Volkswagen Noncompliance Practice In Diesel Emission Test Sample Assignment

Abstract

Volkswagen, a noticeable market player in the automotive industry, shocked the industry with the action company failing to comply with the diesel emission test policies. Conservation of the environment and ensuring there is a sustainable environment has been a great concern across the world currently. The pollution of the environment and natural phenomena like globalization have been put into consideration by many environmental protection agencies. The case of Volkswagen’s noncompliance will be examined in this article, and the overwhelming devastating consequences of the unethical act had to direct and indirect stakeholders of the company. The primary reasons for this unethical act will also be examined, and the critical impacts of such an act will be explained in detail. In response, recommendations will be given in order to prevent the occurrence of any other similar or more devastating unethical act like the case of Volkswagen.

Introduction

Tightened measures have been put in place to control the emission of harmful and mortal effects of nitrogen oxide emitted from cars’ exhaust which is a pollutant to conserve and save the green. Therefore, to achieve that, there have been restrictions put in place by EPA since 1970 on the emissions for light-duty vehicles. Nitrogen oxide emitted into the environment endangers human life and can trigger diseases like asthma, cardiovascular, respiratory, and premature death. Federal agencies and EPA created a diminution to control the amount of nitrogen oxide emitted by vehicles’ tailpipes to 0.07 grams per mile from 1.25 grams. This standard posed a challenge to automakers in the industry that manufactures fuel-efficient diesel cars in the United States. Volkswagen was one of the players in the automobile industry attempting to crack the United States market; as a result, it became a substantial seller in the market. Her competitors were Nissan, Hyundai, Honda, and Mazda, which found these new standards quite challenging and had to look into their tactics and scrap them.

In 2015, the company announced a ‘diesel dupe’ as it rigged the emission test to portray that its diesel vehicles emitted less pollution than actual pollution. EPA reported that Volkswagen had sold an ample number of vehicles worldwide that had defeat devices or software embedded in their diesel engines to change the performance of the vehicles and improve their results. The unethical act aimed to pretend that its vehicles followed the emission standards, where the company conducted the test in a lab instead of the test being conducted on the roads (Rogerson, 2018). The cars were programmed to be able to detect situations in cars having TDI diesel engines experienced emission tests; then information is taken from steering, brakes, and accelerator. The program had slight changes in the engine setting aimed at diminishing the nitrogen oxide level emitted. An actual test conducted on the road found that the test on the road was 35 times more than the test in the lab.

Impact of the Volkswagen Diesel Scandal

In 2014, Volkswagen was ranked as the second-largest automaker in the world. Admitting to the unethical act of rigging diesel emission tests led the company to suffer a huge cost burden. It brought three public relations firms to assist the company deal with the crisis. The case involved various states worldwide; the company was therefore required to deal with several international regulations (Dura, 2017). This deceptive unethical scandal had the following primary consequences;

Volkswagen cars that were fitted with the defeat device would have led to the production of additional pollution that is very toxic to the environment and directly result in premature deaths in the United States. Studies have found that nitrogen oxide emitted from Volkswagen cars endangered the lives of 60 people who are likely to die prematurely. Excess pollution from these vehicles also contributed directly to chronic bronchitis cases and other cases of respiratory and heart in the United States. With time, the sickness cases of people with bronchitis, asthma, and other respiratory disease is likely to increase at a very high rate. The health costs of people are likely to increase due to the Volkswagen cars with defeat devices. In addition, the emission of excess nitrogen oxide into the natural environment would likely result in acid rain. Acid rains have a critical impact on people’s Health and can destroy the natural resource and nature.

When the testing scandal was revealed, it affected the company’s sales. This led to a crisis, and to cope with the crisis, the company had to reduce the bonuses accorded to the chief management substantially. This led to variable remuneration diminution. The reduction in bonus was to affect the management board and a group in the executive positions that assist the CEO in the company’s daily routine.

When the deceptive unethical practice of the company in the emission test came to light, there was a drastic slump in the Volkswagen’s share value. Just immediately when the scandal was unearthed, there was a swift reaction in the market that led to the reduction of the share value of the company to reduce by one-third. The company’s stock price continuously slumped in the United States, which meant billions of dollars from the company’s value were wiped out (Pries & Wäcken, 2020).

When this deceptive scandal by the Volkswagen company was taking place, some programs were provided to dealers aimed at assisting the dealers to cope with the rigging, which included incentives, bonuses, or subsidies in dealership networks. When the scandal was unearthed, the sales of Volkswagen stopped. Hence the dealers suffered from sluggish sales and very little profits. In order to relax the crisis, the company gave discretionary funds to the dealers, which they were supposed to use as per their wishes. The dealers were worried about whether the funds were sufficient for their survival. Dealers with cash flow were to be considered for further programs though no specific date for the programs was declared.

