# Using The Ordinary Differential Equation In The Calculation Of The Flow Of Electricity Sample College Essay

### Introduction

Differential equations are mathematical equations that describe how a function changes over time. In the case of electricity, they are used to calculate the flow of current through a conductor, resistors, capacitors, and inductors, as well as the analysis of more complex circuits. The flow of electricity in a circuit can be modelled using differential equations that describe the behaviour of voltage and current over time. This study will explore the different differential equations commonly used in electrical circuit analysis, including ordinary and partial differential equations (Kobyzev et al., 2023). The flow of electricity is a very important part of our society. It is responsible for powering devices in our homes and businesses, and it helps us to stay connected to the outside world. The flow of electricity can be complicated, but it can also be modelled using ordinary differential equations (ODEs). This essay will discuss the use of ODEs in calculating the flow of electricity and show how they can be used to solve problems relating to this vital sector of our economy.

### Problem statement

The challenges faced in accurately modelling and analyzing electrical circuits require a numerical solution in the calculation of the flow of electricity. Indeed, the use of electrical circuits in modern technology is applied to various electrical appliances. Therefore, using electrical computational equations in the accurate modelling and analysis of the flow of electricity in these circuits is essential for their design, optimization, and efficient operation (Constantin, 2023). However, the behaviour of electrical circuits can be complex and dynamic, and using simple equations makes it challenging to model and analyze using such traditional methods. This has led to the need for more advanced mathematical models and techniques, such as Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), to accurately describe and predict the behaviour of these circuits. ODE in mathematical computation is appropriate for the flow of electricity as it employs initial and boundary conditions. Therefore, proper numerical methods for engineering are needed to ensure accurate measurement and estimation of circuit parameters (Kobyzev et al., 2023). Moreover, the emphasis is on the significance of accurate modelling and analysis of electrical circuits, given the potential safety and economic implications of circuit failures or inefficiencies.

### Problem solution

Ordinary Differential Equations are commonly used to compute the flow of electricity in various applications, such as electric circuits, power systems, and electromagnetic devices. The solutions that ODE provides are accurate in modelling the circuit and give a meaningful computation of identifying any source of instability. In most cases, the ODE cannot be solved analytically, and numerical methods must be used. This involves discretizing the ODE by dividing the independent variable (usually time) into discrete points. The ODE is then approximated by a set of algebraic equations that relate the values of the dependent variables at each time point. Many numerical methods are available for solving ODEs, such as Euler’s method. The numerical method is implemented to compute the values of the dependent variables at the next time point.

### Methodology

This research will use a literature review of case studies in scholarly journals, books and articles to review the use of the ODE in solving the flow of electricity in the circuits. This study will investigate using Euler’s method to provide numerical solutions when employing ODE. The first step is to formulate the ODEs describing the behaviour of the studied electrical system. This involves identifying the relevant variables and parameters, such as voltages, currents, resistances, and capacitances, and formulating the differential equations that relate them (Constantin, 2023). The ODEs can be derived from fundamental physical laws, such as Kirchhoff’s, Ohm’s, and Faraday’s laws. The ODEs are then approximated by a set of algebraic equations that relate the values of the dependent variables at each time point.

Further, the study will use Euler’s numerical methods for solving ODEs. The choice of method depends on the specific characteristics of the ODEs and the application requirements. Once the numerical method has been selected, computer software is in use for the computational analysis of the results. In addition, the computation involves handling boundary conditions, initial conditions, and constraints. Further, after the numerical computation, the results are analyzed to identify if there are any sources of error or instability in the numerical method through visualization by plotting graphs.

### Math Modelling

Numerical methods, such as using ODE in solving engineering problems, involve using mathematical models. The flow of electricity computations in the electric circuits can be modelled using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) as the ODE equations compute the behaviour of electricity, such as the electrical variables current, voltage, and resistance over time (Lipovetsky, 2022). Indeed, the ODEs will only be a viable option if they can compute the flow of electricity in a circuit as they are governed by electrical laws such as Kirchhoff’s. The Kirchhoff law state that the sum of the currents entering a node equals the sum of the currents leaving the node, and the sum of the voltages around any closed loop is zero (Al-Ahmad et al., 2020). In addition to the Kirchhoff law, Ohm’s law is the basic equation of electricity that relates voltage, current, and resistance. The Ohms law is represented as V = IR

V is the voltage.

