is essential for doctors and scientists who want to improve treatments for depression. (Kappelmann et al., 2020)They match the treatments with people’s specific symptoms and increase success in helping those patients feel good again.

Comorbidities and Combination Therapies in Disease Management

Disease Management

Treating problems that happen together is very important for dealing with mental health issues. The first step is finding other health problems that might be present with the primary condition. This needs a thorough look at not just mental health problems but also body issues that can change how happy people feel (Mendes et al., 2019). Also, it is essential to understand other causes like money, stress from surroundings, or how genes can lead to disease. Then, we can plan a whole way of dealing with sickness.

Integrating Medication with Therapy and Lifestyle Changes

An essential part of handling health problems is combining medicine with treatment and changes in how we live. It is essential to make treatment suit what a patient needs for personal and complete care. The combination of drugs and treatment can handle different parts of the illness (Mendes et al., 2019). This provides a more robust and more precise way to help them get better. Also, adding changes to your everyday life, like exercise, healthy eating, and handling stress, is part of a more extensive treatment plan. This might reduce the need for just medicine alone.

Supporting Evidence on Lifestyle Changes

We know for sure that changing your life can help make mental health better. Studies that show how important exercise, good eating, and stress reduction are help us add them to treatment plans. Doctors need to know how changes in daily life affect regular treatments (Mendes et al., 2019). This assists them in making intelligent decisions when creating treatment plans, especially for individuals with multiple health issues at once.

The significance of routinely checking and tailored treatment plans.

Making your plans and deciding on treatments is very important for dealing with health problems. We usually get good results by checking in and making it personal. Regular checks help us change treatment plans for patients based on their response to treatments. This to-and-fro process is necessary when using medicines together. We need to keep revising our plans because medicine, treatments, and lifestyle changes all depend on each other. (Mendes et al., 2019) Doing regular check-ups helps to keep the treatment plan adaptable and tailored for what someone needs. This changes over time.


To sum up, how much you use drugs, talk therapy, and changes in your life all work together to make sure people’s minds stay healthy. Studying pharmacy students shows how common anxiety and depression are. This highlights the need for particular actions in learning places to help with these problems. The study of a System-Focused Treatment (SORT) score in depression therapy gives hope for individual care. The research on older adults with diabetes shows how connected their body and mind health is in dealing with long-term sickness. Together, these studies help us to understand the tricky parts of using medicine and mental health. They show how important it is to care for each person’s needs altogether when dealing with their mental problems. The given details also back up the claim that using only medicine to treat depression is not good or suggested.


Amaral, C. M., Carvalho, R. C., Vieira, M. E., & Aguiar, P. M. (2021). Factors associated with use of medications for anxiety and depression in pharmacy students in Brazil. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education85(6), 8285. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8285

Kappelmann, N., Rein, M., Fietz, J., Mayberg, H. S., Craighead, W. E., Dunlop, B. W., Nemeroff, C. B., Keller, M., Klein, D. N., Arnow, B. A., Husain, N., Jarrett, R. B., Vittengl, J. R., Menchetti, M., Parker, G., Barber, J. P., Bastos, A. G., Dekker, J., Peen, J., … Kopf-Beck, J. (2020). Psychotherapy or medication for depression? using individual symptom meta-analyses to derive a symptom-oriented therapy (SORT) metric for a personalized psychiatry. BMC Medicine18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01623-9

Mendes, R., Martins, S., & Fernandes, L. (2019). Adherence to medication, physical activity and diet in older adults with diabetes: Its association with Cognition, anxiety and depression. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research11(8), 583–592. https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3894