Vancouver’s Crime Situation Sample Essay

Vancouver, a major city in Canada and North America, has experienced a surge in crime over a couple of years. Crimes such as robberies have increased by nearly 21% between 2017 and 2019. Major crimes such as assault and robbery have also taken a major hit. Several policies and practices can be attributed to the rise of crime in Vancouver. The first is the policy of decreasing the size of police presence downtown. Since the mid-1990s, there has been a gradual decrease in police presence in downtown Vancouver and its neighbourhood, allowing a gradual increase in criminal activities. The infringement of personal rights has also contributed to the rise of crimes in the city, where police are seen as interfering with individuals through proactive questioning. Another policy that has contributed to the rise of crime in the city is the defunding of the police limiting their activities. The revolving door justice system has also contributed to the rise of crime, where suspected individuals of crime are arrested and released again, leading to a lot of criminal action by organized groups. The practice of drugs and drug addiction through the safe supply policy has also hugely contributed to the city’s rise in crime. Numerous crimes reported to the police department have a basis of drug abuse, including violent crimes.

Several policies and practices can be implemented to help mitigate Vancouver’s crime situation. The first policy would be addiction and drug control policies which would help reduce drug-related crimes, such as the illicit trade of heroin and cocaine. Also, through these drug control policies, homelessness can be reduced as people can afford housing through controlled addiction. Many people are homeless due to drug addiction, where the money for housing is spent on drugs. Through drug control policies, it would be easy for police to make a charge on simple possession of drugs such as heroin which would be a huge step in controlling crimes in the Canadian city. Housing programs would also be important in reducing the high crime rate in Vancouver through providing shelter and increasing security. In addition, providing mental health services is part of the city’s policies for controlling crime. Moreover, pulling out policies such as the safe supply and the extreme harm reductionists policies would be important in reducing public fear of harmful drug control processes.

On personal reflection, Gunn’s (2022) video has exposed why the crime rate in Vancouver has been rising over the past few years. It is true to say that, in deed, crime in Vancouver has become a menace to the city’s dwellers. According to Andresen et al. (2017) crime report, many citizens have expressed worry over the rise of terror menace in the city. Gunn’s video has expressed some of the ways crime has become prevalent in the city: through armed robberies, muggings, burglary, threats using weapons, and stealing. It is true to say that limiting the interaction between the police and members of the public through decreasing the police presence downtown has contributed to the rise of crime in Vancouver. Secondly, defunding the police to limit their activities and operations through legislation in the city’s council is a sure way of increasing crime in Vancouver. Defunding the police as a measure to counter-check their activities is a bad decision that needs to be revised with immediate effect. Proper mechanisms can be put in as measures to oversee the police’s operations to ensure that the police do not harm citizens. Moreover, Gunn has stated the city has put into place the revolving door justice system that ensures suspected individuals of crime are released amid pending investigations. Such policy needs to be amended to ensure that an individual remains under custody until proper investigations are completed rather than releasing individuals who may go back to harming the public again.

Drug policies such as the safe supply policy, where drugs are made easily accessible to the public, need to be revised and pulled down to ensure that addiction and overdose are under control. Gunn has stated in his video that addiction and overdose are key ways crimes are facilitated, as individuals would engage in these acts to get their daily satisfaction. Extreme harm reductionist policies are not a proper way to engage the public in the campaign against drug abuse. These policies are, in fact leading to the causes of crime. A proper way would be to engage the members of the public in Vancouver to find the most suitable way of overcoming the burden of drug addiction. Furthermore, the housing program initiated by the city’s government is a suitable method to help control the homelessness rate. However, housing policies should not be based on previous records of crime that individuals have but rather on a willingness to enhance safety and security for all individuals.


Andresen, M. A., Linning, S. J., & Malleson, N. (2017). Crime at places and spatial concentrations: Exploring the spatial stability of property crime in Vancouver BC, 2003–2013. Journal of quantitative criminology33, 255-275.

Gunn A. (2022). Vancouver is Dying.

Evaluation Of Qualitative Research Study Free Writing Sample

The quality of our work as professionals depends on our ability to critically assess relevant studies’ findings. This is especially true for medical professionals, as the outcomes of their actions and advice can have far-reaching effects. This paper will evaluate an article titled “Patients’ and partners’ health-related quality of life before and four months after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.” In addition, the paper will discuss how this research study contributes to evidence-based practice (EBP).


