Voices Against The Unjust

Introduction

My “Voices Against the Unjust” project is a podcast episode that delves into the persistent issue of police brutality and racism against African Americans in the United States. In this craft essay, I will discuss the context that influenced my project, its intended audience, genre conventions, and the rhetorical choices I made to achieve its purpose and elicit specific responses. Through this project, I aim to shed light on the gravity of police brutality, provide historical context, and encourage discussions that contribute to positive change. Moreover, the podcast is designed to reach a broad audience, especially those concerned with social justice and racial equality.

The context influencing my project is the ongoing struggle against racial injustice and the pressing need for reform within law enforcement agencies. The project is designed to be published as a podcast episode on an online platform dedicated to fostering conversations about social issues. This venue allows for disseminating information to a diverse audience, enabling meaningful discussions and the potential for greater awareness and action.

“Voices Against the Unjust” is an informative podcast episode that reinterprets podcast conventions through an engaging conversation, employs emotional appeal, utilizes factual data, and incorporates powerful poetry to raise awareness about police brutality and inspire collective action against racial injustice.

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Podcast Convention

The podcast employs a casual tone and colloquial diction to establish a relatable atmosphere for young listeners. For instance, in the introduction, the host introduces himself and the co-hosts, creating a friendly and approachable environment. This convention appeals to the target audience of high school students by speaking their language and reducing the distance between the podcast hosts and listeners. Using phrases like “What’s up guys?” and “How’s it going, everyone?” fosters a sense of camaraderie, inviting listeners to engage in a candid conversation about a serious issue. This use of language and tone supports the podcast’s purpose of engaging young adults in discussions about police brutality. By subverting traditional formalities, the project successfully adapts to the communication style of its intended audience, making the topic accessible and relatable.

In addition, the podcast utilizes an interview format to infuse authenticity into the discussions. This format creates a dynamic interaction between the hosts and co-hosts, enhancing the podcast’s conversational nature. It also allows for different perspectives to be presented, enriching the analysis of the topic. For instance, Kevin contributes, “As a white man, I can never fully understand what it is like to live as a racial minority in fear of police brutality.” This interview-style approach grants Kevin the opportunity to share his perspective, emphasizing the importance of allies in the fight against racial injustice. Furthermore, to the interview format, the podcast incorporates sound effects, such as sirens and riot noises, to immerse listeners in the narrative. These sound effects simulate real-life scenarios, adding a layer of emotional resonance to the discussions. For instance, the sound of sirens when Jingsen mentions, “thinking the sirens were reaching for me,” enhances the impact of the statement. The combination of sound effects with the interview format creates an engaging experience that appeals to the auditory senses of the audience. By utilizing these podcast conventions, the project effectively conveys the urgency and emotional weight of the issue. The interview format brings a personal dimension to the discourse, while sound effects heighten the emotional impact of the narratives shared.

Utilizing the Power of Historical Context

The podcast also engages with historical context, referencing significant events such as the LA Riots and the killing of George Floyd. George Floyd, a Black man, died on May 25, 2020, after Minneapolis police officers responded to a call about a counterfeit $20 bill he allegedly used to buy cigarettes (Arango et al., 2022). The incident led to widespread protests against police brutality and systemic racism. These historical references contextualize the issue of police brutality, emphasizing its historical roots and ongoing prevalence. Moreover, discussing the LA Riots triggered by Rodney King’s beating underscores the systemic nature of the problem and the perpetuation of violence. By weaving in historical incidents, the podcast reveals the urgency of reform.

The Impact of Poetry

“Voices Against the Injustice” effectively employs poetry as a rhetorical device to evoke emotions and provide personal insights into the experience of racial injustice. The poems “For the Record” by Audre Lorde and “Third Degree” by Langston Hughes capture the pain, anger, and frustration felt by victims of police brutality and racism (Kaba, 2023). Lorde’s poem vividly describes the tragic death of Eleanor Bumpers, exposing the brutality and injustice perpetuated by law enforcement. Similarly, Hughes’ poem provides a poignant representation of the emotions and fears experienced by African Americans facing racial violence. The inclusion of these poems engages listeners on an emotional level and helps them empathize with the victims’ experiences.

