Use Of Primary Health Care To Control Tobacco In Hong Kong Free Writing Sample


Primary health care is a model of medical care that seeks to ensure good health among individuals. This model relies on sub-models such as equity, accessible, comprehensive, and community-based care. The primary purpose of this model is to provide a framework of curative, rehabilitative, promotive, and preventive services among individuals in a community (Ho et al., 2019). In terms of controlling the use of tobacco, primary health care has its roles.

One of the significances of primary health care in controlling tobacco use is offering preventive measures. A primary model for preventing tobacco use is the creation of awareness (Mak et al., 2018). Through the creation of awareness, people in the community can learn about the dangers of smoking tobacco. This model enables people to form campaign groups to educate teenagers, older adults, and pregnant women about the health risks of smoking tobacco.

The other significance of primary health care in controlling excessive tobacco use is the promotion of early diagnosis. This medical model allows the community to get a diagnosis of smoking-related illnesses at an early stage. Through early diagnosis, the patients have an opportunity for early treatment before the stages of potential illnesses evolve and grow to require sophisticated medical procedures.

The PHC model also provides counseling services to potential and existing tobacco users. From this perspective, the primary purpose of counseling services is to cover preventive and curative measures for stopping or controlling tobacco use. For example, this model uses counseling services to provide rehabilitative services by introducing successful quitting processes to existing tobacco users. For potential tobacco addicts, the PHC model provides a preventive framework that entails a concise list of risks associated with tobacco smoke.

The primary healthcare model also ensures that tobacco addicts refer to specialized services. For complex cases of tobacco-related diseases, the PHC model forwards the patients to more physiological assistance. For example, for patients with lung cancer due to excessive tobacco use, the PHC models refer them to more sophisticated medication within the health care facilities. Therefore, depending on the extent of the damage caused by tobacco- smoke, the PHC classifies patients and provides rehabilitative assistance.

The other significance of the PHC model in regulating and controlling tobacco use is community involvement. The community has a significant stake in controlling the use of alcohol and drugs. Therefore, medical practitioners, social workers, and psychologists rely on the community to ensure that there is an impact of controlling the excessive use of tobacco products. Community involvement in this category involves various fields, such as labeling cigarette packets with health warnings against excessive tobacco use (Ho et al., 2019). Other activities include school campaigns against tobacco use intending to educate children and teenagers about possible health risks.

Implementation of Tobacco Control Campaigns/ Interventions in Hing Kong

Controlling tobacco use in Hong Kong relies on community participation, equity, and intersectoral collaboration. In Hong Kong, using these three approaches has aided in implementing control of tobacco use. However, challenges exist and hinder the successful implementation of tobacco use control.

Community Participation

Community participation is one of the interventions that have been reliable in implementing control of tobacco use. Community participation involves all components of a society, including economic, political, and social methods. For example, the government has laid a legislative framework against excessive tobacco use in Hong Kong. This legislative framework seeks to control tobacco use among under-aged children, teenagers, and pregnant mothers (Chung et al., 2019). Mackay et al. (2022) state that in 1987, the Hong Kong legislative council introduced guidelines through the Smoking Public Health Ordinance, whose role is to ensure control of tobacco use in the community till today. Although there have been numerous amendments, this ordinance was created to lay rules prohibiting tobacco smoking in various places such as public, indoor, and workplaces where non-smokers could be affected.

Additionally, community participation revolves around economic factors such as social marketing and advertising. The community is aware that laws govern the sale of tobacco products to underage and other vulnerable community members, such as pregnant women. Regarding social marketing, implementing tobacco use control has relied on campaigns that push for smoking cessation in the community.

Another method of community participation that has facilitated the implementation of tobacco use control in Hong Kong is the provision of Quitline services (Mackay et al., 2022). Other quitting promotions include the Tobacco Control Offices (TCO), which regulate how individuals smoke, which could affect themselves or others. The TCO offices operate on counseling, among other preventive strategies that could assist potential addicts of tobacco products.

The other aspect of community participation in the implementation of tobacco control is compliance with policies. The Hong Kong community complies with the high taxation of tobacco products. Other policies include warnings and restricting the promotion of the products due to the influence they may have on underage individuals (Chung et al., 2019). Experts in public health are tasked by the government to ensure that these restrictions are complied with. The experts also provide and ensure facilitation of guidelines concerning the use of tobacco are implemented. The government has structured such policies after extensive communication and consultations with the Hong Kong community.

