V-Day: Until Violence Stops Essay Example

Recently, many movements concerning women’s issues have been coming up. These movements could be national or international. One of these movements is V-day which is a global movement. This movement was founded by Eve Ensler in the late 1990s. It was inspired by “The Vagina Monologues” played by Eve Ensler. The mission for this movement is to bring violence against women and girls to an end. It calls for an immediate end of genital mutilation, rape, battery, incest and sexual slavery in women. It believes that women should live freely doing other productive activities rather than nursing their wounds and recovering from trauma. Moreover, the movement seeks to bring together and strengthen existing anti-violence organizations. It seeks to do so by raising money and creating awareness. In addition, it aims at creating new educational, protective and legislative centers globally (V-Day: Until Violence Stops).

In the year 1998, this movement incorporated performances of the play “The Vagina Monologues”. It was made to raise money for women and girls who were sexual abuse and violence victims. With time, the movement grew in its art to include film noted as the documentary “Until The Violence Stops”. The documentary film “Until The Violence Stops” was written by Eve Ensler and directed by Abby Epstein. It is a documentary film of the year 2003 and goes along with the events marking 2002 V-Day. It runs for 73 minutes and focuses on V-day activities of sexual violence in four locations including Philippines, Kenya, Croatia and Middle America. In this film, Eve Ensler passes a message that women are harmed in many ways through the vagina. This includes marital rape and battery, sexual slavery and trafficking, genital mutilation among others. Moreover, she adds that women and girls should be protected against sexual violence. She brings about the idea that in the vagina is found the universe, meaning that women are earth mothers (V-Day: Until Violence Stops).

The documentary film addresses some international and national ways employed concerning violence against women. Much of it focuses on gender, race and class of women. It is found that if women are given the same opportunities as men, it will bring respect. Moreover, black men tend to adore white women and mistreat black women. It is resolved that if justice will be employed on women regardless of race, it will bring respect. Women who are well up tend to be treated with more respect than the poor ones. It is concluded that if all the women are treated the same, it will bring respect. In conclusion, if all these issues mentioned above will be implemented, the rate at which women are violated will reduce much far (V-Day: Until Violence Stops).

Women are considered as the weak sex hence end up being violated. In order to reduce this, it is important for women to unite and fight against it. Women need to unite globally and empower themselves. This will help in creating awareness to those who are not aware. Moreover, it will strengthen the women and help them know their rights. The violated women will be encouraged to live positively and the non-violated women will be protected (V-Day: Until Violence Stops).

Many women undergo a lot of violations. Some keep quiet and others come out to tell their stories. These women tell their stories aiming at getting freedom and living freely. Through the advice and encouragement they are given, they become strong and their broken hearts heal. They are empowered and learn how to live positively. By gaining this power, it helps them overcome “crazy making” since they know their rights and have been encouraged. In addition, it helps them to know that there is life to live even after what happened to them (V-Day: Until Violence Stops).

Regarding “The Vagina monologues” production, many monologues have been put across. Many have discussed vagina from their experiences and others from what they think about it. If Vagina was to talk, it could say that it has been being misused in many ways. These include sex, injustices wrought against the vagina, menstruation period and birth path. In “The Vagina monologues” production, no one who discusses about clothing the vagina. It is important to clothe it in order to protect it from dirt. Clothes such as pants, bikers can be used (V-Day: Until Violence Stops).

In conclusion, globally the world should unite to fight against women’s rights violations. Women are mothers of the earth as seen in the documentary film and need to be protected. Rules and regulations protecting women should be implemented.However; men who are violating women should be punished severely. Many organizations for educating and empowering women should be founded. Funds for catering medical expenses for violated women should be reserved. Many women do not come out to tell their stories hence suffer quietly. They suffer from mental torture, humiliation, trauma and others even die. It is advisable for any woman who is being violated to come out and tell her story in order to be assisted.

Works cited

V-Day: Until Violence Stops. Dir. Epstein, Abby. Perf. Cindy Gantz, Paul Mailman, and Paulo Netto. Vincent Farrell, 2003.

Josquin Des Prez’s Musical Career And Works


Though famous as contemporary musician details about his life and his compositions are not well documented. He was considered to be one of the most important composers of music during the renaissance period. He has been confused with many other contemporary musicians.

Josquin des Prez was born in the region near Conde-Sur-l’Escaut controlled by the duke of Burgundy in modern-day Belgium, where he spent part of his childhood and old age period. Many times Josquin was confused with a man who bore a similar name, Josquin de Kessalia who was born around 1440 the same time that Josquin was born, Josquin de Kessalia was also a musician who sang in Milan from 1459 to 1474 before he died in 1498.