Conclusion

“Voices Against the Unjust” is more than just a podcast episode. It is a platform for reflection, awareness, and change. Through the reimagining of podcast conventions, emotional appeal, incorporation of factual data, and integration of powerful poetry, the project strives to ignite conversations about police brutality and racism. By disseminating knowledge, fostering empathy, and encouraging action, this podcast episode contributes to a broader movement against racial injustice and paves the way for a more equitable society. In addition, the power of podcasts and poetry lies in their ability to amplify voices, spark conversations, and drive transformation, and “Voices Against the Unjust” leverages these mediums to advocate for a more just and inclusive world.

Annotated Bibliography

Arango, T., Bogel-Burroughs, N., & Cramer, M. (2022, July 29). How George Floyd died, and what happened next. The New York Times – Breaking News, US News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/article/george-floyd.html

The authors reconstruct the events leading to the death of George Floyd on May 25, 2020, using security footage, witness videos, and official documents. They provide a detailed narrative of Floyd’s arrest, the actions of the involved police officers, and how his death ignited nationwide protests against police brutality (Arango et al., 2022). This source highlights the power of storytelling and accurate documentation in shedding light on social and political issues. It prompts me to think about how narratives, whether in the form of articles or poetry, can influence public understanding and activism. In addition, I can use the source in the essay to provide a factual and comprehensive overview of the circumstances surrounding George Floyd’s death. The sources serve as an authoritative account of events, supporting the larger argument about the impact of his death on the protest movement against police brutality and systemic racism.

Kaba, M. (2023). POEMS ABOUT POLICE VIOLENCE. Black & Blue | History and Current Manifestations of Policing, Violence & Resistance. https://policeviolence.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/poetryaboutpoliceviolencef

The author discusses the power of poetry to lift spirits and inspire resistance against state violence. Kaba argues that poetry can help people imagine a world without police and prisons and that this kind of imagining is a crucial part of the struggle for freedom (Kaba, 2023). I can use this source in my GA essay to explore the ways in which political poetry can be a powerful tool for imagining and building alternative forms of community safety. Kaba’s work challenges people to think beyond the limits of reform and to imagine a world without police and prisons. The author’s poetry and prose offer a powerful critique of state violence and a vision for transformative justice.

References

Arango, T., Bogel-Burroughs, N., & Cramer, M. (2022, July 29). How George Floyd died, and what happened next. The New York Times – Breaking News, US News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/article/george-floyd.html

Kaba, M. (2023). POEMS ABOUT POLICE VIOLENCE. Black & Blue | History and Current Manifestations of Policing, Violence & Resistance. https://policeviolence.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/poetryaboutpoliceviolencef

Why This Study Has Selected Oman For Application Of Study.

Trading activities, fishing, and the oil sector have been considered key segments of Oman’s economy. In 1964, oil was discovered in Oman which triggered an increase in export and production (Alraja et al., 2021). Currently, Oman’s regime has introduced new strategies to diversify away from oil under its Oman policies and privatization. Oman was selected for study application due to its modernized economy. Despite the application and maintenance of the rule of law, Oman’s judiciary has remained vulnerable to political interference. The state involvement in the private sector has remained constrained by overall economic freedom (Muthuraman et al., 2021). Studying Oman’s entrepreneurship through the exploration of SMEs will allow the development of strategies to help the regime to diversify the economy by supporting small manufacturing enterprises. Notably, Oman’s regulatory setting is considered to be evolving. The labor policies enforce the Oman strategy that necessitates private-sector firms to meet the quota for hiring native Omani workers (Alraja et al., 2021). Oman was selected for the study since they do not focus on the private sector which would significantly boost their economy. Incorporating private sectors in industries such as manufacturing is linked with the creation of job opportunities and economic boosts. Thus, exploring Oman will allow us to view the significance of private sectors such as SMEs and ways the SMEs will significantly boost the economy through presenting opportunities such as opportunities in labor and an effective manufacturing process.

