Using Automated Feedback To Improve EFL Students’ Self-Regulated Writing Strategies: A Literature Review Essay Example

The development of effective writing skills is a crucial aspect of language learning, particularly for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. Self-regulated writing strategies are critical for EFL students’ success in writing tasks (Han & Sari, 2022). However, EFL students often struggle to develop these strategies due to various factors, such as a lack of opportunities to practice writing and receive feedback. Automated feedback, a new technology, has been considered a potential solution to these challenges (Tran & Nguyen, 2021). This literature review will examine the research and discussions on using automated feedback to improve EFL students’ self-regulated writing strategies, explore empirical studies on automated feedback in EFL writing, and discuss the resulting criticisms.

Integrating Automated Learning into EFL Writing

Integrating automated learning in EFL writing has gained immense popularity as a means of enhancing students’ writing skills. This approach involves the utilization of technology such as machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) to provide personalized feedback and support to students during their learning process. Numerous studies over the years have investigated the effectiveness of integrating automated learning into EFL writing, with Lee (2020) exploring how AI-based automated assessment enhances EFL students’ writing skills by producing significant improvements in numerous indicators, including their fluency, coherence, and cohesion.

Additionally, Han and Sari (2022) discovered that the use of automated feedback greatly aids in correcting errors found within students’ approaches towards composition, resulting in subsequently helping improve overall skill sets. Results from further research by Huang and Renandya (2020) comment on how students frequently portray an increased audience understanding due to newfound user-friendly systems that greatly impact one’s levels of understanding.

Self-Regulated Strategies

Self-regulated learning is essential to effective writing as it empowers English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students to guide their writing and make informed decisions when tackling various writing tasks (Rasulova & Otterson, 2022). One study by Kim et al. (2021) investigated the impact of implementing a self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) program on Korean EFL learners. The findings revealed that the SRSD program significantly boosted students’ writing performance and belief in their abilities while increasing their employment of self-regulatory techniques in writing tasks. It was also observed that individuals who participated in the SRSD program exhibited an appreciable improvement in fluency and overall quality compared to those who didn’t participate.

In a recent investigation by Alanazi (2020), the effect of self-regulated learning strategies on Saudi EFL students’ writing abilities was studied. The findings indicated that utilizing such tactics, including goal-setting, self-evaluation, and reflection, significantly positively impacted both writing skills and student engagement levels. Moreover, Palalas & Wark (2020) conducted a systematic review that substantiated these results and emphasized the importance of additional research to assess the effectiveness of various self-regulatory techniques on different EFL populations in varying contexts. Specifically, planning, monitoring, and evaluating were found to improve students’ motivation toward writing tasks while boosting their overall perceived efficacy in mastering successful written communication.

Criticisms of Using Automated Feedback to Improve EFL Students’ Self-regulated Writing Strategies

While the use of automated feedback in improving EFL students’ self-regulated writing strategies has been identified as a promising approach, criticisms of this method need to be considered. One of the primary criticisms of automated feedback is its limited ability to provide personalized feedback that addresses the unique needs of each student. According to Lv et al. (2021), this limitation can lead to students receiving feedback not tailored to their specific writing issues, ultimately hindering their development as writers.

Additionally, Koltovskaia (2020) argues that overreliance on automated feedback can result in students becoming less engaged in the writing process and less willing to seek additional feedback from teachers or peers. Moreover, according to Cheng et al. (2021), automated feedback raises concerns about the ethical implications of technology in writing instruction. Recent research has highlighted the potential bias and lack of transparency in automated feedback systems, which can disproportionately affect certain groups of students, particularly those from non-native English-speaking backgrounds.

In conclusion, this literature review examined the research on using automated feedback to improve EFL students’ self-regulated writing strategies. It can be seen that while automated feedback has shown promise in providing EFL students with instant feedback and helping them develop self-regulated writing strategies, it is important to consider the criticisms and limitations associated with this approach. Additionally, more research is needed to address the limitations of automated feedback tools and ensure their accuracy and effectiveness in EFL writing instruction.