Intersectoral Collaboration

In terms of intersectoral collaboration, there are multiple attempts by the community, health facilities, and the legislature to discourage the promotion of tobacco use in Hong Kong. The purpose of intersectoral collaboration in this context has been to involve non-governmental and governmental organizations in conducting “Smoke-Free” campaigns in Hong Kong (Chung et al., 2019). Despite the challenges, the extensive campaign activities have assisted in reducing excessive tobacco smoking in Hong Kong.

One effective implantation strategy that has worked for intersectoral collaboration is enforcing tobacco control policies. Most countries rely on the presence of police to enforce control of tobacco smoking. In Hong Kong, stakeholders from multiple sectors assist in enforcing controlled tobacco smoking (Hong & Henriksen, 2022). This collaboration is ongoing, and it addresses rules surrounding the sale of cigarettes in terms of price, age of buyers, and health guidelines of buyers (Chung et al., 2019). For example, health facilities such as hospitals and rehabilitation centers assist in controlling the sale of cigarettes to patients whose prescriptions have ordered smoking cessation.

The other aspect of intersectoral collaboration that has ensured the implementation of tobacco use control in Hong Kong is enforcing bans. The government has banned the use of tobacco products to particular extents, such as indoors and public smoking. Therefore, different organizations, both in and out of the government, ensure that the ban is reliable and active in public and indoor places in Hong Kong. Therefore, intersectoral collaboration has aided community policing against irresponsible tobacco use in Hong Kong.


Equity is the other method that has aided in implementing control of tobacco use in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong community has ensured that all the activities surrounding regulating tobacco use facilitate equity (Hong & Henriksen, 2022). Through such activities, the government, healthcare facilities, and NGOs seek to provide a framework of equity where non-smokers are not affected by tobacco use.

One of the ways equity has assisted in the implementation of tobacco use control is through regulating consumption. The implementation strategies enforce community guidelines that protect children and non-smokers from tobacco smoke through direct measures such as prohibiting smoking in public places and indoors near children and non-smokers. Indirect measures include prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to underaged people (Chung et al., 2019). These are equity measures that revolve around tobacco use control implementation.

The other aspect of equity in implementing tobacco use control in Hong Kong is campaigning for public health. The government and non-governmental agencies facilitate public health stakeholders in campaigns that seek to control tobacco use in Hong Kong. Through these campaigns, it is possible to implement control strategies and ensure that the primary healthcare approach assists in enforcing equity.

PHC model is also an aspect of equity that has aided the facilitation of controlling tobacco use in Hong Kong. The health sector treats both addicts and potential smokers equally. For example, rehabilitating ex-smokers involves equal treatment in counseling, provision of quitting processes, and emotional support. Underaged individuals and potential tobacco addicts also get equal treatment from health facilities through early diagnosis, treatment, and mentorship. The equity aspect also targets the community where smokers and non-smokers get equal treatment (Hong & Henriksen, 2022). For example, despite banning smoking in public areas, the government has set smoking zones for tobacco smokers to avoid irresponsible public smoking. These acts of equity are reliable in controlling tobacco use in Hong Kong.


Public health care has relevance in controlling tobacco use in Hong Kong. The government and non-governmental agencies collaborate in handling issues related to tobacco use in Hong Kong to ensure that non-smokers, smokers, and potential tobacco addicts have equal treatment concerning control of tobacco use. Public health care ensures control of tobacco use through early diagnosis, counseling services, and rehabilitation of tobacco users. The PHC model employs a straightforward method of controlling tobacco use in Hong Kong through preventive and curative measures. Implementing control of tobacco use in Hong Kong involves equity, community participation, and intersectoral collaboration. Equity ensures that all individuals get fair treatment regardless of whether they smoke. The aspect of community participation involves the public in policing the use of tobacco in Hing Kong to prevent irresponsible smoking and an increase in smoke-related illnesses. The other aspect of community participation is campaigns, which are also applicant and reliable in intersectoral collaboration. In intersectoral collaboration, the government ensures that it collaborates with stakeholders and non-governmental agencies to ensure that there is adequate control of tobacco use in Hong Kong.


