Utilitarian Article Analysis

Utilitarian Analysis

In evaluating the actions of the West-Central Montreal regional health authority in coercing their employees into redeployment during a pandemic crisis, a utilitarian analysis would consider the overall utility or happiness that could be maximized from this decision. This assessment takes into account the well-being of all relevant audience members. The target audience for this rule includes physiotherapists, social workers, occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, and their workplaces. It also includes residents of senior homes, Montreal authorities, and Canadian citizens who may be affected by the transmission of COVID-19.

From a utilitarian perspective, the primary consideration would be the greatest good for many people. In this case, the Montreal Authorities would argue that redeploying their employees to assist medical colleagues during the pandemic is morally permissible to save lives and improve the overall health outcomes of the community. This reflects a utilitarian approach focused on maximizing society’s overall utility or happiness (McKenna, 2020). However, a utilitarian analysis should also consider the potential negative consequences of such actions. Forcing untrained employees with different areas of expertise to work could present health hazards, endangering both the employees and the patients they are responsible for. This raises ethical issues concerning the potential harm of this choice. Moreover, if employees are coerced into working in fields unrelated to their expertise, it could undermine the standard of care delivered, resulting in less favorable health results.

Regarding the utility calculus, the utilitarian analysis would involve weighing the potential benefits and harms of the Montreal Authorities’ actions. On the one hand, redeploying employees could increase the capacity to respond to the pandemic crisis, potentially saving lives and reducing suffering. This could be seen as a positive utility. However, on the other hand, the potential health risks to ill-prepared employees and compromised quality of care could lead to negative utility. Insufficiently trained or inexperienced employees in new roles might face difficulties in effectively carrying out their responsibilities, potentially resulting in patients receiving less than optimal care. This negative utility needs to be considered as well. Therefore, a utilitarian evaluation of the actions by the Montreal Authorities involves weighing the potential benefits of increased capacity against the potential harms of health risks and compromised care. Terminating physiotherapists, social workers, occupational therapists, and speech-language pathologists who decline to work in long-term seniors’ homes would be morally unacceptable, even if it means resolving a crisis.

Respect for Person Analysis

Negative means-end test:

According to the Respect for Person theory, it is important to consider the autonomy and dignity of individuals when making moral judgments. In the case of the West-Central Montreal regional health authority coercing their employees into redeployment during the pandemic crisis, it is necessary to analyze whether this action violates the principle of respecting persons and undermines the freedom and well-being of the parties involved. Compelling employees to perform tasks beyond their expertise, particularly when unprepared and exposed to health hazards, raises ethical considerations. Forcing employees to work in situations they did not opt for and lack sufficient training could undermine their autonomy. Additionally, subjecting individuals to potential harm without their explicit consent challenges the principle of respect for persons (McKenna, 2020). The negative means/ends test can be useful in evaluating the moral permissibility of the authority’s actions. This test asks whether adopting a particular rule or act would undermine the freedom and well-being of the parties involved. In this case, forcing employees into redeployment might compromise their freedom and well-being.

The authority may jeopardize their freedom to choose their professional practice by forcing employees to work in senior homes. This goes against the principle of respect for individuals as it limits their independence and personal decision-making. Furthermore, workers lacking proper training in a different industry could be exposed to higher chances of harm or might struggle to deliver the necessary quality of service. The possible health risks related to redeployment also put the employees’ well-being at risk. If individuals with unrelated specializations are exposed to hazardous conditions without proper training and protective measures, their physical and mental well-being could be significantly impacted. This violates the principle of respect for persons, as it disregards their safety and potentially endangers their overall health. Therefore, applying the Respect for Person theory and the negative means/ends test to the situation makes it apparent that coercing employees into redeployment without their consent when they are ill-prepared and subject to health risks may violate the principles of autonomy, dignity, and well-being. It is important to consider alternative approaches that respect the choices and safety of the employees while addressing the community’s healthcare needs during the pandemic crisis.