I is the current

R is the resistance.

Ohm’s law equation will be used to model the flow of electricity since it is the most probable equation for a simple circuit with a singular resistor. For example, consider the following circuit: V is the voltage source, R is the resistor, and C is the capacitor. The ODE can describe the behaviour of this circuit:

L(di/dt) + Ri = V(t)

Where L is the circuit’s inductance, di/dt is the current change rate over time, and V(t) is the time-varying voltage supplied by the source. The use of the Euler method in numerically solving the ODE is by approximating the derivative of current concerning time by taking small time steps and computing the change in current over each time step.

For more complex circuits, the ODEs can become more complicated, involving systems of differential equations that describe the behaviour of multiple variables such as current and voltage at different points in the circuit. These systems of ODEs can be solved numerically using matrix methods such as the state-space representation. To develop a mathematical model, let’s consider a circuit that contains a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, all connected in series (Bebikhov et al., 2019). The following first-order differential equations can describe the flow of electricity through the circuit:

i’ = -v/R

v’ = -L/C * i – 1/C * q’

q’ = i

i is the current flowing through the circuit.

v is the voltage across the capacitor.

q is the charge stored in the capacitor.

R, L, and C are the circuit’s resistance, inductance, and capacitance, respectively.

To solve these differential equations numerically using Euler’s method;

Take time t=0

Then the current flowing through the circuit is i(0) = 0, the voltage across the capacitor is v(0) = 0, and the charge stored in the capacitor is q(0) = 0. We can then use Euler’s method to compute the values of i, v, and q at subsequent time steps. To apply Euler’s method, time is discretely domain into small time intervals of length h. At each time step n, we compute the values of i, v, and q using the following formulas:

i[n+1] = i[n] + (-v[n]/R) * h

v[n+1] = v[n] + (-L/C * i[n] – 1/C * q[n]) * h

q[n+1] = q[n] + i[n] * h

This process is repeated for each step until the desired endpoint is achieved. The model can be represented in a table as indicated in the example using Euler’s method where the time step of h=0.1

 N I V Q 0 0 0 0 1 -0.01 -0.005 0.001 2 -0.018 -0.018 0.003 3 -0.021 -0.035 0.006 4 -0.02 -0.054 0.01 5 -0.015 -0.074 0.015 6 -0.007 -0.094 0.022 7 0.004 -0.112

Result Analysis

Engineers use the developed mathematical equation model to describe the relationship between current and voltage in different circuit components. However, there is a need to visualize these relationships to better understand how the circuit behaves (Kobyzev et al., 2020). One common graph used in electrical circuits is the voltage-current (V-I) curve, which shows how the voltage across a component changes as the current through the component varies. This curve can be used to determine the component’s resistance, which is the ratio of the voltage to the current. Another useful graph is the power curve, which shows how the power dissipated in a component changes as the current varies (Constantin, 2023). The power dissipated is equal to the product of the voltage and the current, so the power curve can be used to determine the maximum power that the component can deliver.

Here is an example of a V-I graph for a resistor:

### Conclusion

The analysis of the results indicates that using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is adequate in modelling and solving the flow of electricity in various systems. Indeed, the information gathered has illustrated that ODEs provide a mathematical framework for describing how electrical quantities such as voltage, current, and resistance change concerning time or other independent variables. Formulating ODEs to solve the flow of electricity allows researchers to capture the time-varying variable of electrical systems and to simulate how the system will behave in response to multiple time inputs. In addition, ODEs’ flexibility in modelling different types of electrical systems and with the input of numerical computations for a simple circuit or a complex power grid, ODEs are accurate in modelling the flow of electricity.