Alanazi, M. H. (2020). The predictive effects of self-regulated writing strategies on writing performance of Saudi EFL university students. Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies [JEPS]14(4), 668-678.

Han, T., & Sari, E. (2022). An investigation on the use of automated feedback in Turkish EFL students’ writing classes. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-24.

Huang, S., & Renandya, W. A. (2020). Exploring the integration of automated feedback among lower-proficiency EFL learners. Innovation in language learning and teaching14(1), 15-26.

Kim, D., Jo, I. H., Song, D., Zheng, H., Li, J., Zhu, J., & Xu, Z. (2021). Self-regulated learning strategies and student video engagement trajectory in a video-based asynchronous online course: a Bayesian latent growth modeling approach. Asia Pacific Education Review22(2), 305-317.

Koltovskaia, S. (2020). Student engagement with automated written corrective feedback (AWCF) provided by Grammarly: A multiple case study. Assessing Writing44, 100450.

Lee, S. M. (2020). The impact of using machine translation on EFL students’ writing. Computer-assisted language learning33(3), 157-175.

Lv, X., Ren, W., & Xie, Y. (2021). The effects of online feedback on ESL/EFL writing: a meta-analysis. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher30(6), 643-653.

Palalas, A., & Wark, N. (2020). The relationship between mobile learning and self-regulated learning: A systematic review. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology36(4), 151-172.

Rasulova, M., & Ottoson, K. (2022). The Impact of Learner Agency and Self-Regulated Learning in EFL Classes. International Journal of Social Science and Human Research712.

Tran, T. M. L., & Nguyen, T. T. H. (2021). The impacts of technology-based communication on EFL students’ writing. AsiaCALL Online Journal12(5), 54-76.

Water Temperature Sensor Based On Optical Fibre Sensor Sample Essay


It is essential to monitor water temperature to prevent the growth of potentially harmful legionella bacteria. Conventional temperature sensors are often made of metal and are not appropriate for use near or in drinking water. As a result, developing a water-safe temperature sensor is essential. Due to its capacity to monitor temperatures based on the bending of the optical cable and the light escaping from the fiber cable, a polymeric optical fiber sensor was selected as the basis for the design of the water temperature sensor. An optical fiber water temperature sensor requires a transmitter circuit, an Optical Fiber sensor, and a reception circuit.

1.0 Introduction

There is universal agreement that water, particularly the water used daily by humans, is crucial to life on Earth and must be constantly regulated. Since water intended for human consumption must be kept at a temperature of less than 20 degrees Celsius, temperature is one of the most critical parameters to check regularly. As a result, a specialized sensor is required for accurate water temperature readings.

Several different temperature sensors may be used in industrial settings, each with pros and cons in terms of temperature range, quality, reaction time, stability, accuracy, cost, chemical interference, etc.

Although there is no such thing as a perfect temperature sensor, certain guidelines must be followed to select one that will accurately measure the temperature of the target substance (Djaid, 2022). In Table 1, we quickly compare three widely used thermometer sensors in industrial settings.

Comparison of Three Common Temperature Sensors (J. David, 2022)

Table 1: Comparison of Three Common Temperature Sensors (J. David, 2022)

A temperature sensor for drinking water must meet strict criteria to avoid tainting the water with impurities while providing the necessary precision and sensitivity in the allotted amount of time. Traditional temperature sensors, such as those listed in Table 1, are often composed of materials that, with time, may contaminate water, including copper, nickel, aluminum, chromium, silicon, iron, ceramics, and others.

The fiber-optic variety is an essential tool for measuring water temperature since it can transmit data at the speed of light. It has a bandwidth of hundreds of terabits per second. This optical sensor’s most notable and distinctive benefit is its much-increased bandwidth compared to standard metal wires. Features include portability, cheap cost, great precision, complete adaptability, and water-safe materials like plastic or glass (Thyagarajan & Ghatak, 2007). It is also immune to all external electromagnetic interference. In addition, unlike traditional sensors, optical fiber sensors do not need high-tech waterproofing to protect the detecting head, making them the greatest option for water detection due to their inherent stability.