Positive means-end test:

Based on the positive means-ends test, if the West-Central Montreal regional health authority coerces their employees into redeployment to assist their medical colleagues during the pandemic crisis, it may lead to a failure to assist where such obligation exists. When considering the positive means-ends test, it is crucial to evaluate whether the proposed rule or act would hinder the fulfillment of a pre-existing obligation to assist (McKenna, 2020). In this case, the employees of the health authority required redeployment may be ill-prepared, subject to health risks, and have specializations unrelated to the tasks they are being coerced into performing. The obligation to assist during a pandemic crisis cannot be ignored, as it is paramount to help those in need. However, it is equally essential to ensure that those we employ to assist are adequately prepared and protected. Coercing employees who are ill-prepared and subject to health risks into performing tasks for which they have unrelated specializations may lead to a failure to provide the necessary and specialized care that individuals require during this critical period.

Considering the alternative rule, whereby the West-Central Montreal regional health authority uses a voluntary approach rather than coercion, a more appropriate and ethical solution may be achieved. By offering incentives and support systems, the health authority can encourage qualified employees willing and prepared to assist in the redeployment efforts. This approach would prioritize their safety and well-being while also ensuring the provision of competent and specialized care. In applying the positive means-ends test, it is apparent that coercing ill-prepared employees into redeployment may jeopardize the obligation to assist effectively during the pandemic crisis. By adopting a voluntary approach and providing adequate support to willing and qualified employees, the West-Central Montreal regional health authority can address the issue more ethically and responsibly. Therefore, it is not morally permissible for the West-Central Montreal regional health authority to coerce their employees into redeployment when they are ill-prepared, subject to health risks, and have unrelated specializations. Considering the positive means-ends test and evaluating the potential failure to assist where an obligation exists, it becomes evident that alternative approaches prioritizing voluntary participation and adequate preparation should be pursued.


McKenna, K. (2020, April 25). Montreal speech therapists, social workers threatened with firing if they refuse to work in seniors’ homes | CBC news. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/physios-social-workers-redeployed-montreal-1.5545292

A Report Recommending A Visit To Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar


The Harmandir Sahib, often called the Golden Temple, is a stunning structure that has been the religion’s spiritual heart for Sikhism for hundreds of years (Yadava, 2021). Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, India, is the venue of daily religious activities and festivals and houses the holiest Sikh scriptures in the world (Rose, 2015). A trip to this holy Sikh shrine will leave you changed forever by its breathtaking scenery, rich history, and profound spiritual atmosphere. People from all walks of life would find the location inspiring, and I enthusiastically endorse a trip there. Located in the heart of Punjab, Amritsar’s Harmandir Sahib is a symbol of open arms and acceptance for people of all faiths and backgrounds (Yadava, 2021). An amazing sense of peace and spiritual oneness will wash over you as you set foot on the glittering marble walkway that circles the calm Amrit Sarovar (pool of nectar). Seeing the Golden Temple reflected in the calm waters is an unforgettable experience that can serve as a springboard for introspection and spiritual growth.

The significance and dedication of the Golden Temple’s history make it a must-visit pilgrimage destination for millions of Sikhs worldwide (Yadava, 2021). Its architectural splendor, embellished with ornate golden embellishments, brilliantly complements the Akal Takht, the highest temporal seat of Sikh power, and the rest of the complex (Singh, 2021). Experience the Langar, a free communal lunch offered to all visitors without difference, demonstrating the principles of equality and service, and listen to recitations of the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of Sikhism, which will stir your soul. In addition to its religious significance, Harmandir Sahib is a great place to experience the friendly people and rich culture of Punjab (Kaur Chawla et al., 2020). Indulge in the delicious flavors of Punjabi cuisine, watch traditional Punjabi folk performances, and mingle with the welcoming locals to make memories that will last a lifetime.

History of Harmandir Sahib

Harmandir Sahib, sometimes called the Golden Temple, is a revered holy site for Sikhs and attracts visitors from all over the world (Rose, 2015). The Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, India, includes the Harmandir Hall, the Akal Takht, and a sacred lake (Singh, 2021). Being at the temple is equated with “being in the presence of God” and with acts of kindness, selflessness, and safety. Also, the Sikh faith’s basic values of dedication, perseverance, and worldwide brotherhood are embodied in this holy site. The story of Harmandir Sahib, from its modest origins to its current status as one of the world’s most recognizable spiritual landmarks, is about unflinching devotion to the divine, selfless service, and the power of faith.

Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Sikh Guru, built Harmandir Sahib in the early 16th century (Yadava, 2021). Guru Arjan Dev erected a low building as the first Sikh temple, but the present-day Harmandir Sahib superseded it. The devoted followers of Guru banded together and raised enough money to build a grander memorial. The current location of the Golden Temple was formerly a tiny lake encircled by thick forest. Guru Nanak Dev Ji appreciated the calming effects of the lake and often went there to meditate. His ideas and inspiration paved the way for the construction of Harmandir Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s goal of promoting harmony and transcending religious barriers is reflected in the Harmandir Sahib’s construction, which is a harmonious combination of Islamic and Hindu architectural forms (Singh, 2021). The temple’s four gates were meant to represent the welcoming nature of the building to individuals of diverse backgrounds and beliefs.

The foundations of the current Harmandir Sahib were laid in 1577, when the fourth Guru, Guru Ram Das, began digging the Amrit Sarovar. Guru Ram Das enlisted Baba Budha to keep an eye on things throughout the temple’s building (Cibotti, 2016). In 1588, Guru Arjan Dev commissioned Bhai Gurdas and Bhai Sahlo to construct a temple that would serve as the spiritual epicenter of the Sikh religion. At Harmandir sahib, Guru Arjan Dev finished writing the Gurbani, or adi granth. According to legend, he was hard at work on the sacred book when the order of the Mughal monarch Jahangir destroyed the temple. The temple’s rising popularity did not sit well with Emperor Jahangir, who saw it as a challenge to his authority. So the emperor gave the order to demolish the temple. Many Sikhs were outraged at the temple’s destruction, and demonstrations were held across the Sikh kingdom (Bains & Sandhra, 2022). During the 18th century, the Sikh community and the Golden Temple were under constant threat by Afghan and Mughal forces. Sikhs showed incredible fortitude in the face of persecution and kept guard over their holy site.

The temple was rebuilt in 1764 thanks to the efforts of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. The “Dal Khalsa,” or “Grand Army of the Sikhs,” was founded and led by Ahluwalia, who also oversaw the building of a wooden fort which was first opened to the public on June 25, 1765 (Gill, 2020). He designated it a “house of the Guru” and gave spiritual authority to another Sikh general, Baba Baghel Singh. The Gurudwara’s top stories were gold-plated thanks to a donation of 75 kg of gold made by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1802 (Rose, 2015). The four temple gateways each received 11 kg of gold, for a total of 75 kilograms. The remaining 64 kg of gold was used to decorate the temple’s exterior. This is where Harmandir Sahib’s nickname of the “Golden Temple” came from.

The Maharaja added more gold and gems to the temple’s interior during a ten-day ceremony in 1841 honoring Guru Ram Das’s birth anniversary (Gill, 2020). The Maharaja’s wife, Sila Sahib Kaur, contributed diamond necklaces and a massive gold and pearl throne that weighed more than 44 kg. The Harmandir sahib’s roof was restored in the early 21st century to stabilize the structure. The foundation columns were reinforced, and a balcony was added so more guests could attend the event. Many freedom warriors found safety and comfort in the Golden Temple throughout India’s fight for independence. In 1919, British forces opened fire on unarmed villagers gathered in the nearby Jallianwala Bagh garden for a peaceful protest, and the temple complex became notorious (Majeed, 2015). Harmandir Sahib maintained its prominence as a symbol of Sikh culture, religion, and selfless service long after India’s independence in 1947.

The temple complex grew to include schools, clinics, and other community facilities to meet the requirements of worshippers from all walks of life. Harmandir Sahib, a symbol of the Sikh faith and the bravery of its adherents, is still standing today (Yadava, 2021). Devotees seeking spiritual enlightenment and peace continue to journey there, where the founding Sikh Gurus remind them to be more compassionate, honest, and charitable in their daily lives. The Harmandir Sahib is a magnificent cultural and religious structure and a notable landmark because it is constantly updated and renovated.

