Use Of Six Requirements Of Value Chain Management Essay Example

Monopoly paved the way for competition in the global market. Competition has made companies restructure their management systems so that they can come out with a more improved and competitive product. Marketing strategies have evolved for companies to stay ahead of the competition and this is where replicas have emerged. The computer microchip industry can not be left out as it is one of the most competitive industries in the global market.

Business and value chain management coexist. Cardy (2008) defines business management as the act of getting people together to achieve the aspired goals and objectives. It embraces planning, organization, and controlling an organization to acquire the desired goals. On the other hand, Robbins & Decenzo (2008) define value chain management as systematizing the process of receiving inputs, processing them to add value, and then making the goods available to the consumer through selling.

As mentioned earlier, the invasion of the replica has led to the depreciation of sales and profits of the original companies. For example, ABC Microchip Company is a microchip company and it has come up with very unique microchips but their market pie has been chipped off by replica microchips. The question for this company is, for them to be competitive enough what measures do they have to take?

Robbins & Coulter (2007) give six requirements for the value chain management. These requirements will help the ABC microchip company to become more competitive and take back its stolen market share. Collaboration and Coordination as provided for by Robbins (et. al. 2007) is the first requirement to be looked at. ABC Microchip Company should note that for its success this requirement should be observed. For example, the sales team should coordinate with the rest of the members in the chain so as the market intelligence is shared and the microchips are improved.

Secondly, Robbins (et. al. 2007) cites that there must be investment in information technology. The world today is not the world yesterday in terms of technology and the Company should be focused to advance its technology. Investment should be geared towards advancements of technology. This in turn leads to inventory of complicated but more affordable microchips which makes it hard for the competitors to easily duplicate.

Thirdly is the organizational process, Robbins (et. al. 2007). This is the way in which work is arranged or categorized. Changes must be done and the company should focus on strengthening bonds between them and their customer. If the bonds are stronger, then the company will ultimately earn full trust from their customers and even makes it harder for the competitors to break the market.

Leadership is another key element in the value chain management as pointed by Robbins (et. al. 2007). Where leadership is strong then mutual respect is earned and that brings quality and efficient outcome in the long run.

Employees play an important role in this chain adds Robbins (et. al. 2007). Employees who are flexible and able to learn and adapt quickly to changes surrounding them are the best to have. This company should evaluate the flexibility of their employees so as to determine if they are fit to the ever changing technological environment.

Lastly Robbins (et. al. 2007) emphasizes on provision of support towards managerial customs and approach. This requirement is very important for the company to stay competitive in the long run.

To conclude, the six requirements highlighted by Robbins (et. al. 2007) are of utmost important for this microchip company to succeed and become the lead in this game of competition. Therefore it should take a keen look and apply each requirement effectively for better outcome.

Reference List

Cardy, L. R. (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change (3rd Ed.). New York.USA.

Robbins, S.P. & Coulter, M. (2007). Management (9th Ed.) New York: Prentice hall.

Robbins, S.P. & DeCenzo, A.D. (2008). Fundamentals of management (6th Ed.).Von Hoffman Press.

African Americans In Films


African American people fought for their rights throughout the centuries. These days they are not oppressed and humiliated anymore; they were given equal rights with white people and are full-fledged members of society. Acquiring equal status in white society gave African Americans a possibility to take part in its social life; this resulted in their self-realizations through literature, music, and cinematography. These days films with African Americans in leading roles are a frequent occurrence though people still argue whether the portrayal of black people in movies is verisimilar or whether some directors still have stereotypes towards them refusing to present “more respectable screen images for African Americans” (Vaughn, 2002). The analysis of the literature discussing the portrayal of African Americans in films shows that there exist different opinions regarding this issue. Four journal articles exemplifying this topic have been thoroughly studied and the ideas presented in them were “evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations” (Cozby, 2009). It is necessary to compare and contrast the findings of these articles and to find out what the study of each article deals with, what the findings of the articles are, whether or not the studies had any flaws, and which areas remained uncovered.

Literature Review

The articles under consideration describe portraying of African American people in films and discuss other issues connected with this topic. Thus, the article “Television and the Socialization of the African American Child: Images of Marginality” by Gordon L. Berry deals with television as a tool facilitating the socialization process of African Americans, particularly, black children. The socialization process is defined as “one by which children learn the rules and regulations of their own family group, their culture, and their society” (Berry, 1998). The article states that modern mass media performs the role of a socializing institution with television functioning as a medium which transmits the values of the nation.