When his father passed away in 1466 Josquin was adopted by his uncle and aunt; Gilles Lebloitte Dit Desprez and Jacque Banestonne who renamed him as their heir. His real surname was Lebloitte while des prez was just a nickname that stuck more than his real name. His love for music and immense talent was brought out when he became a choirboy at Saint-Quentin, probably around 1460, and was in charge of its music docket. As a result of his early initiative, Saint Quentin was used for music training for many years.

Career progression

He was first employed on April 19, 1477, as a singer at the chapel of Rene. The chapel was then under the leadership of duke Anjou. Upon leaving the chapel of Rene Josquin worked for the Sforza family and later on worked at the papal chapel from 1489 to 1495. His name was discovered lately by workers who were renovating the Sestina chapel and this was a clear indication that he worked in that chapel at one point in time. Carving one’s name on the walls of the chapel was a common practice during the 15th to 18th century period. Unlike in the 21st century when celebrities and famous people sign autographs, Josquin’s period had not discovered this technology and thus his carved name remains his only existing autograph. Later by 1497, he was at the French court of Charles VIII and Louis XII, though he was not employed to serve the royal class.

Between April 1503 and March 1504, Josquin is thought to have been employed by duke Ercole I d’este in Ferrara as the Maestro Di Capella. He returned in 1504 to Conde as provost of the cathedral, an appointment that is thought to have been engineered by Phillip the fair, duke of Burgundy, and king of Castile.

Josquin fame and success seem to have been the major reason for the many misattributions of his works. He was a household name used even by early printers to market their products. This was further aggravated by Martin Luther when he publicly announced his love for Josquin’s music. This acted as a catalyst and permission to Martin Luther’s followers to use Josquin’s name in as many of their works as possible. As a matter of fact some anonymous compositions were passed as his just to increase their sales.

He was greatly inspired by Ockeghem whom he greatly admired throughout his life. This inspiration went on until Ockeghem’s death when he composed a song in his honor. The song was titled ‘nymphes des bois/requiem aeterman’ founded on the poem by Jean Molinet. During Josquin’s time, it was the culture of the French lords and ladies to inherit the property of deceased people. To avoid this Josquin requested for his registration to be made as a foreigner so as to safeguard his property. This part clearly indicates that Josquin was French by birth.

Although he sometimes receives credit for the transformation of music styles during his time he did not achieve this alone but with the help of other musicians. However, he was the leader of these contemporary groups and perhaps the reason he receives much of the credit. The new style inaugurated by Josquin and his contemporaries utilized the use of voice pairs in fugue-like imitation as the principal compositional device. They introduced the system of utilizing all the four voices perhaps what is fondly referred to as set peace today. He followed the footsteps of composers before him but his style was a bit different. Whereas his predecessors had all the voice parts singing simultaneously, Josquin invented a method whereby the voices entered one after another. Just as was the tradition among composers of the renaissance mass to compose music for the ordinary of the mass using a phrase from the chant as a ‘cantus firmus’, Josquin wrote eighteen different settings of the mass.

More than any other previous composer, Josquin was keen to ensure a consistent organization of harmonies. In the secular music docket, Josquin and his generation presided over the end of the medieval fixed forms of French chansons and the beginning of a new simpler style and also the re-emergence of Italian texted part songs.

Josquin is fondly remembered for his composition of mass chants. His masses were quite many and surprisingly enough some of them are still being utilized to date.

Not only did he compose sacred songs but he was also talented in composing secular songs such as Frotolla which he might have composed while employed in Ferrara. While working and living in Milan Josquin had absorbed the influence of light Italian secular music which he utilized while composing his own. On the other hand while in Rome he refined his skills of gospel music.

In his later years in Ferrara he composed a song directed to the king to remember the promise he had made to Josquin, the song was titled “ memor esto verbi tui servo tuo” which is Latin for ‘remember the promise you made to your servant.’ True to his words the king honored this promise and it’s from here that Josquin left Ferrara. After this he composed another motet that was meant to thank the king for honoring the promise. It is evident that the better part of his career Josquin moved from place to place very oftenly. While in Ferrara, Josquin wrote some of his most famous compositions, like ‘Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae’ and perhaps‘Virgo Salutiferi’; ‘austere Miserere’ which became one of the most popular motets of the 16th century is also thought to have been composed during this period. His stay in Ferrara was short-lived as a plague hit the region leading to an evacuation of the duke’s family together with a third of the citizens.

Upon escaping from the plague Josquin went directly to his home region of Conde-sur-l’Escaut, south east of Lille on the present-day border between Belgium and France where he founded a large musical establishment in the church of Notre-Dame which he headed until his death.