### References

Al-Ahmad, S., Sulaiman, I. M., Mamat, M., & Liza Ghazali, P. (2020). Modified differential transform scheme for solving systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science22(01), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.22436/jmcs.022.01.07

Bebikhov, Y. V., Semenov, A. S., Yakushev, I. A., Kugusheva, N. N., Pavlova, S. N., & Glazun, M. A. (2019). The application of mathematical simulation for solving linear algebraic and ordinary differential equations in electrical engineering. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering643(1), 012067. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/643/1/012067

Constantin, A. (2023). A uniqueness criterion for ordinary differential equations. Journal of Differential Equations342(1), 179–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jde.2022.09.035

Kobyzev, I., Prince, S. J., & Brubaker, M. A. (2020). Normalizing flows: An introduction and review of current methods. IEEE Transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence43(11), 3964-3979.

Lipovetsky, S. (2022). Mathematical Modeling: Models, Analysis and Applications: by Sandip Banerjee, Boka Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022, 433 pp., \$130.00 (hbk), ISBN 978-1-138-49594-4.

## The Effects Of Aromatherapy On Anxiety And Sleep Quality In Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial Writing Sample

### Summary

This paper reviews the work of Jodaki et al. 2021 titled “Effect of Rosa damascene Aromatherapy on Anxiety and sleep quality in cardiac patients: A Randomized controlled trial.” The study was conducted to determine the impact of Rosa damascene oil on anxiety levels and the quality of sleep for patients who had cardiac arrests. The link to the article is https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1744388120311749

### Research Question

1. Can aromatherapy reduce anxiety and improve sleep quality for cardiac arrest patients?

### Methods

Randomization of patients was done in the cardiac care units, where the patients were recruited after 24 hours of hospitalization. Sixty participants who met the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the trial were conveniently sampled. The patients were assigned to two groups; the experimental group (n=30) involved patients who were made to inhale five drops of rosa damascene essence oil, while the control group (n=30) was given drops of distilled water as a placebo. Both groups’ sleep quality and anxiety levels were taken and recorded for three consecutive nights using the St. Mary’s Hospital Sleep Quality Questionnaire (SMHSQ) and the Spiel Berger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire tools.

### Data Analysis and Results

Descriptive statistics from the study participants found that the average age was 56.6 years, while most were male participants at 66.7%. To answer the research problem, an independent samples t-test was carried out to determine if there were any significant differences in sleep quality and anxiety levels between the two groups. At the same time, ANOVA was used to examine anxiety and sleep quality changes over time within each group.

Results from the t-test for the two groups gave (t = 7.77, p < 0.001) for anxiety levels and (t = 7.77, p < 0.001) for sleep quality. Further, the intervention group recorded a lower mean anxiety score and a higher mean sleep quality score. Evaluation of these results at a 5% significance level, implying a statistically significant difference in anxiety levels and sleep quality scores between the groups. Therefore, it is concluded that rose damascene impacted reducing anxiety levels and improved the sleep quality of the intervention group participants.

The trials also used a repeated-measures ANOVA to determine whether there were changes in anxiety levels and sleep quality over time within the intervention and control groups. There was a significant difference in anxiety scores over time (F = 12.93, p < 0.001). The intervention group reported a significant decrease in anxiety scores over time. There was also a significant difference in sleep quality scores over time (F = 36.07, p < 0.001), with the intervention group reporting a significant increase in sleep quality over consecutive recording intervals. Calculating Cohen’s d, a measure of the difference between groups, for the effect size between the intervention and control groups further confirmed the validity of the results above. Anxiety levels had a 1.68 effect size, while sleep quality recorded 1.93. These effect sizes indicate a very large effect for both variables.

### Conclusion

The results from the analysis performed give enough evidence to conclude that rosa damascene as aromatherapy was effective. Sleep quality is better, and anxiety levels are managed in the intervention group. The findings offer a new approach to handling cardiac arrest patients by introducing non-pharmacology interventions in nursing care.

### Reflection on the Choice of the Article

In most instances, medics have used pharmacological approaches to reduce anxiety levels and improve sleep quality in cardiac arrest patients. They have achieved results, however, at an expensive cost to the patient’s health. Benzodiazepine drugs put patients at risk of excessive bleeding, bruising and tolerance, and dependence on them (Beizaee et al., 2018).