Chung, O. K., Li, W. H. C., Ho, K. Y., Kwong, A. C. S., Lai, V. W. Y., Wang, M. P., … &

Chan, S. S. C. (2019). A descriptive study of a Smoke-free Teens Programme to promote smoke-free culture in schools and the community in Hong Kong. BMC Public Health19, 1–9.

Ho, S. Y., Chen, J., Leung, L. T., Mok, H. Y., Wang, L., Wang, M. P., & Lam, T. H. (2019).

Adolescent smoking in Hong Kong: prevalence, psychosocial correlates, and prevention. Journal of Adolescent Health64(6), S19-S27.

Kong, A. Y., & Henriksen, L. (2022). Retail endgame strategies: reduce tobacco availability

and visibility and promote health equity.

Mackay, J. M., Dorotheo, E. U., Assunta, M., & Ritthiphakdee, B. (2022). Tobacco control in

Asia-Pacific: wins, challenges, and targets. Tobacco Control31(2), 146–149.

Mak, Y. W., Loke, A. Y., & Wong, F. K. (2018). Nursing intervention practices for smoking

cessation: a large survey in Hong Kong. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health15(5), 1046.

Floods In Brazil Free Writing Sample

Flooding in Brazil has been a major disaster that has affected people, infrastructure, homes, and businesses for a long time. The country experiences rivers, floods, and landslides, now considered natural catastrophes that lead to the death of people and animals. It has led to the destruction of properties in many urban areas. The disaster is associated with increased socioeconomic development, the concentration of people in urban centers, and economic activities in the urban centers. Climate change also plays a critical part in increasing the frequency and severity of floods. In 2023, the country experienced precipitation of more than 600 millimeters (Swiss, 2011). It has led to the death of 57 people in 2023, with others missing, and it has forced more than 4000 people to evacuate their homes to look for safer places to live. To avoid more losses, the essay explores the pre-disaster assessment of the population, preparedness, readiness, recovery programs, effects experienced by the community, response support from government and NGOs, proposed mitigating strategies, and conclusions and recommendations to eliminate the dangers caused by flood disasters in Brazil.

The Pre-disaster assessment of the population shows that people living in urban areas are most vulnerable to potential disasters due to the high population living in areas with increased related issues.

  • Study shows that areas in Brazil that are most affected by climate disasters are municipalities.
  • From the 825 municipalities, analysis shows that 82% of the small cities affected had large populations exposed to landslides and floods (Swiss, 2011).
  • Most vulnerable areas are associated with poor education levels, high poverty, and poor infrastructure.
  • Around 19.3 million people live near areas prone to river flooding, and 14 million people live in areas affected by flash floods (Swiss, 2011).
  • The Southeast states of Brazil are the most affected areas, followed by the Northeastern areas.
  • States at risk of river floods include Amazonas, Sao Paulo, Maranhao, Pernambuco, and Para. Flash floods risk areas include Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Santa Catarina.

Floods in Brazil have significant effects on individual lives, businesses, and the economy of Brazil. The research shows that low-income households are majorly affected by floods than high-income earners (Haddad & Teixeira, 2015).

  • Floods led to the deaths and destruction of essential structures in society.
  • The floods cause major landslides in the Southeastern states of Brazil that leave people without houses to live in. It destroys farm products in areas where farming is done (Haddad & Teixeira, 2015).
  • It has led to the destruction of roads and bridges, which aid transportation.
  • Most schools suspend classes, and children have to lack classes.
  • It causes the emergence of waterborne diseases that affect most people and can lead to deaths if the hospitals are also suspended.
  • Losses and destruction of property might lead to psychological stress and depression.

The agencies that have offered support to the people in the affected areas by the floods by responding to the emergencies. According to the Relief Web (2022), The Brazil Red Cross has been working with federal, state, and municipal authorities in strategies to help people affected by the floods by going to the field to rescue people left homeless and without food.

Another agency that assists victims of floods is USAID which helps people trying to recover from the losses experienced during floods. It helps with the donation of cleaning and personal hygiene products such as soaps, bedding, buckets, and kitchen utensils. They work with other companies to donate food, water, and money.

  • Brazil is faced with recurring environmental disasters which are challenging to control. As the government and private organizations try to recover from floods, they are faced with other catastrophic disasters, such as drought (Relief Web, 2022).
  • Floods cause major destructions of property and infrastructure that demand so many finances to help recover the losses. The financial burden is too big for Brazil to help in recovery programs.
  • The focus is on helping individuals overcome the losses, and government utilizes much capital in helping affected families, which reduces the capital to be used in the recovery programs.