Another article, “Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as “White” Accommodation” by Gail E. Coover discusses positive portrayal of African Americans in films. The article emphasizes that positive portrayal of black people is marketable because it shows non-racist attitude of white people towards the black ones. The author of the article points out that such an “enlightened racism” leads to the idea that “that Black characters are well-liked, not in spite of their race, but because of their race” (Coover, 2001).

One more article “A New Piece to the Puzzle: Examining Effects of Television Portrayals of African Americans” by James A. Rada examines the effects of African American’s portrayal in films on both black and white audiences. The article aims at estimating the effects of “favorable and unfavorable portrayals of African Americans in television” (Rada, 2000).

And finally, the article “No Accident: From Black Power to Black Box Office” by William Lyne is all about black exploitation films of 1980s and of the modern times. The article states that black people are still presented in films as criminals aiming “to beat the system that is inhospitable to them” (Diawara, 1993) and as “a community that has some of the highest unemployment, infant mortality, and drug related homicides” (Lyne, 2000).

Discussing the findings of the articles, it should be mentioned that all of them have different opinions about portraying of African American people in films. For instance, the articles by Gordon L. Berry and Gail E. Coover state that the portrayal of black people and their families in modern films is positive whereas William Lyne’s article shows that African Americans are depicted as criminals and “A New Piece to the Puzzle” explores both negative and positive representations of black people in films. Therefore, the author of the article “Television and the Socialization of the African American Child” found out that positive portrayal of black people in films helps African American children gain “pro-social messages and values from the content” (Berry, 1998) and facilitates social adaptation of a child to the white society. The article “Television and Social Identity”, in its turn, found out that depiction of friendly relations between people of different races evokes positive emotions in white audience and “enlightened racism” results in affirmation of antiracist attitudes. Furthermore, the article “A New Piece to the Puzzle” concluded that unfavorable portrayal of African Americans evokes the desire to help them in white audience whereas the willingness to help white people whose portrayal was also unfavorable turned out to be much less. Eventually, the article “No Accident: From Black Power to Black Box Office” expressed an opinion that films portraying African Americans as criminals have a role of “catalysts for riots” (Lyne, 2000) and form erroneous opinion about black community among the white audience.

However, not all the articles managed to cover specific areas of the study. For instance, the article “Black Family Life on Television and the Socialization of the African American Child” discusses only positive portrayal of African Americans in films, which, as it is concluded, is beneficial for shaping values of the nation. The article does not pay attention to the effect the films with negative portrayal of black people produce on African American children. The same is true about the article “Television and Social Identity” which examined the reaction of both black and white people to depiction of harmonic relations between different races. The article did not trace the effects of negative portrayal of black community in films. The article “A New Piece to the Puzzle”, on the contrary, examined the effect of presentation of African Americans only as criminals in films, as well as “No Accident: From Black Power to Black Box Office” stated that negative portrayal of black people in films worsens relations between black and white people without grounding this assertion properly.


In conclusion, all four articles under consideration give a firm idea about the portrayal of African Americans in films. The authors of the articles concluded that positive portrayal of black people in films facilitates African American children’s socialization process and helps them realize certain values of their nation; it was also discovered that such a portrayal contributes into fighting with racist ideas whereas negative portrayal of African Americans, on the one hand, evokes willingness to help in white audience and, on the other hand, shapes erroneous attitude towards black community. Though the studies failed to cover some areas regarding the depiction of black people in films, the information presented in them is objective and the articles themselves are educational and contribute greatly into studies of African American’s portrayal in films.


Berry, G.L. (1998). Black Family Life on Television and the Socialization of the African American Child: Images of Marginality. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(2), 233.

Coover, G.E. (2001). Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as “White” Accommodation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45(3), 413.

Cozby, P.C. (2003). Methods in behavioral research. 8th edition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Diawara, M. (1993). Noir by Noirs: Towards a New Realism in Black Cinema. African American Review, 27(4), 525.

Lyne, W. (2000). No Accident: From Black Power to Black Box Office. African American Review, 34(1), 39.

Rada, J.A. (2000). A New Piece to the Puzzle: Examining Effects of Television Portrayals of African Americans. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(4), 704.

Vaughn, S. (2002). Ronald Reagan and the Struggle for Black Dignity in Cinema, 1937-1953. The Journal of African American History, 83.

Interview Of Two High School Students

I got the opportunity to interview two high school students from two different schools in Illinois. Jeff is 15 and schools at Joliet West High School in Illinois. He is a bright kid but is not motivated. He struggles in school and often postpones doing homework. His priority is on social life and has disciplinary problems. He came from a small Catholic K-8 school and had no problem adjusting to big school socially though he seems unable to get on track academically. Generally, he does not get along with teachers probably because he has a problem obeying authority.