The following are the parts of a sensor device based on optical fibers:

  • Light-emitting diode (LED), laser, or other optical transmitter.
  • Sensing Element may include a sensing head or an optical fiber wire.
  • An optical receiver utilizes a detector (photodiode, phototransistor, etc.) to read the light generated by the detecting area.

The block schematic of an optical fiber sensor is shown in Figure 1.

lock Diagram of Optical Fiber Sensor

Figure 1: Block Diagram of Optical Fiber Sensor

1.1 Problem Statement

Legionella bacteria thrive in water temperatures between 20 and 45 degrees Celsius. However, temperatures in water below 20 degrees Celsius are not favorable for the growth and activation of Legionella bacteria, as these bacteria cannot pose a threat and will be completely inhibited. This makes it crucial to routinely check water temperatures using reliable sensors (J. David, 2022). This project aims to offer a technique for monitoring water temperature utilizing an optical fiber device, which is the primary issue statement. Optical fiber water temperature detection requires three different methods, one of which will be chosen for implementation in this project.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

This research aims to create a novel optical fiber-based water temperature sensor.

The goals of this study include:

• Conducting a thorough literature review on water temperature sensors

• To provide a strategy for employing fiber optics to measure water temperature.

• Each recommended technique suggestion will have three possible answers provided.

• Decide on the best course of action and justify your decision.

1.3 Structure of the Report

This report is organized mostly to discuss the report’s context, problem statement, goals, and objectives. This section discusses the literature, including examples of the many authors’ research on using optical fiber sensors to measure water temperature. Then, relevant theories are used to analyze the optical fiber’s operation and functioning principle for detecting water temperature. Next, we will talk about the solutions presented and why we decided on the one we did. A project strategy is also detailed, along with the report’s progress. The study ends with a conclusion that summarizes the findings and methodology. The report’s layout is seen in Figure 2 below.

Structure of the Report

Figure 2: Structure of the Report

2.0 Literature Review

This section reviews various authors’ literature on using optical fiber sensors for measuring water temperature. This portion of the paper also discusses important ideas about detecting water temperature using optical fiber sensors.

2.1 Existing Research Work

2.1.1 First Existing System (Zhou et al., 2015)

A novel optical-fiber ultrasonic transducer system-based sensor for measuring pure water temperature has been publicly documented. In that study, a technique for measuring ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) using a small fiber-optic was developed. As the pulse width of ultrasound lasers can be controlled, the ultrasonic generator can provide a broad frequency range. An ultrasonic generator produces ultrasound waves through an optical fiber to detect temperature, and a hydrophone is used to receive the ultrasound waves. The configuration of the water temperature sensor is shown in Figure 3.

Schematic of the Water Temperature Sensor Setup

Figure 3: Schematic of the Water Temperature Sensor Setup

The experiment employed a 532 ns laser as the optical radiation source and an optical cable with a 400 nm core as the ultrasonic generator. A hydrophone is used as the receiver, as was previously indicated. Figure 3 demonstrated a 5mm 0.1mm gap between the hydrophone and the ultrasonic probe. When the laser emits a pulse, it sends a signal to the DAQ (Data Acquisition Card), which samples the data at 50 MHz. The clear water is scanned by the hydrophone for ultrasonic waves. Due to the hydrophone’s maximum operating temperature of only 50 degrees, the experiment considers a water temperature range of 8 to 45 degrees Celsius. The experimental setup is shown in Figure 4.

Photo of the Experiment Temperature

Figure 4: Photo of the Experiment Temperature

According to the observed data and the proposed connection between temperature and time delay, the delay grows by 0.1 s 0.001 s for every degree of temperature rise, assuming a constant distance of 5 mm between the receiver and the generator. The correlation between temperature and trip time is seen in Figure 5.