Mitigation methods are based on the causes of the flooding in Brazil, which is floods caused by urbanization, resulting in flash floods and river floods.

  • The authority should construct macro drainage and preservation of the lateral spaces where the water will flow to retain sediments and waste.
  • Mapping out flood zones that are at high risk (Lopes & Flavio,2017).
  • Construction of an appropriate drainage system that will allow smooth water flow in urban areas (da Silva et al., 2018)
  • Discourage people to live in areas that are prone to floods and pose high risks of losing lives.

Recommendations and Conclusion

Floods in Brazil can be mitigated if proper strategies are laid out by the government. The federal, state, and municipal authority should develop the best strategies to minimize losses and impacts on human lives associated with floods. Appropriate urban planning can help in mitigating risks associated with floods in urban centers.

The poor drainage plan causes the flood disaster in Brazil. Hence, the recommendation to the brazil government would be to properly plan the urban centers to have a better-integrated drainage management system (Tucci, 2002).

Relocate people living in risky areas that would be affected by the landslides.


Swiss, R. (2011). Flood risk in Brazil: Prevention, adaptation, and insurance. URL: http://media. swissre. com/documents.

Lopes Ribeiro, Flavio. (2017). Brazil: Disaster Profile and Risk Management System.

Araújo S, R., Ohara, M., Miyamoto, M., & Takeuchi, K. (2022). Flood impact on income inequality in the Itapocu River basin, Brazil. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 15(3), e12805.

Relief web. (2022). Brazil: Floods Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA) DREF Operation Update n° 2 MDRBR010 report. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

Haddad, E. A., & Teixeira, E. (2015). Economic impacts of natural disasters in megacities: The case of floods in São Paulo, Brazil. Habitat International, 45, 106-113.

da Silva , L. P., Junior, J. L., da Silva, J. A. F., Wasserman, J. C., & Rodrigues, P. P. G. W. (2018). Water management and urban flood mitigation: studies and proposals for the Macaé River Basin In Brazil. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, 12(2), 188-200.

Tucci, C. E. M. (2002). Flood control and urban drainage management in Brazil. Waterlines, 20(4), 6–8.

General Motors Corporate Governance, Ethics, And Risk Management Essay Example For College


General Motors is a multinational corporation primarily engaged in designing, manufacturing, and selling vehicles and vehicle parts. The company was founded in 1908 and has since become one of the largest automakers in the world (LAWRIE, G.R., 2020). The company is strongly committed to corporate governance, ethics, and risk management. GM’s board of directors oversees the company’s management and ensures that it acts in the shareholders’ best interest. The company also has a code of conduct that outlines ethical behavior for employees and suppliers. GM takes risk management seriously and has implemented various measures to identify, assess, and mitigate risks. Overall, GM’s corporate governance, ethics, and risk management practices reflect its commitment to responsible and sustainable business practices, which will be discussed in this essay.

Corporate Governance

The board, which shareholders elect, oversees and provides guidance on the company’s activities. It decides all significant issues for the corporation, with the exception of those designated for shareholders. The board is in charge of overseeing the business’s strategic direction and making sure it is being followed. It ensures that the organization’s assets are safeguarded, that efficient financial and other internal controls are put up, those laws are observed, and that there is sound governance (Karpoff, 2021). The board is committed to putting into place and reviewing corporate governance guidelines and procedures that will enable GM to operate responsibly, develop further, and boost long-term shareholder value. On ESG (environmental, social, and governance) activities, the Board of Directors works with management. ESG-related topics are discussed at board and committee meetings and are on the agenda.

Leadership structure

General Motors Company has a hierarchical leadership structure with a Board of Directors overseeing the company’s operations (Podolny and Hansen, 2020). The board is now chaired by Patricia Russo, an Independent Lead Director, in addition to Mary Barra, Chair and CEO. The board is comprised of 13 members, with the exception of Ms. Barra, in compliance with the Board’s Corporate Governance Rules, which mirror the independence standards of the New York Stock Exchange and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Because of her in-depth knowledge of GM’s operations and prospects for the future, the board believes that Ms. Barra provides focused leadership to the panel. Under the CEO, several key executives oversee different areas of the company, such as finance, operations, marketing, and human resources. Additionally, several layers of management within each department oversee day-to-day operations. Overall, General Motors Company has a well-structured leadership hierarchy that allows for efficient decision-making and management of the company’s operations.