This article discusses non-pharmacological interventions, a significant departure from the usual pharmacological interventions. For patients undergoing coronary angiography, cardiac arrests, and cardiovascular problems, interventions such as aromatherapy, acupressure, and massage are a great relief, friendly, and do not pose any health concerns (Mahmoodi et al., 2012). The article shows that aromatherapy and other solutions, such as acupressure and massage interventions, significantly reduce anxiety and boost sleep quality in these patients. This is a step toward improving the patient’s overall experience and recovery process. Moreover, it highlights the importance of incorporating complementary therapies in nursing practice.

Innovative nursing practice is vital in helping cardiac arrests and other cardiovascular patients recover quickly without any other health implications. Non-pharmacological interventions such as massage, acupressure, and other innovative solutions are welcomed to make easy the recovery process for patients.

### References

Beizaee, Y., Rejeh, N., Heravi-Karimooi, M., Tadrisi, S. D., Griffiths, P., & Vaismoradi, M. (2018). The effect of guided imagery on anxiety, depression and vital signs in patients on hemodialysis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practicepp. 33, 184–190.

Jodaki, K., Mousavi, M. S., Mokhtari, R., Asayesh, H., Vandali, V., & Golitaleb, M. (2021). Effect of rosa damascene aromatherapy on anxiety and sleep quality in cardiac patients: A randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 42, 101299

Mahmoodi, G., Mokhberi, V., Hassani, S., Akbarzadeh, H., & Rahnamai, N. (2012). The impact of aromatherapy on the anxiety of patients experiencing coronary angiography. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences14(3).

## The Effects Of External Stressors On Marital Satisfaction Free Sample

### Abstract

Even though very few studies have investigated whether or not such stresses account for variance in the trajectories of marital functioning longitudinally and whether or not this is the case, research on external stress and marriage has recently received more interest. This is despite the fact that very few studies have examined whether or not such stresses account for variation in the trajectories of marital functioning. The current research looked at how levels of reported marital happiness varied over the first three years of marriage for a sample of 200 married couples from the state of XYZ who had been married for at least three years. The sample was drawn from married couples who had been living in the state for at least three years. Marriage happiness can be affected by both the amount of financial strain and the number of health problems experienced. The sample was comprised of information gathered over the first three years of the marriage. Even though various persons reported varying levels of happiness in their marriages, the results show that overall marital satisfaction has fallen. This is the case despite the fact that some people are happier in their marriages than others. The research also shown that the levels of stress in one’s environment have a major bearing on the degree to which one is satisfied with the marriage they have chosen to get into. Further explanation is provided regarding the ways in which an outside source of stress might put a strain on a marriage. According to the findings, people’s views of the behavior of their spouse are significantly more susceptible to the impacts of stress than either their own behavior or the behavior of their spouse. Neither of these behaviors was affected as much as the perceptions of the behavior of the spouse.

### Introduction

The external environment that spouses and their union live in impacts the internal dynamics of a marriage. Since the groundbreaking work of (Brunstein et al., 1996) and over the following decades, numerous studies have shown the damaging consequences external stress can have on marital satisfaction. A study by (Brunstein et al., 1999) has shown that such a spillover impact from external stress can occur promptly, daily, and protractedly, long-term. There has not been much research done to determine whether external factors are the real cause of marriage change rates., despite the extensive literature relating stress to marital behaviors and outcomes. I want to know if external stress levels play a role in the changes over time that define marital life, whether they rise or decrease (Chi et al., 2011).

Stress has been linked to an “eroding” influence on marital quality, but rarely has this effect been the subject of research. Furthermore, despite receiving more attention recently, the mechanisms by which external stress affects marital outcomes still need to be better understood. In essence, it is well known that external stress can affect a marriage, but little is understood about how it does so. To correct these flaws, the current study longitudinally analyzes the individual and combined effects of two typical external stressors: financial strain and health concerns (Brunstein et al., 1998).

Analysis of within-person change over time allowed for a more accurate evaluation of the rates of change caused by different stresses. Additionally, the study tests several influence mechanisms to provide more light on how stress from outside the relationship affects experiences inside it. This comparison focuses on how stress from the outside world affects people’s conduct, either their behavior or how they perceive their spouses’ behavior (Mueller, 2006).