According to Muthuraman et al. (2021), Oman Vision 2040 is considered the sultanate’s gateway to curb challenges and keep pace with global and regional variations. The vision is aimed at generating and seizing opportunities to foster both economic attractiveness and social well-being triggering growth. Promoting SME development is one way that the country can reduce its reliance on oil and gas. Oman’s focus is aimed at economic programs to advance the business environment and trigger investments. In addition, the regime aims at introducing social safety net that will curb the impact of economic variation on low-income families (Muthuraman et al., 2021). Selecting Oman to be applied in the study will allow the development of a different standpoint on the private sector such as small manufacturing enterprises which has been ignored where the sector can induce economic changes in low-income families by venturing into the sector. Oman’s main source of income is oil and gas, accounting for over 80% of the country’s total income (Alraja et al., 2021). Nearly all of the country’s development initiatives, including those focused on SMEs, rely on oil and gas revenue. Therefore, exploring SMEs in Oman will allow a strong focus on the significance of SMEs in boosting a country’s economy through the creation of job opportunities and adapting to new technologies.

In 2023, Oman’s unemployment rate has increased to 3.70%; the increase in unemployment levels makes the country favorable for the study since the incorporation of SMEs will curb the problem through the introduction of new opportunities in labor (Muthuraman et al., 2021). Studying Oman’s manufacturing instigates a clear view of ways the industry presents diverse opportunities such as labor since the industry consists of diverse sections that are critical to its success. SMEs can create opportunities in the labor market and boosts economic development. Choosing Oman manufacturing for the study derives the importance of SMEs in boosting the economy of a developing country through exploring SMEs’ features such as their adaptability to new technologies which allow greater and more efficient manufacturing processes. SMEs account for 90% of all economic enterprises in Oman. However, according to Alraja et al., (2021), despite SMEs employing more than 40% of the total workforce, fewer than 8% of its workers are Omani citizens. Therefore, studying Oman will allow the regime to formalize informal sections of the SME sector by simplification and promotion of business start-up strategies. It triggers diverse people such as youth to boost their confidence to formally engage and register their business ventures.

Widely, many governments invest heavily in their manufacturing sector to ensure that the sector properly serves its vital functions, in most cases providing infrastructure, rules, regulations, support, and supervision to enhance the sector’s strength and stability. The Omani manufacturing industry has grown slowly. Over the last 60 years, the sector has increased its contribution to the GDP from 0.8% to 9.9%. However, according to Alraja et al., (2021) since the start of the 2000s, the industry has experienced accelerated growth, becoming a key driver of Omani economic development. Oman was selected for study due to the deteriorating levels in the manufacturing industries. Exploration of the manufacturing sector in Oman through the integration of SMEs supported by Omani’s regime will provide an efficient solution to the manufacturing sector. Choosing Omani manufacturing as an SME focus for the study reveals the urge to incubate SME innovation by tapping into present technological trends and improvements. Large firms rely on SMEs to support and sustain them by providing products, services, and suppliers, which are necessary to remain competitive (Muthuraman et al., 2021). Oman’s manufacturing in SMEs allows us to view the significance of promoting market access for SMEs at both international and local heights. It can be achieved through surpassing unfair rivalry from cheap imports which progress to curb the advancement of the SME sector.

In Oman, regulations and administrative burdens are major concerns among SMEs (Muthuraman et al., 2021). Most state regulations are designed to encourage direct investment rather than to boost SME growth. To ensure proper competition among SMEs in Oman, it is necessary to develop a full understanding of the limited resources available to SMEs, which exacerbates the burden of such state regulations. Choosing Oman manufacturing as an SME focus of the study reveals the urge to incubate SME innovation by tapping into present technological trends and improvements. Omani’s manufacturing industry facilitates in revealing diverse ways that SMEs are vital and yearn for government involvement to offer their support. The support comprises developing and implementing strategies that can aid SMEs counter financial complications (Alraja et al., 2021). Choosing Omani manufacturing as a focus for SMEs as the study reveals its significance which creates the urge for diverse governments to create and monitor pro-SME policies. The process can be achieved through the formalization of informal sections of the SME sector by simplification and promotion of business start-up strategies. It triggers diverse people such as youth to boost their confidence to formally engage and register their business ventures.