Committee Structure and ESG Governance

The board has six standing committees, including Audit, Executive, Executive Pay, Finance, Governance and Corporate Responsibility, and Risk and Cybersecurity. Except for the Executive Committee, every member of the board’s other standing committees is an independent director. The panel, as a whole and through its various committees, is committed to overseeing GM’s incorporation of ESG principles across the firm and the management of risks and opportunities associated with doing so (Lee and Raschke, 2023). GM’s 2022 Proxy Statement elaborates on each committee’s roles, responsibilities, and focus areas. Each committee’s purpose, authority, and duties are spelled out in detail in their own charters. Open and reliable financial reporting; risk assessment and containment (including climate change and other ESG issues); compliance and ethics; product and workplace safety; supply chain and civil rights; pay-for-performance; data security; diversity, equity, and inclusion; Board and management succession planning; are just some of the areas that the committees help the board better monitor.

Shareholder Engagement

General Motors has a strong commitment to shareholder engagement. The company regularly communicates with its shareholders through various channels, including annual meetings, quarterly earnings calls, and investor conferences. In addition, General Motors provides regular updates on its financial performance, strategic initiatives, and corporate governance practices (Lambert, 2022). The company also has a robust investor relations website that contains a wealth of information for shareholders, including financial reports, SEC filings, and other relevant information. Overall, General Motors is committed to maintaining open and transparent communication with its shareholders to ensure they are well informed about the company’s performance and strategic direction.

Board Oversight of Risk Management

By giving power to the committees it has created, the board can perform its responsibility as risk overseer. Along with other members of management, particularly the Senior Leadership Team, Ms. Barra, the Board Chair and CEO who also serves as Chief Risk Officer, sets the tone at the top and directs the organization’s risk governance through a top-down and bottom-up communication structure. The Risk Advisory Council, a cross-functional advisory body of executives and members from each business unit, is another resource the Senior Leadership Team uses. They ought to promote risk management guidelines and seek to put them into practice within their individual departments or areas.

Corporate Political Contributions and Lobbying Expenditures

The board is in charge of overseeing GM’s political activity and believes that the company should be active in influencing legislation and public policy that has an impact on the company, its industry, its shareholders, and other stakeholders. General Motors has supported and continues to support public policies that enable them to achieve the objective of long-term, sustainable growth.


The foundation of GM’s business

Its core business is built on innovation, quality, and customer satisfaction. General Motors has a diverse portfolio of brands, including Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, and Cadillac, which cater to different market segments. The company has also invested heavily in research and development, focusing on developing new technologies that improve its vehicles’ safety, performance, and efficiency (DeAngelo, 2021). Overall, General Motors’ success is built on a commitment to delivering high-quality products and services that meet the needs of its customers.

The Fundamental Behaviors serve as a framework for their decisions and actions in an international company. GM conducts an ethical culture survey of its workers globally every few years to gauge its progress in this area. General Motors workers had a higher favorable perception of the company’s ethical culture, according to its 2020 third-party survey than the benchmark of over 500,000 responses from 32 other firms from the third-2018-2019 party (Chuang and Zhao, 2019). For the third consecutive year in 2022, General Motors was recognized as one of the World’s Most Ethical Companies by Ethisphere, a leader in establishing and advancing the norms of ethical business practices.

The World’s Most Ethical Company award recognizes GM’s transformational ethical leadership and is consistent with one of its Core Behaviors: winning with integrity. In an honest business, it all starts at the top. The Senior Leadership Team as a whole, including Chair and CEO Mary Barra, regularly communicates with all employees to reiterate the value of our Code of Conduct and their expectation that each employee will make every effort to do the right thing, even when it is intricate Ethics | General Motors 2021 Sustainability Report. (n.d.). The board is committed to performing its duties in an ethical and legal manner. All Board members, officers, and employees are required to conduct themselves in an ethical manner at all times, in addition to abiding by the law, their Code of Conduct, and any other company policies that may be in effect. All eligible salaried employees (i.e., everyone excluding those on excused leave) and the board are required to complete GM’s Code of Conduct training. The General Motors ethics and compliance program, which supports a culture of high performance with high integrity by promoting and helping enforce the principles of the General Motors Code of Conduct—Winning with Integrity, is monitored by the Audit Committee of the Board.