### Literature Review

#### Theoretical Framework and Mechanisms of Influence

Every marriage is affected both by macro-level factors (i.e., the relationships between partners) and by micro-level factors (i.e., events and situations that take place outside the marriage). The Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation (VSA) model of relationship development offers a helpful framework for describing the multiple factors that influence the outcomes of marriages. This model is also known as the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model. This model is also known as the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model. According to the model, the relationship quality and stability of married couples can be explained by the interaction of three distinct factors: individual vulnerabilities (such as personality and experiences with one’s family of origin), stressful life events (such as job pressure and job loss), and adaptive processes (such as problem-solving and attribution-making) all have a role in an individual’s risk of developing a mental illness. The VSA model illustrates how personal defects and stress from the outside world can alter adaption processes, which can affect how happy and stable a marriage is.(Navid et al., 2018).

The current study mainly focuses on the correlation between different stressful life situations over time (financial pressure and health concerns). The study concentrates on this feature of the basic VSA model. The last ten years have seen an increase in the study focused on determining the mechanisms underlying this link between stressful life events and marital processes. Identifies two critical paths of influence in her summary of this literature. To begin, it has been discovered that external stressors have an effect on marriage by raising the frequency of events that are detrimental to the relationship and decreasing the time that the couple has for activities that build the couple’s bond. This has been observed as a negative impact on marriage. The first method in which stressors can have an effect on a marriage is as follows:. (Qi et al., 2022).

Another way that external stressors affect marriage is by impairing spouses’ ability to think critically about one another and respond to stressful situations healthily. This is illustrated by the fact that wives are more likely to hold their partners accountable for behavioral transgressions when they are under above-average stress than when they are under normal stress. In addition, ladies (and husbands, to a lesser extent) who are under more stress report having less cognitive ability to distinguish between everyday stressors and overall relationship perceptions. (Panahi et al., 2018) Hypothesize that stressors outside the house affect family life by altering a person’s mood, physiology, perceptions, and social behavior.

Several naturalistic, short-term studies that stress that four mediating processes a reduction in the duration of time spouses utilize together, a decline in communication and interaction, an increase in the risk of psychological and physical problems, and an increase in the likelihood that damaging personality traits would manifest help explain the relationship between external stress and marital satisfaction lend support to this hypothesis.(Rivera-Aragon & Sanchez-Aragon, 2004).

#### External Stressors and Marriage

According to (Randall & Bodenmann, 2017), the term “external stressors” refers to the reoccurring strains brought on by issues not directly connected to the relationship. The current study focused on how the consequences of two kinds of external stresses, namely, financial difficulties and health problems, propagate throughout a population. These two criteria were selected because they were discussed rather frequently when discussing external concerns and because they were more prominent in XYZ communities than in the general population. The Family Stress Model’s body of study findings presents some of the most compelling instances of the topic, demonstrating that financial stress is a common external stressor in marriage research (Vaez & Juhari, 2017).

Increased levels of financial stress are linked to higher levels of marital misery, worse levels of marital satisfaction, and lower overall judgments of a marriage’s quality, according to studies that have employed this concept. These findings have been attributed to the notion. These connections have been discovered in studies involving XYZ couples’ samples. They have been witnessed across various nationalities and found that poorer health difficulties are associated with lower marital quality and, perhaps unexpectedly, lower spouse satisfaction. This was seen in the second external stressor (Wendołowska et al., 2022).

Despite these findings, it is still not entirely obvious to what extent external stressors contribute to changes in marriage patterns and the consequences of those marriages. Studies that do not retain continuity within individuals, whether cross-sectional or longitudinal, cannot assess this issue. If external stressors do “erode” relationship quality, then the fact that these stressors are present should assist in explaining some of the rates of change in relationship quality metrics. (Barton, 2013) conducted one of the few studies that were done in the past that looked at stress as a predictor of rates of change in the quality of marital relationships. Stress was found to be a substantial predictor of change in marital satisfaction rates over three years for a sample of XYZ couples. Couples who reported higher stress levels were connected to more significant reductions in marital happiness. The early levels of marital satisfaction were much lower, which was also significantly connected with higher levels of stress (Wendołowska et al., 2022).