The mission statement of Harmandir Sahib

As a symbol of human fraternity and equality, Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple) is a revered gurudwara in the Indian city of Amritsar (Gill, 2020). Harmandir Sahib was established to create a safe and welcoming environment for Sikh worshippers. It is meant to be a spot of prayer, reflection, and contemplation of the divine. The mission of Harmandir Sahib is to provide a place of worship and pilgrimage for Sikhs and a welcoming environment for visitors of all faiths (Yadava, 2021). Harmandir Sahib’s ultimate goal is to be a place where people can find wisdom, fairness, and compassion in need, thus honoring and promoting the teachings of divine unity. The Golden Temple represents the Sikh ideals of universal brotherhood, service to others, and non-discrimination. These principles are central to the organization’s work, which seeks to promote global harmony via education and cooperation.

In addition, Harmandir Sahib promotes tolerance and acceptance of all cultures. Helping individuals who are financially disadvantaged or socially marginalized is an important part of this (Bainiwal, 2020). The community’s goal is to foster tolerance by fostering relationships between members of different faiths and cultural backgrounds. The Golden Temple and similar groups strive to build an atmosphere where people can learn to accept and understand one another by engaging in volunteer work and other acts of kindness (Bains & Sandhra, 2022). The goals of Harmandir Sahib are mutual respect, harmony, and service to humanity. The Golden Temple’s goal is to unite the world in harmony and build a community that helps those in need in every way (psychologically, monetarily, and physically) (Cibotti, 2016). Harmandir Sahib serves as a meeting place for people of all faiths and cultures to work together for the benefit of future generations.

The philosophy of Harmandir Sahib

For Sikhs, the Harmandir Sahib, or the Golden Temple, is the holiest of all gurdwaras or places of worship (Yadava, 2021). It represents unity, acceptance, and fairness in all relationships. The Sikh philosophy of equality is reflected in the temple’s design, which provides a rare blend of spirituality and respect for people of all castes, creeds, and social standings. The Harmandir Sahib was constructed around the Amrit Sarovar, a sacred tank. Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru, is credited with building the tank, which is said to be fed by a natural spring, a sacred pool whose waters are believed to have the power to purify both body and soul (Rose, 2015). The temple’s four doors symbolize the welcoming nature of the Sikh faith and the respect for other religions.

Sikhism’s basic tenets, including a commitment to social justice, faith in a unifying divine power, and the value of contemplation and prayer, find physical expression in the Harmandir Sahib (Gill, 2020). The governing philosophy of the temple is based on these basic tenets. Its teachings urge us to put aside our prejudices, appreciate what we have, and help those less fortunate. The Guru Granth, the Sikh scripture, is the source of the religion’s core ideals of kindness, selflessness, and modesty. The Harmandir Sahib symbolizes the importance of open communication, peaceful coexistence, and mutual respect (Majeed, 2015). The Sikh faith has always included this sign of bravery in the face of religious persecution, and it will continue to serve as an inspiration to people all around the world.

The menu at Harmandir sahib

The vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes at Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple, Amritsar) are representative of regional Punjabi cuisine (Rose, 2015). Volunteers prepare all of Harmandir Sahib’s free meals. Chole Bhature, Parathas, Roti, and Dal Makhani are among the staples on the menu at the shrine. Desserts like Halwa, Firni, and Kesari Phirni are also available. There is also a large variety of drinks available at the temple. Among the most ordered drinks are fresh fruit juices, Nababshaab, a liquid drink that is both pleasant and nutritious, and Amritsari Lassi.

Vegetables, papads, and other items are seasoned and spicy for those who prefer hotter fare (Yadava, 2021). As condiments, they also offer pickles and chutneys. Snacks like samosas, pakoras, aloo tikki, and kulcha are also available. Dahi Bhalle, Pani Puri, Bhatura, and Cholley are just some of the chaat options available at the shrine (Rose, 2015). Harmandir Sahib is known for serving delectable fare to its visitors. Guests can appreciate each dish and taste authentic Punjabi food at the temple thanks to its one-of-a-kind menu.


There is no cost to visit Harmandir Sahib or to partake in Langar. Donations are welcome but not required (Yadava, 2021). Due to this, Harmandir Sahib has become one of the popular tourist destinations as it attracts millions of visitors annually. On the other hand, you must arm yourself with a minimum of 10000Rs to facilitate your accommodations and movements around the city, as the shrine does not provide accommodation for visitors.