Water temperature and the travel time relationship

Figure 5: Water temperature and the travel time relationship

The experiment would be more accurate if a receiver with a greater working temperature range linked to water were used instead of the hydrophone, as the hydrophone’s highest working temperature is 50 degrees. In comparison, the boiling point of water exceeds 100 degrees.

2.1.2 Second Existing System

The second project investigates using a novel dual-mode optical fiber sensor in an underwater temperature and pressure sensor. Industrial applications for the dual-mode optical sensor for measuring water temperature and pressure are currently being explored. Optical fiber sensors that measure water temperature and pressure are being developed using cutting-edge technology. In order to detect and measure water pressure and temperature, it is suggested to couple an in-line MZI sensor with an optical fiber sensor. A theoretical investigation is presented with sensor implementation to measure water pressure and temperature in manufacturing settings. Analysis shows that splicing sensor DMF-MZI between its two segments may readily produce sensors with varying physical lengths of 0.18m, 0.34m, and 1.4m. The sensor structures are constructed to examine this process’s solution, as well as to examine various undersea temperatures and pressure, and to examine, finally, the sensors’ efficacy in detecting these parameters. Changing these characteristics at different depths allows us to see how they change over time. As an additional demonstration of the adaptability of sensors for use in various industrial contexts, this sensor has been tested in both liquid and gaseous environments. The sensor installation is shown in Figure 6’s schematic.

Schematic diagram sensor setup.

Figure 6: Schematic diagram sensor setup.

2.1.3Third Existing System (Haroon, Khadijah Idris, Mohd Zain, Abdul Razak, & Salahuddin, 2021)

In this study, we provide the results of an experiment in which optical and electrical characterizations were used to determine the water temperature.

Figure 7 depicts the experimental setup used for optical characterization. The optical source was a red LED set to produce light at 650 nm, the polymeric temperature sensor was constructed, and the sensor’s output was coupled to an optical power detector. In this experiment, a polymeric optical fiber was heated to convey data to an optical power meter. The fiber was approximately 1 meter long, and the sensing head was about 2 centimeters into the center of the fiber cable.

Optical Characterization Experiment Setup

Figure 7: Optical Characterization Experiment Setup

The receiver was constructed using a practical amplifier of the type LM358P, which converts the radiation that is received into easily interpreted electrical signals, and the key component of the receiver is the photodiode LFD91; the voltmeter will be used for determining the output voltage and track any fluctuations due to temperature changes, as shown in Figure 8.

Electrical characterization experiment setup

Figure 8: Electrical characterization experiment setup

As seen in Figure 9, the outcome of this experiment demonstrates a correlation between temperature and the extracted voltage, as a rise in water temperature would always result in a commensurate voltage increase.

Voltage output against temperature

Figure 9: Voltage output against temperature

The polymeric optical fiber’s unique properties as a flexible, small, light, cheap, and Arduino-operable temperature measurement device for pure water make it exceptional. As a result, if efforts are being made to enhance the water temperature, this monitoring method is ideal.

3.0 Possible and Proposed Solutions

The use of fiber optics to measure water temperature has advantages over other methods since both plastic and glass fibers may be submerged without harming the water’s quality. Glass fiber is regarded to be most suited for this experience because of its brittle flexibility, non-folding nature, and high cost in compared to plastic fiber (Werneck & Allil, 2020). Due to the nature of the experiment, the fiber will unavoidably be folded, necessitating a low-cost, extremely flexible, and non-breakable sensor system.

3.1 Components and Devices for the Solution:

Transmitter Circuit:

  • 555 Timer circuit.
  • An optical LED (SIEMENS SFH 750V)
  • LED Driver circuit using an NPN transistor.

Fibre Optic Sensor:

  • A polymeric Optical Fiber (POF) cable with a PMMA core of 980 μm and a diameter of 1 mm.