Why Manufacturing Was Chosen For SME Focus

Comprehensively, the manufacturing industry engages creation of new products which significantly affect a country’s economy (Gualtieri et al., 2020). Manufacturing industries are vital in advancing a country’s economy as they employ a big impact on the labor force and create materials needed by diverse sectors of strategic significance such as national infrastructure. Consequently, in promoting economic growth and facilitating national economic competitiveness, SMEs are effectively the machine that controls economic and social regeneration. Choosing manufacturing as a focus on the SMEs allows an understanding of ways the manufacturing process creates diverse opportunities for a country through the incorporation of SMEs as a triggering tool of economic development. Studying manufacturing instigates a clear view of ways the industry presents diverse opportunities such as labor since the industry consists of diverse sections that are critical to its success. SMEs can create opportunities in the labor market and boosts economic development (Alqassabi, 2020). Exploring the manufacturing industry creates a standpoint on the significance of SMEs since they can respond relatively quickly to shifts in the business environment, enabling rapid adaptation and innovation. Thus, choosing to manufacture derives the importance of SMEs in boosting the economy of a developing country through exploring SMEs’ features such as their adaptability to new technologies which allow greater and more efficient manufacturing processes.

On many occasions, the driving force for economic growth is small and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing sector. SMEs are considered the manufacturers and suppliers of finished commodities. The manufacturing process is facilitated by SMEs in diverse places. Currently, SMEs are considered the sector that is consistently growing in comparison to other sectors in the world (Alqassabi, 2020). Thus, choosing manufacturing as the focus will deliver a crystal view of the importance of SMEs in preparing finished commodities and supplying inputs to diverse heavy industries. SMEs can adapt to new variations and trends that hit diverse markets; thus, exploring the manufacturing industry will allow us to view the impacts of SMEs in balancing and improving the economy. The production procedure is considered as varying sectors that are shaped according to an SME; however, there is the requirement of heavy industries and customization of the complete assembly line (Gualtieri et al., 2020). Therefore, SMEs can significantly introduce new commodities in the market and continue with the manufacturing process. Therefore, choosing manufacturing as a focus for the SMEs might create attention to diverse regimes on ensuring the support of small manufacturing industries due to their effect on a country’s economy.

Widely, labor and overhead costs in small manufacturing enterprises are less significant which triggers better rates of operations (Gualtieri et al., 2020). When a particular action is not conducted well by a designated SME, the service can be substituted with another which is not likely in large-scale enterprises. The availability of options allows for easy substitution of services provided by small manufacturing enterprises (Alqassabi, 2020). On many occasions, the manufacturing industry is affected by the introduction of new technology; therefore, SMEs allow easy adoption of new technology which ensures the smooth th running of the manufacturing process. Therefore, choosing manufacturing as a focus on the SMEs allows for analysis of the importance of SMEs in adapting to new technologies. The manufacturing industry is considered to trigger a significant influence on the improvement of an economy; therefore, a platform that addresses the needs of the manufacturing industry is beneficial (Alqassabi, 2020). Focusing on the manufacturing industry confirms that the emergency of SMEs is a significant emblem of a developing and developed economy. In addition, choosing manufacturing as a focus on the SMEs displays the status of the small manufacturing enterprises such as the enterprises can come together and collaborate to accomplish their requirements of industrial consulting and supplies.