### Methodology

#### Participants and Procedures

Two hundred couples who lived in the state of XYZ made up the sample for the current study. Social media platforms were used to find and recruit study participants. Couples interested in participating in the study were sent letters with invitations. Couples had to live in XYZ state and be at least 20 years old to be considered for the study. After receiving permission, two interviewers visited the participants’ homes and spoke with each spouse separately. An interview-like reading of the questions was done to address any literacy issues and personalize questions better (for example, by adding the participant’s or their spouse’s name to the wording of specific questions) even though most of the questions consisted of standard self-report measures.

Each interview lasted an average of 30 minutes, and all of the interviewers were residents of the state of XYZ. In the sample of 200 couples, the average age of the husband was 35 and the average age of the wife was 30. Eighty-seven percent of spouses and eighty-five percent of wives had completed some education beyond high school, with the highest level of education completed ranging from elementary school to a bachelor’s degree. 56% of men and 73% of women said they had less than \$30,000 in their pockets, 39% of husbands and 24% of wives said they had between \$40,000 and \$60,000, and 5% of husbands and 3% of wives said they had more than \$70,000.

### Measures

#### Financial Strain

The degree to which couples reported concern about their ability to pay for necessities including electricity, food, and medical care was measured using a 6-item scale. This was done to gauge the degree of financial stress that couples were under. We measured how much each participant agreed with the phrases “My spouse and I have enough money to pay our bills” and “We have enough money to afford the kind of food we need” using a Likert scale with five points (=.76,.80,.85).

#### Health problems

The health issue scale contained 11 items used to evaluate health issues. The index measured the degree of agreement (5-point Likert scale) on physical and social sign indicators. Higher scores on items that represent physical and social factors indicated more health issues ( =.89,.91,.90).

 Variables Health Issue Financial Strains Marital Satisfaction Health issues 1 15.67 4.92 Financial strains 0.145** 1 18.57 Marital satisfaction -0.520** -0.430** 2.33

The correlation coefficients between the variables Health Problems, Financial Stress, and Marital Satisfaction are displayed in the table. The correlation coefficients are significant at the.05 level, as the asterisks indicate. The table demonstrates a positive association between health problems and financial stress, indicating that when one variable rises, so does the other. Financial stress, health concerns, and marital happiness all show negative relationships, which means that as one measure rises, the other falls (Pugh et al., 2004).

#### Data Analysis

The data were analyzed using SEM in this particular investigation.

### Discussion

Comprehending how situational settings affect these unions is a significant, yet mostly unexplored, domain in efforts to account for variation in marital phenomena. To this goal, the current study investigated the relationships between marital happiness trajectories and levels of financial stress and health problems among couples from the XYZ state. By examining links to marital happiness, testing various influence mechanisms, and determining how stress levels can explain real rates of change, the findings provide significant contributions to this field. The findings indicate a positive link between health problems and financial stress, which means that if one variable rises, so does the other. Financial stress, health concerns, and marital happiness all show negative relationships, which means that as one measure rises, the other falls (Panahi et al., 2018).

An important turning point in a relationship’s downfall, according to marriage specialists, is when “the spouse’s existence is progressively linked to agony and dissatisfaction not pleasure or support.”

If this premise is true, explaining why this cognitive change happens is a very important problem. A wide variety of causes unavoidably causes this change; nonetheless, the negative bias associated with external stress may add to the explanation of why this shift occurred. People expect that their spouse will always be a source of comfort and support for them. However, during times of greater external stress, when they may be more likely to need spousal support and to a greater extent, they may discover that their partners do not always fulfill these expectations, which may cause them to view their behavior (and eventually their spouse as a whole) in an extremely negative light (Mikaeili Manee et al., 2022).

This study evaluated the single and combined longitudinal effects of external stresses. Financial stress showed more enduring unique impacts when combined. The fact that health issues continued to have a significant influence, especially on husbands, supports the idea that marital research should give this variable more attention. The findings also imply that financial stress and health problems, when taken together rather than separately, explain more diversity in marital dynamics, even though each had (to varying degrees) independent effects.