According to Houser (2018), evaluating an article’s credibility involves assessing the authors’ credentials, conflict of interest, is the article peer-reviewed, and the purpose of the study. For this purpose, the article’s authors are Thomson, Niven, Peck, & Eaves, all affiliated with the medical field and have appropriate clinical and educational credentials for the research study. The article has no conflict of interest. The article has been peer-reviewed, as evidenced by external editorials in the journal “Vascular Health and Risk Management” in April 2019. The article can be found in the journal’s archive. There is no financial tie between the paper and the study’s favorable or unfavorable findings. The purpose of the study was to compare the patients’ and their spouses’ health-related quality of life before and four months after the coronary artery bypass grafting operation. The study’s findings have no financial ramifications. As indicated by the above results, this article is credible.

The Problem Statement

While evaluating the problem statement, one assesses whether the problem is clearly stated or inferred and the significance of the study in a particular field, among others (Houser, 2018). For this purpose, this article’s problem statement is pertinent and clearly stated. For instance, the problem statement is before and four months following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The authors aim to assess patients and their partners’ health-related quality of life. The authors want to find elements that could affect patients and their partners’ quality of life. The significance of this problem statement is to evaluate how CABG surgery affects patients’ and their partners’ quality of life. This research may shed light on how CABG surgery affects lifestyle quality and offer crucial knowledge to medical professionals.

Research Design

According to Houser (2018), research can be classified by the nature of design or philosophical assumptions. The research design used in the article is quasi-experimental. The study compared the pre-and post-surgery quality of life of patients and their partners but did not include a control group. Additionally, the paper has used a quantitative research method approach. Before and after the procedure, the authors evaluated patients’ and their spouses’ health-related quality of life using a survey. This survey aimed to gather information about the participants’ social, psychological, and physical well-being.

Evaluating the Ethical Issues in the Article

Evaluation of ethical issues in a study involves assessing whether the study subjects were adequately protected, whether the authors document approval of their research, and the collection of informed consent, among others (Houser, 2018). According to the article, the participants were informed about the study before taking part and gave their written agreement. This demonstrates respect for the participants’ autonomy because they have the information necessary to decide whether or not to participate. Additionally, there is no evidence of coercion of participants to agree to the study.

The Purpose Statement of the Article

Houser’s (2018) evaluation of the proposed statement of an article includes determining whether the purpose is stated or inferred, whether written as a statement, and the description of the variables, among others. Therefore, the purpose of this article is written as a statement, and it is easy to find. Additionally, the variables for the study are described. For instance, this study intends to look at patients and their spouses’ health-related quality of life before and four months following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2022)

A discussion on how this article contributes to Ethical Based Practices (EBP)

By presenting new data on how coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery affects patients’ and their spouses’ health-related quality of life (HRQL), this study article contributes to evidence-based practice (Steven, 2013). In particular, the study discovered that following CABG surgery, the patient’s and their partner’s HRQL significantly improved. The findings of this study imply that CABG surgery may be a valuable treatment for raising the patient’s and partner’s HRQL, which can result in improved outcomes for both parties. The study also discovered that the improvement in HRQL persisted four months following CABG surgery, indicating that the procedure’s advantages could be long-lasting. These results can be utilized to promote the creation of evidence-based guidelines for managing coronary artery disease and clinical choices about using CABG surgery.

Literature review

According to Houser (2018), a literature review of an article should rely primarily on the studies carried out in the last maybe five years. The article’s literature review focuses on the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on patients and their partners’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Studies that looked at the immediate and long-term effects of CABG on HRQoL are covered in this review. It also investigates how clinical and demographic variables affect how well CABG affects HRQoL. The literature review connects to the study issue because it focuses on how CABG affects patients’ and their partners’ HRQoL. It examines the impact of demographic and clinical parameters and CABG’s immediate and long-term consequences on HRQoL.

The article has clearly described conceptual and theoretical frameworks. The notion of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and the examination of its development following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery serve as the foundation for this article. The paradigm also considers the patient’s medical, psychological, and social results and the impact of CABG on the patient’s spouse.

Sampling strategy

Evaluation of the sampling strategy of an article includes assessing whether the target population is identified, sample size, method of data collection, and sampling techniques, among others (Houser, 2018). The number of inhabitants in this study was made out of continuous grown-up patients with coronary supply route illness and their accomplices who went through CABG medical procedures. The example was illustrative of the populace, given that it consisted of sequential patients with coronary vein infection and their accomplices. The sample size was satisfactory, given that there were 114 patient-accomplice dyads remembered for the review. Information was gathered through the use of self-managed surveys.