Those planning a trip to the temple should keep the following in mind: As a first step, guests are asked to respect the holy nature of Harmandir Sahib by dressing appropriately. It is suggested that visitors dress respectfully by covering their shoulders and knees. Inside the temple, both men and women are expected to cover their heads with something, usually a scarf or handkerchief. This is done to show reverence and awe before the Guru Granth Sahib. Before approaching the temple grounds, visitors must also take off their shoes. There are secure shoe racks near the door for your convenience.

Keep a respectful silence and solemn bearing while within the temple. Avoid talking loudly or doing anything that can disrupt the prayers or rites that are currently taking place. In addition, visitors can partake in the Langar, a free community supper. This one-of-a-kind adventure encourages solidarity and selflessness. Taking photographs inside the temple grounds is usually permitted, although visitors are asked to respect the site’s religious significance. If you find yourself in a prayer session or other restricted place, refrain from snapping photos.

Moreover, there may be substantial waits to access the shrine during the busiest periods. Patience and compassion are essential as people line up to pay their respects. Respect the local culture there, as it is a big part of what makes Punjab unique. Participate in customary Punjabi activities and try regional delicacies to feel like a local truly. There is no admission charge. However, a donation may be made to support the temple’s ongoing community initiatives. One of the best ways to help is to volunteer at the Langar or some other community event.

Avoid going on busy religious holidays and during temple hours for a more peaceful and reflective experience. Investigating your lodging and transportation alternatives in advance is also a good idea to ensure a stress-free and pleasurable trip. By adhering to these guidelines, visitors can fully embrace the spiritual and cultural significance of this holy Sikh shrine while also having a meaningful and life-changing experience.


In conclusion, a trip to Harmandir Sahib, the Golden Temple in Amritsar, India, will forever change your life. The Golden Temple is a shining example of harmony, equality, and selfless devotion because of its stunning aesthetics, deep spirituality, and long history. This sacred Sikh temple encourages an atmosphere of fraternity and acceptance for people of all faiths and cultures. Pilgrims come from all over the world to experience the spiritual importance of the temple, marvel at its stunning architecture, and engage in the Langar, a symbol of equality and service. The Harmandir Sahib is more than just a place of worship; it is also a gateway to the colorful culture and friendly people of Punjab. Trips to Harmandir Sahib are more than just a chance to view the sights; they are life-altering experiences that foster self-reflection, spiritual development, and a profound respect for the values of compassion, tolerance, and togetherness. Visits to this holy site are highly recommended; many who do so come away with a new perspective on humanity and a renewed commitment to finding inner peace.


Bainiwal, T. S. (2020). Religious and political dimensions of the Kartarpur corridor: Exploring the global politics behind the lost heritage of the Darbar Sahib.  Religions11(11), 560.

Bains, S. K., & Sandhra, S. K. (2022). The body politics of gender in Sikhi: shaping, shifting and pushing boundaries. South Asian Diaspora14(1), 55–71.

Cibotti, J. (2016). RLG 5937 Sacred Image, Sacred Space in Indian Religions Prof. Vose Feb. 2, 2016, Sri Harmandir Sahib: Sikh Faith Constructed.

Gill, D. K. (2020). Monuments Of Maharaja Ranjit Singh And Other Historical Places In Amritsar: A Analysis Historical. Ilkogretim Online19(2), 1478.

Kaur Chawla, T., Hassan, R., & Kaur, D. (2020). Visa-Free Travel to Sri Kartarpur Sahib: Historic Pilgrimage and Religious Tourism from Indian Punjab to Pakistan Punjab. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities12(3).

Majeed, A. (2015). Democracy and Minorities in India: The Sikh Community. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan52(1).

Rose, S. (2015). Harmandir Sahib Sikh Temple. Weigl Publishers.

Singh, G. (2021). The Institution of the Akal Takht: The Transformation of Authority in Sikh History.  Religions12(6), 390.

Yadava, A. (2021). Sri Harmandir Sahib: Golden Temple of the Sikhs. Unistar Books.