As the head of the Global Ethics and Compliance Center, Assistant General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer reports directly to the Executive Vice President of Global Public Policy, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary and indirectly to the Board’s Audit Committee (GECC). The chief compliance officer regularly updates the Audit Committee on company activities. The Audit Committee and the chief compliance officer meet alone, without other executives present, at least once a year.

GM has appointed regional compliance officers in each of its regions to better uphold compliance and ethics on a global level. At GM, they have a group of compliance specialists on hand to help with any employee questions or ethical snags. More extensive international structures and oversight related to safety, export, antitrust, data/cybersecurity, records management, and other risk-related issues have been implemented. Ethics | General Motors 2021 Sustainability Report. (n.d.). The CEO, Mrs. Barra, points out that no matter how successful GM is, they will never compromise their morals. As they begin the second year of the Deferred Prosecution Agreement linked to the ignition switch issue, they are still cooperating with the independent monitor. If someone notices any wrongdoing, they should speak up. There are many ways you may share your concerns, including the Awareline, Speak Up for Safety, the independent Monitor hotline, and their open-door policy. GM has a zero-tolerance policy for punishing people who report illegal activity.

Code of Conduct

GM’s code of conduct, winning with integrity, reaffirms the commitment of the organization to a work environment that is characterized by trust, honesty, and responsibility. It outlines the obligations that underpin how they conduct business and instructs staff on how to report safety and health concerns through various channels (e.g., Speak Up For Safety, Awareline). The non-retaliation policy of GM is emphasized repeatedly in its code of conduct. It applies to all members of management, the executive team, the board of directors, as well as all personnel employed by a subsidiary owned or run by General Motors. All third parties, including suppliers, must abide by the values and principles outlined in our GM Supplier Code of Conduct when working with or on behalf of GM Ethics | General Motors 2021 Sustainability Report. (n.d.). It is expected of GM employees who deal with our external vendors to hold them accountable. The Supplier Code of Conduct is divided into thirteen languages (including English), our Code of Conduct into nine languages (including English), and various compliance rules into numerous languages to ensure that our employees and third parties are always protected. Each person is expected to uphold the highest levels of honesty and integrity when representing GM at work, in the marketplace, or their communities. All of our regular business operations across the world are built on our Code of Conduct.

GM can make sure that its Code of Conduct is operating as intended by conducting routine third-party audits of GM’s compliance program against the Department of Justice and other pertinent laws, regulations, and rules. GM regularly assesses the risk of non-compliance as well. GM’s Code of Conduct clearly states that employees may address any questions or grievances to their local management, HR, union representatives, the GECC, legal counsel, GM’s audit team, or the Awareline.

At GM, there is a thorough procedure for declaring any possible conflicts of interest for every salaried employee and Board member. At least once throughout employment, an electronic conflict of interest questionnaire must be completed and updated as necessary to reflect any alterations in the employee’s financial or personal status. Non-employee board members are required to provide a written report of any current or potential conflicts of interest once a year. To maintain compliance awareness throughout the year, the GECC team continually develops compliance and ethical messages that emphasize the importance of these problems.

Reporting Concerns

GM offers resources and services to encourage employee expression. Thanks to an internal “Report Problems” page, employees may quickly determine the appropriate way to communicate their issues. For anyone who doesn’t feel secure using the more official reporting procedures inside the organization, they provide a 24/7 toll-free hotline. Anybody can anonymously report concerns regarding misconduct on the part of the company, its management, supervisors, or employees through Awareline, which is run by a neutral third party and offers a safe environment for that purpose. Calls, emails, and online forms may be sent at any time, day or night, and more than a dozen different languages are supported. You can file a report without disclosing your identity when the law permits.

GM’s Awareline received 4,170 reports in total in 2021, of which 3048 were classified as allegations Ethics | General Motors 2021 Sustainability Report. (n.d.). The remaining reports addressed additional topics, concepts, and inquiries. Regardless of the reporting route, GM receives reports of wrongdoing that are stored in a case management system that enables efficient investigation, follow-up, and trend tracking for compliance. GM can use the case management system to follow up with people who submit anonymous Awareline complaints while maintaining the reporter’s privacy in order to review and remedy anonymous accusations effectively.