Quantitative study

Houser’s (2018) checklist on quantitative study expects that the design of the articles is met, the purpose of the quantitative study and the instrumentation used are also met. Thus said, this study utilized an imminent, longitudinal, observational review plan. This quantitative study decided the well-being-related personal satisfaction (HRQoL) of patients and accomplices previously and four months after the coronary supply route sidestep joining (CABG) medical procedure. The polls utilized in this study were the 12-thing Short-Structure Well-being Overview (SF-12), the World Well-being Association Personal satisfaction BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and the apparent social help scale (PSS). The example included 120 patients and accomplices who planned to undergo CABG surgery. Data were gathered by self-report polls previously and four months after the CABG medical procedure. Enlightening insights were utilized to quantify the HRQoL of patients and accomplices, and matched t-tests were used to analyze the HRQoL previously and four months after the CABG medical procedure. Generally speaking, this quantitative review meets the standards illustrated in Houser’s (2018) assessment agenda.

Measurement strategy

According to Houser (2018), the measurement strategy checklist includes instruments linked to the concept of the research question, reliability and validity of instrumentations, and written and detailed protocol for each instrument. For this study, the measurement strategy used in this article is valid as it includes a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that has been validated and used in other studies. Additionally, the authors used the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) scale to measure HRQoL before and after surgery, which is a reliable and valid measure.

The article does not mention any measures of objectivity, such as blinding the raters or using objective measures. However, the authors did use the EQ-5D, which is an objective measure of HRQoL. The article does not mention any reliability measures, such as test-retest or inter-rater reliability. However, the authors did use the EQ-5D, which is a reliable measure of HRQoL. The article does not mention any sensitivity measures, such as the use of a sensitive measure or a large sample size. However, the authors did use the EQ-5D, which is a sensitive measure of HRQoL. The article does not mention any measures of generalizability, such as using a representative sample or a large sample size. However, the authors did use the EQ-5D, which is a generalizable measure of HRQoL.

Quantitative results

The checklists for quantitative results include that an article’s statistical results are accurate; also, statistical tests are appropriate for measuring variables, among others (Houser, 2018). 53 CAD patients who were having CABG surgery, together with their partners, made up the sample. The sample is well explained. The authors used the EQ-5D-3L and the EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale to assess health-related quality of life. The actions are laid forth. Self-report questionnaires were used to gather data during two periods (pre- and post-surgery). Methods for gathering data are mentioned. To examine the data, the authors employed descriptive statistics. It is unknown if any inferential statistics were utilized because the authors should have addressed them. After CABG surgery, the patients’ and their partners’ health-related quality of life improved, according to the authors’ interpretation of the data. The explanation fits the data that is shown.

Qualitative Results Study

According to Houser (2018), the checklist for qualitative evaluation includes a well-defined research question and appropriate data collection. Thus said, the exploration question is plainly expressed in this article’s title: “Patients’ and accomplices’ well-being related personal satisfaction previously and 4 months after coronary conduit sidestep joining surgery. “The article utilizes a poll to gather information from the patients and their accomplices, which is a proper information assortment strategy for this review. The article utilizes distinct insights to dissect the information, which is a suitable examination technique for this study. However, the article does not discuss unwavering quality or legitimacy, so it needs to be clearer, assuming these were tended to in the review. Additionally, the article gives an itemized understanding of the outcomes, which fits this review. The article makes suitable determinations from the outcomes, which are reliable with the review’s discoveries. The article does not talk about suggestions for training, so it needs to be clarified if these were attended to in the study.

Qualitative results

According to Houser (2018), the qualitative results checklist includes construct and internal validity. The article characterizes the development of well-being-related personal satisfaction and the actions used to survey it. The creators likewise note utilizing outside models to survey the dependability of the actions. The article utilizes a pre-present plan on survey well-being-related personal satisfaction changes. The authors likewise note that the example size was enough to catch significant changes in personal satisfaction. The article works hard to itemize the review test’s attributes, including age, orientation, and clinical history. This permits the outcomes to be summed up to different populations. The article notes that the actions used to evaluate well-being-related personal satisfaction were tried for dependability. This recommends that the actions were solid and could be utilized to evaluate the development precisely. The article works hard to itemize the techniques used to evaluate well-being-related personal satisfaction. This recommends that the outcomes be evenhanded and not exposed to predisposition. The article effectively reveals the study’s tangible outcomes.


Evaluating the effectiveness of care is critical for assuring patient safety and quality of care. It assists nurses in identifying areas for improvement and making the required changes to improve care. The evaluation also assists in identifying and mitigating potential hazards and areas of strength and weakness in treatment. This can be accomplished through various means, including patient satisfaction surveys, chart checks, and quality assurance activities. Nursing likewise relies heavily on evidence-based practice. It entails guiding clinical decision-making and practice with the best available data from research, clinical, and other sources. This can involve using evidence to guide intervention selection, assessment, diagnosis, and therapy. Nurses must use the best available evidence to inform their practice to ensure that the care they offer is evidence-based and up-to-date. In the nursing, evaluation and EBP can help enhance patient care in various ways. It can aid in the reduction of medical errors, the improvement of patient outcomes, and the reduction of hospital expenditures. Adopting these principles in your clinic ensures that your patients receive the finest possible treatment. Evaluation and EBP are critical components of nursing and should be used to improve the overall quality of care (Patelarou et al., 2020).


Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Readings, using & creating evidence (4 th ed.). Jones and Bertlett Learning.

Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2022). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Stevens, K., (2013) “The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and the Next Big Ideas” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 18, No. 2, Manuscript 4.

Thomson, P., Niven, C. A., Peck, D. F., & Eaves, J. (2013). Patients’ and partners’ health-related quality of life before and four months after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. BMC nursing, 12(1), 1-15.

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) And Practice-Based Evidence (PBE) Essay Example

When it comes to patient care, the gold standard is providing the very best treatment possible, and evidence-based practice (EBP) and practice-based evidence (PBE) are crucial in getting there (Portney, 2020). Decisions concerning patient treatment should be based on the best available data, which is why EBP and PBE are utilized. The most fantastic treatment for patients may be provided when medical professionals are aware of the distinctions between evidence-based practice (EBP) and practice-based evidence (PBE) (Portney, 2020).

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)

Evidence-based practice is collecting and analyzing data from clinical trials and other sources to inform clinical decision-making (EBP). Evidence-based practice (EBP) aims to discover the most effective therapy for each individual patient by combining expert advice, patient preferences, and the latest scientific results. It is a manner of deciding between constantly updated alternatives to account for new data. Guidelines based on solid scientific research help doctors decide what is best for their patients. For instance, the American Heart Association has created guidelines for treating cardiovascular disease after reviewing the literature at length. Doctors and nurses may then use these guidelines to give their patients the highest quality care.

Practice-Based Evidence (PBE)

Information collected and analyzed from a healthcare provider’s actual practice is known as “Practice-Based Evidence” (PBE). It draws on the practitioner’s prior experience and education as well as those of their colleagues. By analyzing current practices and comparing them to the best ones, PBE helps to determine where changes are needed and how to implement them. Provider-based evidence (PBE) differs from evidence-based practice (EBP) in that it does not rely on scientific evidence but on the provider’s anecdotes and judgment. It involves the provider drawing on his or her expertise and experience to pinpoint problem areas. A doctor could, for instance, recommend an alternative course of action if they see that their patients are not improving while receiving a particular therapy. Changes may be made that are unique to the provider’s practice and patient group by drawing on their expertise and experience.

Compare and Contrast

When it comes to providing evidence to support the best possible treatment for a patient, Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and Practice-Based Evidence (PBE) is similar. In terms of function and data, however, they are somewhat distinct. Unlike PBE, which relies on the provider’s experience and expertise, evidence-based practice (EBP) is grounded in empirical study and data. Protocols and recommendations are created using evidence-based practice, while gaps in care are identified via process-based evaluation (Portney, 2020). Whereas PBE creates new protocols and standards, EBP considers established clinical guidelines, patient preferences, and cutting-edge research to give the best possible treatment. Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers evidence from research and data, whereas practitioner-based evidence (PBE) draws on the practitioner’s prior experience and expertise (Kaluzeviciute, 2021). EBP is also used to create protocols and recommendations, whereas PBE is utilized to find places for development.


Quality and safety guidelines are set by organizations like the Joint Commission, CMS, and the National Quality Forum (Kaluzeviciute, 2021). These groups establish the guidelines for patient care that doctors and hospitals must follow. They also explain how to apply EBP and PBE to achieve these goals.

Data Analysis

Data analysis and informatics play a crucial role in EBP and PBE. Data analysis allows healthcare practitioners to assess the standard of care they are providing and identify areas for improvement. The best available evidence may be found and collected with the aid of informatics, which can then be used to create procedures and standards for healthcare professionals. As an added benefit, it may be used to analyze treatment patterns and refine clinical judgment based on individual patient information.


In conclusion, EBP and PBE are critical components of healthcare that may be used to give patients the best possible treatment. Instead of practitioner-based evidence, evidence-based practice (EBP) is based on research and data (PBE) (Kaluzeviciute, 2021). Organizations such as the Joint Commission, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and the National Quality Forum set quality and safety requirements (Kaluzeviciute, 2021). Data analysis and informatics are critical components of evidence-based practice (EBP) and practice-based evidence (PBE), supporting clinicians in discovering and applying the most relevant evidence to formulating protocols and recommendations.


Portney, L. G. (2020). Foundations of clinical research: applications to evidence-based practice. FA Davis.

Kaluzeviciute, G. (2021). Appraising psychotherapy case studies in practice-based evidence: introducing Case Study Evaluation-tool (CaSE). Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica34.