Utopias And Dystopias In Literature University Essay Example

Depictions of imaginary ideal societies, as well as the critiques thereof, are a popular genre and staple of world culture, including literature. One may reasonably argue that the difference between utopia and dystopia is in the eye of the beholder, as it ultimately depends on one’s ideas of a perfect society. However, there is also a difference of purpose: dystopias are a warning, and utopias are meant as a model – but, as such, need thorough critical scrutiny.

A classic example of dystopian writing is Orwell’s 1984 – both because it leaves no doubts about its attitude toward the society depicted and about the reasons why the author penned this cautionary tale. Admittedly, the people living in the IngSoc society are expected to think their society is perfect. However, closer to the book’s end, O’Brien openly declares it “the exact opposite of the stupid hedonistic Utopias,” making it clear that, whatever the concerns of the Party are, they are not Utopian (Orwell, n.d., p. 336). Apart from that, Orwell sets his novel firmly within the historical context to elaborate on the roots of his imaginary dystopian regime. O’Brien explicitly refers to the Inquisition and the Nazis and Communists as the historical steps in perfecting the techniques of suppression (Orwell, n.d.). By doing so, the author points at the real historical developments that warrant his fears and explains to the audience why a warning, such as 1984, is needed.

In order to identify the characteristic features of utopia as a positive model, there is no better example than the book that coined the term in the first place – More’s Utopia. In this famous text, the Early Modern Author describes an imaginary island of Utopia (literally “no-place” in Greek) as a model of a perfect society to reflect on and emulate. Once again, there is no question of More’s (1551) position toward the imaginary society he constructs, and the utopian character of his writings is as clear as the dystopian message of 1984. More (1551) describes Utopians as living in accordance with nature and God’s will and pursuing virtue toward the useful and reasonable satisfaction of their needs. Moreover, it is precisely the kind of hedonistic utopia that O’Brien refers to in 1984 because, being the utilitarians they are, Utopians posit that all virtues ultimately culminate in pleasure (More, 1551). As such, Utopia – at least according to its author – is definitely a pleasant example to emulate rather than a dreaded vision of the future avoid.

However, closer scrutiny of More’s supposedly ideal society reveals many features that easily fit within the dystopian framework of Orwell’s 1984. For example, in Utopia, More (1551) praises the inhabitants of his wondrous land for their chaste and monogamous customs, noting that those practicing premarital sex are severely punished. However, Orwell’s (n.d.) dystopia takes this idea to its logical conclusion and describes a society that suppresses natural human urges through organizations like the “Junior Anti-Sex League” (p. 13). Similarly, Huxley’s (2010) Brave New World develops the idea of pleasures used as a measure of virtue to portray the society of sanctified mindless consumption, thus indirectly mocking Utopia’s utilitarianism. These examples demonstrate that the model societies presented in dystopias require consistent scrutiny to evaluate the ideas that lie at their base.

In short, the difference between utopias and dystopias is not only in the author’s and audience’s perception but also in the intent behind the work. While utopias genuinely construct the project of model societies to strive for, dystopias reflect on the troubling social and political trends to offer a warning. Consequently, utopian models of the social organization need scrutiny before actually considering them worthy of imitation, even to a small degree.


Huxley, A. (2010). Brave New World. Rosetta Books.

More, T. (1551). Utopia. Project Gutenberg. Web.

Orwell, G. (N.d.) 1984. Planet eBook. Web.

Antisocial Personality Disorder Case Study

There are numerous issues that may undermine the proper formation of a personality during childhood and adolescence. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the challenges that affect children and teenagers and lead to the development of a broad spectrum of symptoms that may indicate the early stages of mental disorders. The application of the DSM-5 framework allows for enhanced analysis of patients’ behavior. Thus, despite the complex nature of Pete’s case, it is crucial to make the right diagnosis in a due manner to ensure an efficient treatment process.

Pete is described as a teenager with completely different life experiences. A wide spectrum of feelings and emotions influenced him negatively. The adolescent demonstrates arrogance and indifference towards the feelings of people around him, even his caring adoptive parents. Despite being generally perceived as an appealing young man, Pete shows little interest in people’s attention, which may reveal some of the origins of his attitude to others and can help assign the correct diagnosis. Moreover, the problems Pete demonstrates while communicating with peers and adults allows for the full investigation of a wide range of symptoms associated with certain disorders.