American Heart Association

American government strives to improve healthcare quality through increased access to healthcare information by patients. There are notable benefits of this approach. One of them is that it enhances patients’ health literacy levels. Thus, allowing patients to participate in clinical decisions and take better actions about their lifestyle. Additionally, self-care is also achieved, thus, improving one’s health. One factor that has increased patient access to health information is the dynamic development in technology, such as the introduction of internet services, which enables patients to access credible and reliable information about a particular health issue. These may include; their risk factors, manifestations, and remedies. A good example of these websites is the American Heart Association. Therefore, this paper will discuss the patient health information provided by the American Heart Association about heart disease.

Health Issue

Heart disease is one of the major chronic diseases affecting many Americans. Cardiovascular illness is a general term that refers to various conditions that alter the human heart. Common cardiovascular diseases include coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and aortic aneurysms. Plaque build-up of cholesterol in the walls of the coronary arteries blocks the coronary arteries that carry blood to the heart. Blood entering the heart is restricted when the build-up of atheroma causes the coronary artery to narrow, leading to chest pains. A completely blocked coronary artery can cause a heart attack.

Moreover, the altered blood supply to the brain causes a stroke. Blocked arteries in the limbs (primarily the legs) cause peripheral vascular disease. The largest blood vessel in the body is the aorta. The aorta supplies blood from the heart to other organs. When the walls of the aorta weaken and bulge outwards, this suggests that one is suffering from an aortic aneurysm condition.

Cardiovascular disease causes the highest number of deaths in America compared to other chronic diseases. For instance, in 2020, it accounted for 928741 deaths. Moreover, in the same year, coronary heart disease accounted for 41.2 percent of deaths, stroke (17.3%), high blood pressure (12.9%), and heart attack accounted for 9.2% of the total deaths in America (Tsao et al., 2023). Moreover, aging and elderly individuals are particularly vulnerable to heart disease. Older women are more likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease than their elderly-aged men counterparts. However, in both men and women, susceptibility to heart disease increases with age (Rodger et al., 2019). Furthermore, cardiovascular disease risk factors include physical inactivity, unhealthy nutrition, obesity, high blood pressure, smoking, race/ ethnicity, and kidney dysfunction. (Bays et al., 2021). According to a report by Tsao et al. (2023), direct and indirect expenditures on heart disease between 2018 and 2019 amounted to more than $ 400 billion.


Approximately 80 percent of American adults search online for health information. Most of this information impacts consumers’ health beliefs, health behaviors, intentions, and healthcare decision-making (Sun et al.,2019). For example, one website that provides credible and reliable information about cardiovascular disease is the American Heart Association (AHA). AHA is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1915 as the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease. The last update was in 1924 to its current name. The organization publishes scientific medical guidelines related to cardiovascular disease and stroke. The American Heart Association, in conjunction with other volunteer scientists and healthcare professionals, writes and reviews all the information for credibility.

The healthcare sector is changing daily; therefore, physicians must ensure that they are up-to-date, and this is why the American Heart Association updates its guidelines annually concerning various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The aim is to help health professionals achieve the best patient outcomes. The website states that their information is intended to help people improve their health by helping them understand cardiovascular disease and stroke and their preventive measures and learn various medical conditions. Moreover, its information does not discourage advice from other health experts who understand one’s medical conditions. Additionally, the targeted audience for the American Heart Association information is the general public and anyone who needs information about heart disease.

Website Design and Layout

American Heart Association website design and layout are well-organized, which makes it easy to read and access information. The website uses questions, sentences, and phrases to ease the identification of specific topics. There is a database with a list of information about health issues. Examples of headings that ease access to information about heart disease are; What is cardiovascular disease? How common is heart disease? Who is likely to develop cardiovascular disease? Cardiovascular disease causes, symptoms, signs, and prevention. The table of content is also provided at the top of the website before the reader access the information.

American Heart Association uses Lub Dub as its custom hyperface on its materials excluding long-form scientific documents where sans serif is unsuitable. The website uses this typeface to modernize its brand to reach a broader audience and make new connections. Additionally, the website uses various colors, such as red, white, grey, and black backgrounds, when presenting its information.

Website Sponsorship

The American Heart Association is a not-for-profit organization that supports research through funding, advocates for better heart policies, and educates the public about healthy life through its resources and campaigns. However, they cannot achieve all these objectives without financial support from well-wishers. Therefore, the organization primarily depends on support from sponsors to allow them to achieve their mission. Some of the major sponsors of this organization are CVS Health, Bank of America, UnitedHealth Group, and Medtronic, among others.