The last two decades of his life might be considered the most fruitful in his life. The development of printing technology made it possible to disseminate his music.

Total works

His total works both sacred and secular go well beyond anyone’s imagination. In total thirty masses are attributed to Josquin, seventeen of which were printed by Petrucci and distributed all over the world. While some of his printed work is doubtful, all the manuscripts printed by Petrucci are considered genuine. Most of his works are preserved in libraries in Vienna, Berlin, Munich, Basle as well as in the archives of the papal choir in Rome. This clearly indicates that Josquin was an artist and a musician whose great works went beyond the boundaries of his hometown and spread the world over.

‘Missa Ave Maris Stella’ and ‘Missa Pange Lingua’ are documented as probably the finest of Josquins’ masses which are utilized up-to-date especially by acapella vocal groups. However much of his works have undergone changes and have been reproduced by other artists such as Forkel, Burney, Hawkins, Busby and Choron.

Personality analysis

Josquin is portrayed as a man who had an independent mind such that in 1503 when Duke Ercole 1 of Ferrara wanted to hire him, one of the duke’s assistants recommended that Heinrich Isaac be hired in place of Josquin. He justified his recommendations by stating that Heinrich was easier to get along with and was more willing to compose music on demand. He was also less costly in terms of payments for music production. This clearly indicates that Josquin was not very likeable simply because he stood his grounds and was independent minded.

Josquin was also very calculating. He was always sure of the right buttons to press inorder to get what he wanted. While in France in 1500, he composed a motet, ‘memor esto verbi tui servo tuo’ which was a piece directed to the king to honor the promise he had made to Josquin and true to this words the king remembered this promise. Even at these early times Josquin was aware of the power of music and he relentlessly utilized this to achieve his dreams.

According to the available history on Josquin, he was a very hardworking man. Most of his available history is documented in terms of his employment history. His musical pieces were composed while he was working for one employer or the other. Surprisingly enough most of the people he worked for were politicians or what can be referred to as political leaders of the time. If it was not a king in France then it was a duke in Ferrara.

In addition Josquin can be seen as a man who had personal initiative. At a very tender age in 1460, Josquin was already a choirboy at Saint-Quentin where he was given the prerogative of leading the music docket. When he retired and went back to his home town of Conde-sur-l’Escaut he established a large musical group, which he headed until his death.


No other musician was as famous as Josquin during his time. His skills and originality beat those of the other musicians. However it was his personal ability to bring together the many streams of contemporary musical practice that won him the hearts of most of his fans. He was so famous such that he used his baptismal name only to introduce himself.

During this time he was in great demand to compose and perform his music more than any other musician of his time. His reputation went well beyond his death such that some musicians were still using his style to compose their music. None the less his fame only seemed to fade away with the introduction of the Baroque era which led to the death of the polyphonic style.

Frustratingly very little is known of the man who brought renaissance to the music world. Though his music continues to exert its effective power across the world for more than five centuries, very few artists comprehend neither its origin nor the composer.


Surprisingly, little is documented on most of the famous musicians especially those who reigned before the 21st century. To read about them requires patching information from many sources which at times give contradictory information. In the end the students are left with an unclear picture about the real contribution of the particular person.

More so the problem has been aggravated by the similarities in names of the ancient artists. Thus the 21st century generation trying to put together information might be misled if not careful. However it is now a bit late to rectify this problem. This is because the legends who witnessed the existence of these important artists are also no more. However this is also a problem of the 21st century whereby though technology is advanced the information documented about the popular people is also contradictory. Nonetheless the idea of writing biographies and autobiographies has come in handy to alleviate this problem.

Comparing the composition that were done before the 21st century and those currently being composed there exists a very great difference. Whereas the music and art in general of the earlier years carried meaningful messages, those of the present are known to use words that are not conducive and can well be described as not having any educative themes; Perhaps the reason why true music lovers still consult the earlier musicians for guidance. Current musicians are only concerned with rhyming their lyrics without a care whether their music is delivering any important message or not. It is normally argued that the real music lovers or those who treasure the true meaning of music are those that adore the music of the classical times. However this does not come as a surprise considering the level of indecency that rocks our current music industry. Whereas parents can comfortably watch music videos of the yester years with their children, those of the 21st century are not conducive for family viewing.

In conclusion, to alleviate the problem of lack of adequate and clear information about important people who have made history, early steps of documenting their past and achievements should start when they are still alive. This can be achieved through as earlier suggested writing of biographies and autobiographies as well as creating websites which acknowledge their works and successes in life. Through accessing this perhaps upcoming artists will have role models to emulate and upgrade the music industry to the standards it should be.