Although the symptoms the patient demonstrates may point to various stages and phases of obsessive-compulsive, bipolar, and depressive disorders, the analysis of the entire picture points to the development of an antisocial personality disorder. This mental health issue is generally characterized by established patterns of violation of the rights of others. Moreover, patients suffering from the disorder, in most cases, show diminished ability to establish long-term relationships with people. Therefore, the diagnosis helps explain Pete’s decision to communicate predominantly with a group of counterculture teenagers that reject most social norms. The desire to be accepted, combined with the lack of necessity to establish proper relationships, may have originally motivated Pete to spend a substantial amount of time with these adolescents.

Personality disorders, in general, are characterized by a wide range of maladaptive patterns of behavior and cognition. People diagnosed with personality disorders may experience challenges in emotiveness, interpersonal functioning, cognition, or impulse control. Moreover, it is also crucial to take into consideration peer influence and pressure that Pete experienced when assigning the diagnosis and deciding on the most efficient treatment. According to Andrews et al. (2021), hypersensitivity to social rejection and heightened susceptibility to peer influence in adolescence can lead to both risky and prosocial behavior in the presence of peers. Therefore, it is essential to make Pete feel needed and valued again in order to make him be motivated by his parents and teachers.

Pete tries to refrain from any efforts to assist him, as he rejects having troubles with establishing proper relationships and fitting into society. Moreover, his failed attempts to overcome the numerous issues associated with antisocial personality disorder led to the development of even more severe symptoms, which include extreme anxiety, distress, or depression. It was Pete’s impaired psychosocial functioning that led him into anxiety about the police trying to arrest him.

The above mentioned evidence suggests that Pete demonstrates all the symptoms that are strongly associated with an antisocial personality disorder. Therefore, it is crucial to address the issue duly, as this mental disorder tends to cause the most harm in people aged 24 to 44. Psychologists should guide parents in the development and establishment of a complex framework that can assist Pete in his attempts to reintegrate into society fully. The patient’s ability to admit having a wide range of problems rooted in the permanent sense of anxiety indicates the initial motivation to start the treatment process.


Andrews, J. L., Ahmed, S. P., & Blakemore, S. J. (2021). Navigating the social environment in adolescence: The role of social brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 89(2), 109 –118. Web.

Creating Value In Healthcare Settings


Medical companies are faced with delivering value, while the latter is defined as the ratio of quality, quality to cost. For this mission to be achieved, it is necessary to reduce the cost of treatment, improve its quality and ensure wider access of the population to it (Burns et al., 2012). At the same time, the question of how feasible is the achievement of all three goals remains relevant and unresolved. For example, increasing people’s access to health services may be associated with higher costs. At the same time, it is not only American healthcare organizations that strive to fulfill this mission; this problem is of a global nature (Burns et al., 2012). Value-based care is a medical practice that combines the value of the best scientific evidence and individual values ​​for the patient. To confidently say that any medical intervention leads to a good result, it is necessary to assess this result correctly and, even better, to measure it quantitatively.

Institutional Theory

Maintaining an improvement in human health throughout the history of society is one of the most critical problems and tasks of its functioning. The degree of development of health care, the quality, availability, and timeliness of medical care for the population is reflected not only in the indicators of public and individual health of people. These factors also demonstrate the quality of life and well-being of the community. It should be borne in mind that medical systems generate value by producing healthy and non-health gains that promote well-being (Burns et al., 2012). Health care is in the stage of active institutional transformations, which is to qualitatively improve the efficiency and accessibility of the medical care system. This is reflected in the development of human resources at all levels of the industry and high-tech medical services for the population. However, efforts to enhance quality may not always positively change the health state of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce measurable indicators by which medical organizations can judge whether the changes contribute to improving patients’ health.