Receiver Circuit:

  • Photodiode IF-D91
  • Transimpedance amplifier Circuit
  • Analog to Digital Converter


  • The microcontroller of Arduino Due Board
  • PC Device

Polymeric optical fibers (POF) are the preferred method for measuring water temperature due to their low cost, absolute flexibility, and lightweight; the block diagram of this system can be seen in Figure 10; it is based on the macro-bend of the POF temperature.

Polymeric optical fibers (POF)

This POF uses the fact that macro-bending causes optical fibers to lose some radiance (Pakdeevanich, 2007). Light leakage due to the fiber cable’s bending is, as shown in Figure 11, a critical component of this system’s operation. Therefore, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the water density and the voltage the bending fiber cable receives.

Light leakage

5.0 Conclusion

An intermediate report on using an optical fiber sensor to measure water temperature is offered. Some background information is provided. This report presents the research’s purpose, goals, and problem description, all of which must be resolved via an examination of the answers offered at the end of the study. The general theory related to this issue is explained, considering the experimental procedure and assessing the outcomes. Then the literature review is reviewed to evaluate past and current work undertaken on this research topic.

The feasibility of designing a water temperature sensor circuit has been established using one of the various options. Since bending an optical cable causes radiation losses, a cheap polymeric optical fiber was developed as a solution.


Djaid, D. (2022, Feb 14). Blackboard. Retrieved from Instrumentation and Measurement Module:

Haroon, H., Khadijah Idris, S., Mohd Zain, A., Abdul Razak, H., & Salehuddin, F. (2021). Temperature monitoring using polymer optical fiber with integration to the Internet of Things. ISSN: 2302-9285, 357-363.

  1. K. (2022). Legionella and the Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Its Growth. Water.

LEI, X., DONG, X., LU, C., SUN, T., & T. V. GRATTAN, K. (2020). Underwater Pressure and Temperature Sensor. IEEE, 146463-146469.

Pakdeevanich, P. (2007). Optical fiber sensor based on a polymer optical fiber macro bend to study the thermal expansion of metals.

Rajan, G. (2015). Optical Fiber Sensors Advanced Techniques and Applications. Ginu Rajan.

Thyagarajan, K., & Ghatak, A. (2007). Fiber optic essentials. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.

Werneck, M. M., & Allil, R. C. (2020). Plastic Optical Fiber Sensors. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Zhou, J., Wu, N., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Ma, T., Coxe, D., & Cao, C. (2015). Water temperature measurement using a novel fiber optic ultrasound transducer system. IEEE, pp. 2316–2318.

World Of Work Sample College Essay

The world of work comprises several things that most people resonate with, for instance, employers, promotions, occupations, and jobs, among others. In other words, in most cases, people tend to label all these aspects based on their understanding of the nature of workers and the nature of the organization; for instance, in as much as we all resonate with these things, everyone has a different experience while interacting with them. In as much as various opinions and theories help understand work, why people work, and the motivation to work, various factors motivate employees to work. With the daily hassle and tussle that comes with the little activities around work, workers face frustration and irritation while at work. For instance, having a heavy workload, conflicts with colleagues, and lack of support from supervisors, among others, while working in a particular role. Nonetheless, there are daily uplifts in the workplace that promote positive experiences, which also help promote good performance for the employee and the organization. Employees need motivation for better performance while working in various positions in the company; thus, this essay will expound on employee attitudes to work, focusing on various factors of motivation as well as employee experience in their roles.

An employee’s attitude towards work is very important for the effective production and performance of the organization; in other words, attitude motivation comes from employers motivating their employees by influencing how they think or behave towards various employment activities. In other words, motivation and attitude to work are closely linked to the success of an organization. With strong motivating factors in the organization, the team will be able to work in unison and achieve the objectives and goals of the organization effectively. Moreover, with a positive attitude, the career trajectory can be channelled towards work motivation, further contributing to the organization’s performance and success (Sitopu, Sitinjak, & Marpaung, 2021, p 77). All employees working within a particular organization aim to achieve satisfaction and appreciation for the work and energy they put into the organization. The feeling of acknowledgement, appreciation and respect are a measure and drive to enhance production for better results and increase the company’s chances of attaining its goals. The primary motivator to work for most employees is survival; in this case, the employee is motivated to work based on the necessity for food, shelter, educating their children and accumulating enough savings for a better future. Nevertheless, motivation out of survival has a different impact on the employee’s attitude, in that most employees motivated out of survival have no appreciation for the work. They do the work out of necessity, not with the zeal or morale needed.