The absorption of diverse swaths of workers and places into decent-paying jobs and productivity is a key benefit of manufacturing (Gualtieri et al., 2020). Manufacturing is linked with opening avenues of new schemes through innovating firm value chains to support key production. In employment creation, SMEs are considered to act a vital part in integrating innovation. Notably, diverse small businesses are considered a significant section of the huge informal economy that delivers solutions to short-term challenges (Alqassabi, 2020). Choosing manufacturing as a focus for SMEs reveals its significance which creates the urge for diverse governments to create and monitor pro-SME policies. The process can be achieved through the formalization of informal sections of the SME sector by simplification and promotion of business start-up strategies. It triggers diverse people such as youth to boost their confidence to formally engage and register their business ventures. The manufacturing industry facilitates in revealing diverse ways that SMEs are vital and yearns for government involvement to offer their support. The support comprises developing and implementing strategies that can aid SMEs counter financial complications (Alqassabi, 2020). Diverse financial institutions avoid lending to SMEs since they are termed high-risk ventures due to their deficiency in tangible assets that can be considered as security or collateral. However, the impediment can be avoided through the adoption of the subcontracting policy.

Choosing manufacturing as an SME focus reveals the urge to incubate SME innovation by tapping into present technological trends and improvements (Alqassabi, 2020). Large firms rely on SMEs to support and sustain them by providing products, services, and suppliers, which are necessary to remain competitive. Currently, technology is considered to possess the capability of expanding markets by providing chances for local markets to compete globally. SMEs provide opportunities for individuals and entrepreneurs who prefer to work for themselves or have no chance to work with others to launch their outlets. Thus, manufacturing allows us to view the capability of SMEs by allowing them to hit new-fangled and developing markets available through present technological tendencies such as online markets. Manufacturing in SMEs allows us to view the significance of promoting market access of SMEs at both international and local heights (Gualtieri et al., 2020). It can be achieved through surpassing unfair rivalry from cheap imports which progress to curb the advancement of the SME sector. SMEs usually offer raw materials ranging from spare parts to manufacturing schemes. SMEs are considered significant contributors to manufacturing firms, especially in developing countries (Alqassabi, 2020). Therefore, choosing manufacturing as the focus of the SMEs allows an understanding of ways the manufacturing process creates diverse opportunities for a country through the incorporation of SMEs as a triggering tool of economic development.

References

Alqassabi, M. A. (2020). Insights on the sustainability of small and medium enterprises in Oman: a conceptual framework. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues10(1), 209-218. https://www.academia.edu/download/70209527/pdf.pdf

Alraja, M. N., Hussein, M. A., & Ahmed, H. M. S. (2021). What affects the digitalization process in developing economies? Evidence from the SME sector in Oman. Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics10(1), 441-448. https://beei.org/index.php/EEI/article/download/2033/1909

Gualtieri, L., Palomba, I., Wehrle, E. J., & Vidoni, R. (2020). The opportunities and challenges of SME manufacturing automation: safety and ergonomics in human–robot collaboration. Industry 4.0 for SMEs: Challenges, opportunities and requirements, 105-144. https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.12657/22857/1/1007304.pdf#page=133

Muthuraman, S., Al Haziazi, M., Veerasamy, R., & Al Yahyaei, N. (2021). SME–Key Drivers for Economic Development in the Sultanate of Oman. Exploring Sustainable Paths, 35. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kabaly-Subramanian/publication/354239064_Digital_Technologies_in_Higher_Education_Institutions/links/612e19c638818c2eaf70857e/Digital-Technologies-in-Higher-Education-Institutions.pdf#page=66

Application Of Defense Mechanisms Handout

Introduction:

In therapy, understanding defense mechanisms is crucial for understanding how individuals navigate emotions and experiences. Rooted in Freudian and Anna Freud’s pioneering work, defense mechanisms serve as psychological tools that shield the ego from distressing emotions and thoughts. These mechanisms are not unusual occurrences; they are integral to the human psyche, aiding in managing anxiety and maintaining a sense of equilibrium. Although defense mechanisms can be adaptive when employed in moderation, excessive reliance on them can lead to maladaptive behaviors that hinder everyday functioning. This handout aims to shed light on five distinct defense mechanisms by illustrating real-life behaviors and situations where they come into play. By delving into denial, projection, regression, and other mechanisms, I will explore how they manifest in various scenarios, offering insight into the intricate ways individuals cope with challenges while navigating the complexities of their emotions and relationships.

Denial: Unveiling Unwillingness to Face Truth.