The scandal was an international deception that affected the investments of dealers, their customers, and employees. Many employees were very concerned about their job security and lived in fear of an encounter with their customers, whether the customers were aware of the scandal or not. The funds given by the company to the dealers only provided assistance to break even or have a thin profit. Customer traffics of the dealers was significantly reduced. Some dealers used the funds to close deals with the owner of the diesel cars to improve the satisfaction and motivation of sales workforces; others used the funds to cover store operating costs, boost their marketing budget, and strengthen the brand.

Despite the Volkswagen scandal having an impact on group brands, the slump in Volkswagen vehicle sales was more substantial than the group brands. The scandal led to a bad reputation for the company that substantially affected the loyalty of the customers. The negative impact on the reputation led customers to shift to the competitor Volkswagen, thus leading to a noticeable slump in the sales of Volkswagen vehicles.

Current Solutions for Finalizing Volkswagen Scandal

To solve the scandal, Volkswagen gave a concrete plan that has since been accepted by the environmental protection agency and the United States government. The proposed plan states that there must be more approvals and comments from the owners of the Volkswagen company. The plan also describes that the company would be committed to creating green car technology. Rather than squandering a lot of money on penalties, this money should be spent on advancing traditional technology. This will enable the company to bring out changes in the industry that will require Volkswagen to put more effort into electric vehicles that have minimal environmental pollution (Mansouri, 2016)..

Zero-emission cars over very few years will significantly eliminate the emission to the environment that is ten times greater than the emission produced by Volkswagen cars fitted with deceptive devices. Practically, an increased number of Volkswagen electronic vehicles being used on the road would also compensate for the emission from vehicles with the deceptive device. The zero-emission benefits the environment and will also be a privilege to the economy as there will be increased demand for batteries. In order to match the demand for batteries, it will also require more manufacturing companies to manufacture batteries. More manufacturing companies will also create more job opportunities and investments in the United States and other regions.

Recommendations

Volkswagen company’s business culture and structure were primarily the roots of this unethical scandal. In today’s business practices, there is quite a vast difference from the business practices in the past. A company obtains a reverse result when compliance-based ethics, like the case of Volkswagen, declines to treat its employees ethically as they are faced with the dilemma of losing a job or taking unethical actions. Employees’ actions are vital for any company’s success or failure. Thus companies must value their employees and improve their morality to undertake their practices based on ethics. There is no hierarchy in companies that practice value-based ethics, as employees work in designated teams to achieve expected results. Value-based ethics promotes democracy, which means that juniors can voice their complaints to their seniors or give their opinions, resulting in increased productivity.

It is self-evident that pollution of the natural environment and emissions to the atmosphere are of great concern to environment control agencies and EPA. The new standards EPA gave to automaker companies have put immense pressure on the companies to adhere to them. Therefore, it is imperative for the EPA to provide and offer companies development, technology, and research assistance to alleviate the pressure imposed on them. In the case of the Volkswagen scandal, stringent emissions standards had opposite outcomes of the intended expectations that led to devastating events. It is essential to have a plan for feasible emission standards and to provide the automakers with technology, development, and research to eliminate the chances of such cases in the future. Also, it is recommended that companies value their employees through a value-based approach to prevent these kinds of scandals from occurring. EPA also recommends providing automakers with supportive programs to ensure that emissions and pollutants are under control.

Conclusion

The deceptive scandal at Volkswagen was a huge, complicated practice that caused significant problems for its direct and indirect stakeholders. It was unethical to cheat on the emission test, and the results were disastrous. The suitable solution to solve this problem was the proposal of green punishment. Electronic cars are an amicable solution as they save costs and time for the environmental protection agencies that could have been used in finding systems for controlling emission tests. There is a need for organizations to comply with set rules and regulations, as noncompliance might lead to adverse impacts which are uncalled for. All organizations are legally obligated to practice ethics in promoting the common good through what they offer. A market leader and reputable company, Volkswagen should lead by example in fostering corporate compliance. Based on the circumstances described above, it is right to draw the conclusion that the Volkswagen emissions scandal is a significant corporate compliance issue in which all ethical principles have been violated, and profit maximization has been the primary motivation. The installed cheat devices are illegally accused of manipulating values in violation of EPA standards. Through ethical decision-making, ethical values, and ethical leadership, Volkswagen could avoid these ethical issues in the future.

References

Dura, C. (2017). The Volkswagen Emissions Scandal-A Case Study on Unethical Business Practices. Annals of the University of Petrosani, Economics, 17(2), 69-78.

Mansouri, N. (2016). A case study of Volkswagen unethical practice in diesel emission test. International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications, 5(4), 211-216.