Based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, a person’s behaviour can be influenced by the nature of their unsatisfied needs; thus, an employee’s need can be motivated by social needs, self-actualization, safety needs, physiological need and esteem needs (Cui, Wang, Chen, Wen, & Han, 2021). One factor that motivates employees is appreciation and recognition for work well done; in this case, it helps satisfy Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs for esteem and boosts the employee’s ego. Recognition not only makes an employee feel good but also helps improve their attitude towards work and feeling of accomplishment in the workplace. In other words, recognition triggers better performance by recognizing good behaviour or efforts, and there are chances of consistency and repetitive action of significant impact on the organization’s success. Nonetheless, this also applies in the disciple process of employees because it helps discourage certain behaviour that doesn’t add significant value to the company, thus influencing the employee’s attitude.

Similarly, the other factor that motivates employees is being involved in decision-making and making additional input to the company’s matters. In this case, the company can show employees they are valued and that the organization’s success is a collective and team effort. This measure is highly effective as it helps paint a clearer and bigger picture of the firm’s objectives, and it helps shift attitude from reporting to work for the paycheck to coming to work to help steer the organization to great heights in the market. In other words, people desire to know the performance and direction the company wants to take; they are interested to know if the direction suits their career inspirations, desires and security. Nevertheless, the company also gets a boost of in-grown ideas that can be highly effective in improving competitive advantage and market share; with such growth, the employees get a positive attitude toward their work.

The management and leadership approach of the company also plays a huge role towards motivating employees to work. For instance, an understanding supervisor pays heed to how employees receive information, correction, instruction and discipline. In other words, the supervisor should be one with social skills to understand the moods and emotions of the employees. In addition, this improves the attitude of employees as they are guaranteed to be in a workspace that is concerned about their well-being; this motivates them since the relationship between management and employees is conducive to better performance. Moreover, having management that considers career growth and development by considering the strengths and abilities in assigning work also improves attitude to work. In this case, the management delegates duties to sharpen leadership skills and groom an employee for a promotion. Therefore, this motivates employees, improving the organization’s performance (Basalamah & As’ad, 2021, p 99). The management also ensures that the working conditions are improved and offers social amenities like a nursery for mothers with young ones, totally shifting the attitude of employees. In this case, female employees feel valued and are guaranteed job security as their separate family lives can’t affect their job in any way; this is also competitive and makes employees work harder as not many companies offer such facilities. In addition, to ensure employees stay motivated and maintain a positive attitude to work, the management has to be responsive to staff problems and challenges in their respective workplaces; how they approach complaints and concerns reflects highly on an employee’s attitude. If they respond quickly and ensure employees are comfortable, there is guaranteed improvement in productivity due to the feeling that they can be heard; thus, they are obligated to perform accordingly.

Lastly, monetary rewards also help motivate and improve attitudes to work, for instance, good wages. If the employer works for survival, in that the money they get isn’t enough to meet basic needs, the attitude of such an employee will always be down. Nonetheless, wages were to be paid based on performance and not seniority. In that case, remunerations should reflect the level of appreciation for performance and effort put into the organization’s success. The management should not hold on until employees have gotten better proposals before they are willing to do that. In other words, to promote a positive attitude towards work, give them the respect they deserve (Alrawahi, Sellgren, Altouby, Alwahaibi, & Brommels, 2020). Ultimately, the management ought to expect to give employees something other than just a paycheck. If all your business implies just a paycheck, any tantamount paying position and offers will come their way. Therefore, the leadership team should give employees challenges, recognition, opportunities for improvement and advancement, praise, and an environment where they can feel pleased to work.