Experienced writers and editors primarily produce the information on the American Heart Association website. Physicians and other professional experts in cardiovascular disease help in writing this information. The American Heart Association’s staff may also help compile and assemble the information. Moreover, the information must receive a statistical and science-based review by the science and medicine team to ensure its credibility before posting it on their website. One of the writers is Paul St. Laurent, an advanced practice nurse in clinical cardiovascular care for more than twenty-five years. Paul also holds a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree and a bachelor’s and master’s degree in nursing from Chatham University and the University of Southern Indiana, respectively.

Thon & Jucks (2017) concluded that information seekers consider the author’s credentials and the technicality of language when determining the credibility of information on a website. Information seekers believe that authors with authority in medical fields also have more expertise in a specific health issue. Therefore, these factors were found to impact the information seeker’s perception of the credibility of information. Additionally, technical language use has a negative impact on the authors’ integrity and credibility of their information.

Moreover, the website is free to access by the public as it discourages any subscriptions to acquire the information. Moreover, the authors are not affiliated with any political side but are focused on providing valuable information about cardiovascular disease for public consumption. The website provides easy ways of reaching the authors, including website email and customer service numbers. Furthermore, the information provided by the website is accurate. American Heart Association is a science-based organization; therefore, they ensure that the science and medicine advisors review the information to check for any errors. The internal staff oversees a database of reviews by assigning each to at least one advisor for the review process. Any database with inaccuracies is returned for additional review. The website also provides additional accessible links that help the reader get valuable information about a particular health issue. Additionally, the website uses more than one language to write its information. These languages include Portuguese, Italiano, Espanyol, and Deutsch to reach more audiences worldwide.


The website provides enough information that educates consumers. For instance, the organization has many health education brochures that help people reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, understand illness tests and treatments, and manage their health conditions successfully; therefore, consumers often get adequate and accurate answers to their questions.

The sophistication of the Information

The website uses simple and comprehensive language that enhances the information’s readability. The American Heart Association website clearly states its intended purpose. The activities and information align with its mission, “building healthier lives, free of cardiovascular disease and stroke.” The site is primarily for educational purposes. They create awareness of the significance of choosing a healthy lifestyle. Moreover, they also provide science-based guidelines for physicians to help them achieve the best patient outcomes. Additionally, they educate the public, policymakers, and lawmakers by advocating for changes that aim at protecting and improving the health of the general community.

In conclusion, the American government aims to improve the health of its citizens through increased access to healthcare information. The Internet development has enhanced this strategy, as studies suggest that approximately 80 percent of adults in America seek health information online. They search for information regarding various health issues, such as cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is one of the major chronic diseases affecting many Americans. Therefore, people often seek health advice from websites such as the American Heart Association, which educates people on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.


Rodgers, J. L., Jones, J., Bolleddu, S. I., Vanthenapalli, S., Rodgers, L. E., Shah, K., … & Panguluri, S. K. (2019). Cardiovascular risks associated with gender and aging. Journal of cardiovascular development and disease, 6(2), 19. https://www.mdpi.com/2308-3425/6/2/19

Tsao, C. W., Aday, A. W., Almarzooq, Z. I., Anderson, C. A., Arora, P., Avery, C. L., … & American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2023). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2023 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 147(8), e93-e621. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001123

Bays, H. E., Taub, P. R., Epstein, E., Michos, E. D., Ferraro, R. A., Bailey, A. L., … & Toth, P. P. (2021). Ten things to know about ten cardiovascular disease risk factors. American journal of preventive cardiology5, 100149. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666667721000040

Thon, F. M., & Jucks, R. (2017). Believing in expertise: How authors’ credentials and language use influence the credibility of online health information. Health communication32(7), 828-836.

Sun, Y., Zhang, Y., Gwizdka, J., & Trace, C. B. (2019). Consumer evaluation of the quality of online health information: systematic literature review of relevant criteria and indicators. Journal of medical Internet research21(5), e12522. https://www.jmir.org/2019/5/e12522/