14-year-old Allie is a freshman at Minooka high school. She is very bright and motivated. She came from a small non-alcoholic private K-8 School and her grades are mostly A’s. She confessed to having experienced a hard time adjusting to big school socially and this affected her grades but she is now better acclimatized.

In interviewing the two students I came up with questions relating to their experiences at school, their willingness to learn new ideas, their preferred teaching methods. I also comprehensively engaged in enquiring about their favorite teachers and the reasons behind their choice of best and worst teachers.

Jeff indicated that he is only in school because it is mandatory. He despises the teachers and the entire administrative staff of the school. He has developed a negative attitude towards almost everything else except his social life. My attempts to suggest some positive elements of the teachers and the administration bore no fruit. He termed the learning experience as a nuisance and a waste of time. He hated the idea of having to understand the numerous concepts in all the subjects in such little time.

Allie was very positive about school. She respected both the teaching and the non-teaching staff and had a positive attitude towards learning. To her, the learning experience was desirable and pleasurable.

On learning about their attitudes and experiences at school, I sought to know who their favorite teachers were and the reasons behind them. It emerged that though Jeff was not interested in learning, he still had a favorite teacher. Surprisingly, the mathematics teacher was his favorite yet mathematics is considered a difficult subject. The reasons behind the success of winning Jeff were in the ability of the teacher to remain gentle and encouraging. Jeff described this teacher as an understanding person who cared about his relationship with the students on an equal level as his ability to pass on skills. The teacher attended to the specific case of each student and tried to strike a cordial relationship. The math teacher was described as being accommodating to all the students and had a sense of humor which kept the class alert at all times. His demonstrations were easy to follow and were very well developed to make the concept unforgettable. He also made sure that the assignments he gave were within the confines of the concepts he had taught. This worked well with the students as they did not have very difficult times trying to understand new concepts and using them on their own. The teacher’s assignments were mostly part of revision and practice but not learning new ideas. He combined the use of textbook examples as well as his own developed demonstrations to explain concepts.

Allies were quick to state that her favorite teacher was the Chemistry teacher. She described him as having a thorough understanding of the chemistry subject. Any questions asked by the students elicit a direct answer from the teacher with no delays. Again the teacher came out as one who appreciates the different paces at which the students learn. He takes time explaining slow learners in a manner that acts as a way of revision for fast learners like Allie. Still, he is sensitive to individual students and tries hard to establish a friendly relationship with the students. He is keen on getting feedback from the students and remains diligent in acting on the feedback.

Jeff named his economics teacher as his worst teacher. He told of the bossy attitude adopted by the teacher while dealing with the students. It emerged that Jeff and the economics teacher had regularly quarreled due to the lack of understanding on the part of the teacher. The teacher is never friendly and regularly engages in dictating notes to the students instead of explaining the concepts and demonstrating them. Again, he often engaged in issuing assignments on topics and concepts not covered in class. This made the students struggle in doing the assignment.

Allies named her physics teacher as the least favorite. She told that the teacher engaged in favoritisms while dealing with the students. According to Allies, this teacher has a selected clique of “very good friends”, another one seen as “general friends” and the last one composed of “potential enemies”. Anyone belonging to any of the last two categories is indirectly treated with some level of contempt. The very good friends enjoy better responses to questions and even better grades in the assessment tests which do not tally with the end-of-period exams.

To support the details given by the two interviewees, I was able to establish that they performed best in the subjects taught by their favorite teachers while performing poorly in the subjects taught by the worst teachers.

Through the interviews, I was able to gather some very important soft skills able to make my work very easy. I learned that the learning process is not entirely dependent on the ability to pass on skills to students. The students will always assess the attitude I have towards them. Adopting an attitude of service as opposed to being the boss is a crucial element of managing to strike a good relationship with the students. Indeed, the more the students think that the teacher cares and understands them, the more they are likely to appreciate him or her.

Indeed it is not possible to be a friend to everyone but that does not mean that a teacher should appear friendlier to some students than to others. The aim should always be to strike a balance in the relationship. Very importantly, the teaching process should be made as easy as possible for the students. Assignments should largely be used as a way of assessing the level of understanding of concepts already taught and not as the breaking ground to new concepts. The input of the students in some decisions can also help boost their feeling of importance. They can be asked to suggest certain topics to be reviewed before exams as these help identify their areas of strength and weaknesses.

In conclusion, not everyone can be humorous enough to please students. However, this is no excuse to keep the class dull and gloomy. A teacher should always seek ways of making the class lively and in an upbeat mood as this is best for learning.

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