A number of factors, such as the nature of the alleged misbehavior, the accused person’s position within the company, and any pertinent legal breaches, are considered while evaluating and prioritizing misconduct complaints. Once a month, a cross-departmental panel meets to discuss the investigation and conclusion of high-priority cases, which get additional consideration and evaluation. Additionally, there are protocols in place should a specific allegation call for prompt notice of the Board or Audit Committee and a quarterly review to determine which instances, if any, call for such reporting. The chief compliance officer regularly briefs the Audit Committee on the primary GECC priorities, accomplishments, trends, and the status and trends of Awareline submissions and Investigations.

Under the company’s non-retaliation policy (Speak Up! ), General Motors employees are protected from retaliation if they voice a problem in good faith. According to the most current Ethical Culture Survey conducted by General Motors and statistics from comparable industries, the majority of misbehavior reports are made to management. To help GM managers in these circumstances and to offer additional guidance regarding GM’s Non-Retaliation Policy, the GECC has developed a website with helpful compliance tools for managers, including compliance toolkits on various topics, compliance moments to use at meetings, quick reference compliance guides, and other materials Ethics | General Motors 2021 Sustainability Report. (n.d.). Also, GM provides supervisors with a “What Would You Do?” lecture that focuses on fictitious circumstances. In order to contact known reporters after an investigation has been completed, the GECC launched a post-investigation antiretaliation survey in 2021. This will allow the GECC to identify potential retaliation, address it, and improve the investigative process. GM managers can use these methods to create an environment where staff members feel free to voice their problems and thoughts.

Ethics Training and Education

The upkeep of the ethical culture depends on educating the staff members on the standards and values outlined in their policies. All salaried full-time employees are required to go through CRT and review the Code of Conduct once a year. All CRT courses for global workers are available in eight different languages (including English). New or updated training is made available every year, frequently with new scenarios, content, and exercises. GM uses adaptive learning technologies to ensure that each student’s training is pertinent to their job.

The Compliance Training and Communications Group at GM in the GECC is in charge of maintaining the CRT. The CRT governance board approves the annual program and policy certification requirements, a cross-functional group that includes senior leaders from human resources. After this, the course owners and subject matter experts develop the course objectives and content based on the company’s risk analysis any new compliance regulations. GM keeps the values of accountability, respect, and trust in mind when choosing vendors, course sizes, due dates, and other course-related decisions (Martinez, 2020). They achieve this, for example, by establishing precise and uniform standards for course content and ensuring that courses are condensed and relevant to employees’ jobs.

After receiving training on the Code of Conduct, employees must sign a paper attesting that they comprehend its provisions, agree to adhere to them, have declared any new possible conflicts of interest, and have reported any violations of the code any vehicle or workplace safety hazards. All GM salaried employees who qualified for the CRT and Code of Conduct Certification Programs completed them satisfactorily in 2021.

In addition to providing our Code of Conduct and requiring yearly training on these topics, GM uses risk-based methodologies to give thousands of employees live or “virtual” training on ethical and compliance-related concerns each year. Live training sessions conducted by the Compliance Team and attended by specific audiences covered a variety of pertinent compliance topics, including export compliance, antitrust, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, privacy, working with third parties, competing in the market without compromising our values, and other relevant compliance topics (Martinez, 2020). The GECC uses on-demand microlearning modules to guarantee that all employees have access to recurring refresher training on gifts and entertainment policies and conflicts of interest processes. Not to mention, GM holds a Compliance and Ethics Week each year, during which we promote our Winning with Integrity behavior through games, leadership messaging, compliance toolkits, employee recognitions, and more. The integrity of their dealings with vendors, governments, and other third parties is always at the forefront of the minds of GM personnel as they continue to win throughout the year.

Risk Management

General Motors (GM) implemented a program called Enterprise Risk Management after declaring bankruptcy. GM created a three-tier system to categorize hazards more precisely according to their importance (Vishnu, Sridharan, and Kumar, 2019). GM looked for areas where opinions on what should be prioritized as a risk naturally diverged. If General Motors were to switch from making conventional to making electric cars, there would be a significant amount of inherent risk, current risk, and residual risk.