Job roles also influence attitude and motivation regarding work in the organization. In this case, there are usually positive and negative factors employees experience due to the various job roles they perform. Job roles impact occupation fulfilment and satisfaction in the workplace, thus impacting the expansive nature of the organization as well as the career development of the employees. Job roles have a positive experience for employees, allowing for growth opportunities and skill development. No employee desires to stay trapped in a similar job, doing the same activity and tasks for the rest of their workdays without development and growth. Job roles offer a positive factor to the employees’ experience as it helps bring out the potential of an employee through the proper utilization of their talents; in most cases, job roles offer an opportunity for one to explore interesting and unique abilities that should be sharpened and utilized (Lambert, Keena, Leone, May, & Haynes, 2020, p 407). Thus, the management of any organization should offer training programs to keep every employee up to par with changes within their fields. In addition, job roles allow employees to contribute to the organization’s growth by putting their knowledge and skills to work. In other words, assigning job roles to employees help in the in-house training of employees. Thus, these learning experiences for employers and employees help build trust, reduce apathy, and develop deep connections with the workforce. Employees develop positive attitudes and feel more motivated because their high-level knowledge or experience is utilized for the organization’s success and self-actualization – excelling in their professions.

Furthermore, job roles help employees trust and appreciate leadership decisions and choices. Job roles help develop and improve workers’ trust and respect in their leaders, thus straightforwardly influencing their performance. Managers should assign roles based on the skill set, experience and competence of an employee; on the other hand, through delegation, they can assign supervisory roles as well (Wang, Xu, Zhang, & Li, 2020, p 19). In this case, they get to satisfy career goals for being in charge as a supervisor and understand the need for managers to be fair and impartial and treat employees as people with unique considerations and opinions. In other words, while putting an employee in that spot of making decisions, they understand their supervisors’ decisions and respect them accordingly.

Nonetheless, job roles have also negatively impacted employees’ experience. For instance, being assigned to a role that aligns differently from one’s skills and abilities has resulted in low occupation satisfaction. Moreover, this covers a broad issue within the organization since it affects the performance and productivity of the company. If Employees are not content with their roles, a couple of areas of their work are impacted, which may also affect other employees. Based on a review by the “Worldwide Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health” they found out that employees who report low fulfilment and satisfaction were due to the lack of morale in the job roles they are assigned to do (Duan, Ni, Shi, Zhang, Ye, Mu, & Wang, 2019, p 9). in line with low satisfaction from the poor assignment of roles, the other negative factor is the lack of resources under the assigned role. When someone feels hopeless and is forced to work without the necessary tools, they lose focus and don’t consider their tasks carefully. In other words, they find various activities that truly do not make them euphoric, simultaneously dismissing the occupation they should do. When one’s role is faced with challenges that make the work of the employee hard, there will be low productivity, it is ordinary for various groups within the workforce to feel frustrated therefore, and the profits of the organization start trickling down. Employees who are unhappy with their roles are fundamentally more inclined to experience and report issues at work. Thus, employees who are satisfied or happy at work are obligated to report finding out about learning in their business. Moreover, job roles and responsibilities give employees more pressure to perform and be productive in delivering the assigned tasks, resulting in job stress among employees.

In a nutshell, In as much as various opinions and theories help understand work, why people work, and the motivation to work, various factors motivate employees to work. With the daily hassle and tussle that comes with the little activities around work, workers face frustration and irritation; job roles also influence attitude and motivation regarding the position in the organization. In this case, there are usually positive and negative factors employees experience due to the various job roles they perform. Job roles impact occupation fulfilment and satisfaction in the workplace; it has also helped appreciate the organization’s leadership and helped in employee career development and growth, thus impacting the expansive nature of the organization and the employee’s career development. Employees need motivation for better performance while working in various positions in the company; such factors include good wages, the satisfaction of their esteem through recognition, allowing and offering opportunities for career growth and paying keen attention to social interactions and relationships while handling employees.


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