Carney Eldridge, 2001. Renaissance and Reformation, 1500-1620: a biographical dictionary Connecticut: greenwood publishing group.

Hoffer, Charles. 2009. Music listening today. Fourth edition. Boston: Baxter Clark.

Macey, Patrick, 1991. Early Music: Joaquin’s Misericordias Domini and Louis XI. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schiltz, Katejline and Blackburn J. Bonnie, 2007. Canons and Canonic techniques, 14th-16th Centuries: Theory, practice, and reception history. Belgium: Peters Publishers.

Schlagel, Stephanie, 2006. Di Placet for motets by Josquin and his contemporaries.Wisconsia: A-R Editors Inc.

Contemporary Theories On Leadership

General trait theory and grand person theory

According to Trait theory, there are various characteristics that distinguish between leaders and followers. These characteristics are innate, that is, people are born with them and as a result, there are those people that are born leaders while others are born followers. Regarding the G person theory, great leaders are extraordinary people and are more gifted Grand Person Theory, leaders who perform their duties without becoming famous. These leaders persuade large numbers of their fellows to follow them and raise their standards of living (Hemphill, 1949, para.13).

Transformational-Transaction theories

According to the Transformational-Transaction theories, transformational leaders lead as their fellows follow. On the other hand, transactional encourage their followers to be effective by explaining to them their target and how to achieve these targets (Burn, 1978, p.158).

Contingency theories

According to this theory, leadership style depends on the prevailing circumstances of a situation at hand. Some of the leaders who used this style of leadership are Feidler, Hersey and Blanchard. Each of these leaders identified their situation and then the best style of leadership to use (Hemphill, 1949, para.17).

Path goal theory

This theory was developed in 1971 by Robert House. According to this theory, leaders’ performance and behavior are based on the expectation they have concerning the attainment of the goals and the satisfaction of subordinates. According to this theory, leaders are motivated to work and are satisfied when their subordinates are satisfied and when they are able to give paths leading to the attainment of goals (Penning, 1986, p.34).

Functional leadership theory

According to this theory, the main work of a leader is to ensure the needs of the group are met (Currie, 1997, p.65). This theory is applied in team leadership as well as organizational leadership.

A successful business leader, his current role and major achievements

Richard Branson, born on the 18th of July, 1950 in Black Health, South London in the UK, is one of the successful business leaders. He dropped out of school and started his own business while only sixteen years old. He was a husband to Tomasi who he divorced and married Joan and is a father to Holly and Sam Branson (Muldon, 2003, para.7). Sir Richard Branson’s great achievement includes establishing the Virgin group of companies. He is the founder and Chief Executive Officer of Virgin companies. Some of the companies affiliated with the Virgin brand include Virgin mobile, Virgin Blue and Virgin railway stations, amongst others (Leadership styles, 2006, p.23).

Leadership style of Richard Branson

Richard Branson is charismatic and a team leader this is because he had a strong character that many people were drawn to him. In addition, he had a vision and always aimed to reach higher and always lead others (Kristie &Carter, 2002, p.557). He was naturally born a leader as he portrays such traits of leadership as honesty, competency, intelligence, inspiring, and forward-looking. As a result, he has endeared many people to follow him.

How the leadership style of Richard Branson contributed to his success

Richard Branson succeeded because he always aimed at reaching higher and was ready to take risks. That is why he invented so many business ventures even though he failed in a few of them (Odu, 2009, p.34). Additionally, he believed in the contributions that people made to his business and always motivated the employees by showing them their worth. For instance, when he won a lawsuit against one of his companies and was awarded $500000, he divided this money amongst his staff. Moreover, he always liked listening to the views of other people of all calibers with who he interacted with.

Reference List

  1. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row Publishers Inc..
  2. Currie, D. (1997). Personnel in practice. New York: Wiley-Blackwell publishers.
  3. Hemphill, J. K. (1949). Situational Factors in Leadership. Columbus: Ohio State University Bureau of Educational Research
  4. Kristie, B., & Carter, C.(2002).The charismatic gaze: Everyday leadership practices of the New manager, management news, 40(6):552-565.
  5. Leadership styles: Richard Branson.2006.
  6. Muldon, D.S. (2003).Excellent managers: Exploring the acquisition, measurement and Impact of leader skills in Australian Business content. New Zealand: Victoria University Technology.
  7. Odu, J.K. (2009).Select undergraduate papers: Real Team and Research papers that Received Top Grades in college. New York: Decent Hill publishers.
  8. Pennings, J.M. (1986).Decision making: An organization behavior approach.2 ed.Princeton: Markus Wiener publishers.

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