The company’s management team is in charge of creating, putting into action, and maintaining the framework for risk management. Management must design and maintain effective risk governance, processes, and procedures to recognize, assess, and control the company’s key enterprise, enterprise-wide, and cybersecurity risks (de Araújo Lima, Crema, and Verbano, 2020). The Board of Directors routinely analyzes the company’s risk management policies and procedures, including those for guaranteeing the security of its clients and workers. The committee receives reports from management on an as-needed and as-appropriate basis about the identification and mitigation of significant strategic, enterprise, and cybersecurity risks in order to assist the board in its oversight duties. The Board’s Finance and Audit Committees continue to be in charge of keeping an eye on the company’s most significant financial and compliance risks, while the committee focuses primarily on the most important strategic, enterprise, and cybersecurity risks the company faces.

General Motors utilizes a comprehensive enterprise risk management system to identify, assess, and mitigate potential risks across the organization. This system includes regular risk assessments, risk monitoring, and risk reporting to ensure that all potential risks are identified and addressed in a timely manner (Munir et al., 2020). The company’s risk management framework is designed to align with its strategic objectives and to provide a holistic view of the risks facing the organization. Through this approach, General Motors is able to proactively manage risk and ensure the long-term success of the business.

Market risk

General Motors faces market risk due to various factors, such as changes in consumer preferences, economic conditions, and competition. Fluctuations in fuel prices, tariffs, and trade policies also impact the company’s market risk (Murphy et al., 2019). Additionally, changes in technology and regulations related to emissions and safety standards can affect the demand for General Motors products. The company closely monitors these risks and implements strategies to mitigate them.

Legal risk

General Motors faces various legal risks that could impact its business operations. These risks include product liability lawsuits related to faulty ignition switches, which have resulted in numerous deaths and injuries. The company has also faced investigations by regulatory bodies such as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Securities and Exchange Commission (Woellner, 2020). In addition, General Motors has been involved in lawsuits related to environmental issues and labor disputes. These legal risks could have significant financial and reputational consequences for the company.

Currency risk

General Motors faces currency risks due to its global operations. The company has implemented various risk management strategies to mitigate these risks. These strategies include hedging, diversification of operations, and monitoring of currency fluctuations (Jacque, 2019). Despite these measures, fluctuations in exchange rates can still impact the company’s financial performance. Therefore, General Motors continues to closely monitor currency risks and adjust its risk management strategies accordingly.

Interest rate risk

General Motors faces interest rate risks that can impact its financial performance. These risks arise from changes in interest rates that can affect the value of the company’s investments, borrowings, and pension obligations. To manage these risks, General Motors employs various risk management strategies such as interest rate swaps, caps, and floors. These strategies help the company mitigate the impact of interest rate fluctuations on its financial statements and cash flows. However, despite these risk management efforts, General Motors remains exposed to interest rate risks that can impact its profitability and financial stability.

Commodity price risk

General Motors faces commodity price risks due to the nature of its business operations. As a manufacturer of automobiles, the company is exposed to fluctuations in the prices of raw materials such as steel, aluminum, and copper. To manage these risks, General Motors employs various risk management strategies, including hedging and diversification of suppliers. However, despite these efforts, the company remains vulnerable to sudden changes in commodity prices, which could impact its profitability and financial stability (Alekseev et al., 2022). Therefore, it is crucial for General Motors to continue to monitor and manage its commodity price risks effectively.

Equity price risk

General Motors’ equity price risk is a significant concern for risk management. The company’s stock price is subject to fluctuations due to various factors, including economic conditions, market trends, and competition (van der Beck and Jaunin, 2021). To mitigate this risk, General Motors employs various risk management strategies, including hedging, diversification, and monitoring market trends. These strategies help the company to minimize the impact of equity price fluctuations on its financial performance and ensure long-term stability.


General Motors is committed to upholding high standards of corporate governance, ethics, and risk management. The company has implemented policies and procedures to ensure transparency and accountability in all aspects of its operations. GM’s board of directors oversees the company’s governance practices and is responsible for setting the strategic direction of the organization. The company also has a code of conduct that outlines ethical behavior for all employees and business partners. In terms of risk management, GM has established a comprehensive risk management framework to identify, assess, and mitigate risks across the organization. This includes regular risk assessments and the implementation of controls to minimize potential risks. Overall, GM is dedicated to maintaining the trust of its stakeholders through strong corporate governance, ethical behavior, and effective risk management.


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