As a result, it might be easier to comprehend the effects of stressors together than separately (Qi et al., 2022). As a result, the idea of cumulative risk, which is well-known in research on human development, may be useful for broader incorporation in marital studies as well. The correlations described in the VSA model could be examined more directly by connecting stress to longitudinal changes in a couple of function parameters. Focusing on adaptation mechanisms gives pertinent characteristics to target for preventative and therapeutic efforts and provides additional insight into how stress affects many aspects of marital dynamics (Navid et al., 2018).

The current study’s findings highlight the significant influence that external stressors have, as well as how they affect how people perceive their partners’ behavior. Regardless of any poor (or favorable) behaviors displayed by the spouse, people under stress may inadvertently (and negatively) have biased opinions of their partner and their relationship. Another significant issue for couples is the idea of stressor salience (Brunstein et al., 1999). All couples will face certain external stresses, even though no two couples will have the same amount or level of stress. Given their detrimental effects, identifying both partners’ sources of stress and appropriate coping mechanisms at the individual and dyad levels are essential subjects when working with couples.

The study contains several limitations that should be considered when evaluating the results. First, reports of behaviors from a single reporter were used to examine behaviors; spouses reported on partners. It would have been more reliable to assess the behavior of many reporters (such as oneself, a partner, and an outside observer). Stress levels were only considered as a composite of a single report, which is also related to assessment. Repeated assessments across several days, months, and years are ideal for determining and assessing stress, but this intensive surveying has significant practical issues.

The marginal significance level for predictors of change rates increased the chance of Type I error. However, given the extremely good relationship beliefs newlyweds report and the strong motivations to sustain these perceptions, data from inhabitants of XYZ state likely provide conservative testing. Finally, while the sample’s nature has some benefits, it also has some drawbacks, especially when generalizing to other groups. Despite these drawbacks, this study offers a unique window into the environmental factors influencing XYZ state couples’ marital functioning trajectory.

### Conclusion

According to (Vaez & Juhari, 2017), when discussing the impact of external stress on married couples, take note of how stress may “act as a double-edged sword, raising intimates’ likelihood of encountering adverse marital events while hindering intimates’ capacity to process specific relationship information adaptively”. Cross-sectional and longitudinal research have demonstrated how financial stress and health issues affect a couple’s marital satisfaction, which helps us grasp the intrapersonal aspect of this “double-edged sword.” Studying marital processes, the context in which couples are positioned, and their longitudinal correlations is a viable area for marital research in order to better understand the maintenance and dissolution of these unions. (Wendołowska et al., 2022).

External stressors substantially impact marital satisfaction, and this effect can be particularly pronounced when it comes to financial pressures and health concerns. Financial issues can affect a couple’s relationship by causing tension, worry, and even melancholy. These issues include job loss, debt, and unforeseen spending. Couples who experience these financial difficulties may feel trapped or resentful, impairing communication, reducing intimacy, and lowering overall marital satisfaction. Similarly to that, health problems can have a big impact on how happy a couple is in their marriage. Increased stress and emotional strain brought on by a partner’s illness or accident can also cause financial strain if medical expenses or lost pay become a concern. Furthermore, caring for an ill or injured partner can be physically and emotionally taxing, adding to the relationship’s stress.

Couples can take action to address and manage the effects of financial constraints and health difficulties on their relationship despite these obstacles. Couples, for instance, can collaborate to develop a budget or financial plan that considers their objectives and present financial circumstances. They can also seek advice from financial counselors or consultants who can offer direction and aid. Couples can assist one another emotionally and physically with health concerns while seeking extra options, such as support groups or counseling. Couples should also emphasize their own self-care and stress-reduction techniques to lessen the negative effects of outside pressures on their union.

In conclusion, external stressors considerably impact marital satisfaction, which can be especially pronounced when it comes to financial pressures and health difficulties. However, couples can minimize the effect of outside stressors on their relationship and preserve or even increase their overall marital satisfaction by working together and looking for additional resources and assistance.

### References

Barton, A. W. (2013). Marital Functioning and Outcomes : Mechanisms of Influence and. https://getd.libs.uga.edu/pdfs/barton_allen_w_201305_phd.pdf

Brunstein, J. C., Dangelmayer, G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (1996). Personal goals and social support in close relationships affect relationship mood and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology71(5), 1006. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1996-06593-013

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