Denial is a defense mechanism that involves refusing to accept or acknowledge a reality, fact, or situation that is too distressing to confront. Individuals who employ denial often persistently avoid information or evidence that contradicts their beliefs or desires (Neukrug, 2018). Imagine a person experiencing persistent health issues but consistently avoids visiting a doctor, even when the symptoms worsen. Despite the advice of friends and family, this individual adamantly insists that their health concerns are minor and will eventually resolve independently. By denying the need for medical attention, they shield themselves from the anxiety and fear of facing a potentially severe health issue. In this situation, denial protects against the thought of having a health condition. When someone refuses to recognize the gravity of their symptoms, it helps them hold onto a sense of normality and authority over their life, even though they might still feel anxious about their well-being. While denial temporarily alleviates immediate distress, it can hinder appropriate action and prevent the individual from seeking necessary medical treatment.

Projection: Projecting Feelings onto Others

Projection is a defense mechanism where individuals attribute their undesirable thoughts, feelings, or characteristics to someone else. It involves displacing internal conflicts onto external sources, often without conscious awareness. Consider a scenario where an individual experiences intense feelings of jealousy toward a colleague’s professional success. Instead of acknowledging their envy, they accuse the colleague of being overly competitive and using unethical methods to advance in the workplace. In this case, projection serves as a way to alleviate the discomfort of confronting their jealousy. By attributing their feelings to the colleague, the individual avoids acknowledging their insecurity and jealousy, preserving their self-esteem and avoiding inner turmoil.

Rationalization: The Art of Self-Deception

Rationalization is a defense mechanism where individuals create plausible explanations or justifications for their behavior, often in the face of guilt or internal conflict. These explanations make their actions appear more acceptable, shielding them from the discomfort of acknowledging wrongdoing. Picture someone who has dedicated themselves to living a lifestyle. Occasionally gives in to unhealthy eating habits. They justify their actions by convincing themselves that occasional indulgences will not impact their well-being. In this situation, rationalization allows the person to uphold a self-perception by downplaying the importance of their choices. By convincing themselves that their choices are reasonable, they avoid facing the guilt or conflict that might arise from straying from their healthy lifestyle goals.

 Displacement: Redirecting Emotions to Safeguard

Displacement involves directing emotions, often hostile, from their original target onto a safer or less threatening substitute. This mechanism allows individuals to release pent-up feelings without confronting the source directly. Imagine a person who receives criticism from their supervisor at work. Instead of expressing anger to their supervisor, they return home and snap at their family members over trivial matters. Displacement shields individuals from potential conflicts by channeling emotions onto less risky targets. In this case, the person redirects their frustration from their supervisor, preserving their job security, instead vents it at home.

Passive Aggression: Indirect Expression of Hostility

Description: Passive-aggressive behavior involves indirectly expressing hostility, often subtly or passively. It allows individuals to convey their anger or dissatisfaction without overt confrontation. Consider a scenario where someone feels resentful about a friend frequently borrowing their belongings without permission. Instead of addressing the issue, they intentionally “forget” to return an item borrowed from a friend. Passive aggression offers an outlet for negative emotions while avoiding confrontation. By using subtle actions; individuals can express their displeasure without openly acknowledging their feelings, maintaining a facade of civility.

Conclusion: Embracing Growth and Change

Defense mechanisms, in general, are a very natural and frequent occurrence in our life. The concept of defensive mechanisms derives from psychoanalytic theory, which views personality as the interaction of three parts: the id, ego, and 4super ego (Holland, 2019). In my future role as a counselor, I would tell my clients about defensive strategies and the associated behaviors and emotions. I would explain to my client that defensive mechanisms are frequently employed as an unconscious coping method for emotions like worry. As a counselor, I would assist my client by collaborating with them to identify the source of the issue in order to solve the circumstance.

References

Holland, K. (2019). 10 Defense Mechanisms: What Are They and How They Help Us Cope. https://www.healthline.com/health/mental-health/defense-mechanisms

Neukrug, E., & Hays, D. G. (2018). Counseling theory and practice. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.