General beliefs about justice and society’s requirements for their formation are among the features of economic institutions in health care. The ideas about what kind of health care is socially fair are not universal and diverse in different countries and among social groups. Modern society should provide each of its members with the opportunity to receive a minimum of medical care, regardless of their social status and income. This is the only judgment that no one wants to argue with. The institutional environment and its limiting framework form the economic mechanism of health care (Porter, 2010). It shapes the self-regulation mechanism that maintains the system’s equilibrium around specified macroeconomic parameters (Dixit and Sambasivan, 2020). On the other hand, healthcare can also be viewed as an institution, which is a combined set of ideas, rules, and mechanisms aimed at providing medical care to the population (Burns et al., 2012). Thus, the focus of a value-based health system is on human health.

Institutionalization can be viewed as a process of harmonized, conceptual, legal, technological, and other systemic transformations in the healthcare sector. Any changes to the system are inevitably associated with specific costs for changing it. Therefore, it is necessary to search for a rational transition from the existing system to a more promising one. Institutional changes should only be implemented if it is objectively clear that they will lead to value creation.

System Perspective

Medical organizations are components of the health care system, i.e., its subsystems. Moreover, they have all the qualities inherent in the elements of the system and, in turn, are systems themselves. Structural orientation presupposes the portrayal of a medical organization as a holistic entity, consisting of interacting parts, each of which contributes to the characteristics of the whole (Dixit and Sambasivan, 2020). Given that technical and human factors strongly influence the activities of medical organizations, they can be attributed to socio-technical systems. Health systems of all types strive to create as much value as possible using their free resources.

Representing a medical organization as a complex system in healthcare allows a deeper understanding of many aspects of its functioning in the market. It also helps in identifying many key points affecting financial and economic activities. This makes it possible to consider many problems from different angles, i.e., comprehensively, which helps to optimize the management process (Burns et al., 2012). The success or failure of healthcare institutions in the medical market largely depends on the business entities themselves. Only when all factors are taken into account and the perception of the medical organization as a system will it be possible to create value and provide patients with value-based care.

To ensure its long-term existence, the organization must have feedback (information about uncontrollable factors, the institution’s activities, the effectiveness of the marketing plan). To that end, one should systematically assess the degree of patient satisfaction, monitor the state of the economy, anticipate a possible shortage of resources, and study independent media. Perception of medical organizations as systems will allow treating the process of value formation as an activity associated with the transformation of all elements (Porter, 2010). Thus, marketing management should be based on a systematic approach, since only in the interconnection of the top marketing points can an organization succeed in the medical services market.

Organizational Ecology

Organizational ecology emerged as a particular trend in the American sociology of organizations in polemics with supporters of rationalist concepts. The latter viewed the development of the organization as entirely conditioned by the conscious activity of the manager. Organizational ecology is understood as a historical-systems approach within the objectivist direction of macro-sociological theory. Within this theory, organizational development is defined as a process associated with expanding the set of socio-cultural patterns of behavior and activity. According to the analyzed concept, an organization cannot carry out activities and survive outside of interaction with other institutions and communities. This is explained by the fact that they perform similar activities and compete for resource-ecological niches. Organizational ecology emphasizes the extent to which organizations are involved in resource sharing and transformation. In the context of this theory, which focuses on the population, healthcare providers should be held accountable for the growing importance of value in health care.


The value should be assessed in terms of the results achieved and not depending on how large the volume of services provided is. These results are multidimensional and depend on many varied factors. Therefore, the value should be assessed from a systemic perspective. That is, by evaluating how the elements interact with each other. Patient populations are a crucial component of organizational ecology, and therefore the health of all patient populations should be a priority for healthcare organizations. Finally, for a variety of healthcare settings, outcome measurement should be a critical internal strategy. Prioritizing value improvement in health care delivery should be the mission of a healthcare organization. Otherwise, there is a risk of waste of funds, less innovation, and a general deterioration in the quality of care.


Burns, L. R., Bradley, E. H., Weiner, B. J., & Shortell, S. M. (2012). Shortell and Kaluzny’s health care management: Organization, design, and behavior. Delmar Cengage Learning.

Dixit, S. K., & Sambasivan, M. (2020). An integrated multitheoretical perspective of public healthcare Services delivery organizations. Public Organization Review, 20, 319–335.

Porter M. E. (2010). What is value in health care? The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(26), 2477–2481.

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