Pries, L., & Wäcken, N. (2020). The 2015 Volkswagen ‘diesel-gate’and its impact on German carmakers. In New Frontiers of the Automobile Industry (pp. 89-111). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Rogerson, S. (2018). Ethics omission increases gases emission. Communications of the ACM, 61(3), 30-32.

Water Pollution In Hong Kong Essay Example

1.0 Introduction

Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world, and its high population density has resulted in various environmental problems. Among these environmental problems, pollution is one of the most serious issues (Liu et al., 2019). Pollution in Hong Kong can be divided into four main categories: air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, and light pollution. Water pollution is a major environmental issue in Hong Kong (Bashar & Fung, 2020). With a rapidly growing population and limited land resources, the city faces the challenge of providing clean water for its residents while also dealing with wastewater from industry and agriculture (Pan et al., 2019). Water pollution can cause several health problems, including gastrointestinal illness, skin irritation, and respiratory infections. It can also lead to the depletion of oxygen in water, which can kill fish and other aquatic organisms. This research will discuss the causes of water pollution, its impacts on biodiversity, and the impacts on sustainable development.

Purpose of the Study

This study aims to investigate the extent of water pollution in Hong Kong and identify possible sources of contamination. The study will also look at the impact of water pollution on the environment and human health.

Hypothesis

1). Water pollution is not a major problem in Hong Kong and is not caused by various sources, including industry, agriculture, and sewage.

2). Water pollution is a major problem in Hong Kong, and it is caused by various sources, including industry, agriculture, and sewage.

Objectives

1). Investigate the extent of water pollution in Hong Kong.

2). Identify possible sources of water pollution in Hong Kong.

3). Investigate the impact of water pollution on the environment and human health.

2.0 Methodology

This research paper will focus on water pollution in Hong Kong. The methodology adopted in this paper includes a review of the existing literature on the topic and fieldwork conducted in Hong Kong to observe the water pollution problem firsthand.

3.0 Results

The literature review and fieldwork results indicate that water pollution is a major problem in Hong Kong. Water pollution is caused by several factors, including industrial wastewater discharge, sewage discharge, agricultural runoff, and marine dumping (Liu et al., 2019). Water pollution has several negative impacts on the environment, including the depletion of oxygen in water bodies, the death of aquatic creatures, and the contamination of drinking water.

4.0 Discussions

The results of this research paper indicate that water pollution is a major problem in Hong Kong. Water pollution has several negative impacts on the environment, and it is a threat to the sustainable development of Hong Kong (Liu et al., 2019). Water pollution in Hong Kong has become a major environmental issue in recent years. The city’s rivers and streams are contaminated with various pollutants, including sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural runoff. This pollution is having a significant impact on the city’s biodiversity, as well as its ability to sustain a healthy population.

4.1 Causes of Water Pollution in Hong Kong

There are several causes of water pollution in Hong Kong. One of the most significant is the city’s reliance on river water for its drinking supply (Liu et al., 2019). This has led to contaminating many of the city’s water sources with sewage and industrial waste. In addition, the city’s population density and lack of open space have resulted in a high level of runoff from agriculture and urban areas (Pan et al., 2019). This runoff often contains pesticides, fertilizers, and other pollutants contaminating rivers and streams.

4.2 Effect on Bio-Diversity

The pollution of Hong Kong’s water resources is having a significant impact on the city’s biodiversity. The pollution affects many of the city’s fish and shellfish species adversely (Liu et al., 2019). In addition, the pollution is negatively impacting the city’s coral reefs, which are critical habitats for many marine species.

Industrial wastewater discharge is a major source of water pollution in Hong Kong. Many industries, such as textile, paper, and electronics, discharge large amounts of wastewater into the city’s water bodies (Pan et al., 2019). This wastewater contains a variety of pollutants, including heavy metals, organic chemicals, and suspended solids. These pollutants can damage aquatic organisms’ habitats and reduce the aquatic ecosystem’s diversity. The figure below shows industrial discharge into a water body.

Industrial discharge into a water body

Sewage effluent discharge is another major source of water pollution in Hong Kong. The city’s sewers are not designed to handle the large volume of wastewater generated by the city’s population. As a result, a significant amount of sewage effluent is discharged into the city’s water bodies each day. This effluent contains a variety of pollutants, including fecal coliform bacteria, nitrogen, and phosphorus (Liu et al., 2019). These pollutants can damage aquatic organisms’ habitats and reduce the aquatic ecosystem’s diversity. The figure below shows effluent discharge into the river.

Effluent discharge into the river

According to Chen et al. (2019), stormwater runoff is also a major source of water pollution in Hong Kong. During heavy rain, stormwater runoff can wash various pollutants, such as heavy metals, into the city’s water bodies. These pollutants can damage aquatic organisms’ habitats and reduce the aquatic ecosystem’s diversity.

4.3 Impacts on the Sustainable Development of Hong Kong

The pollution of Hong Kong’s water resources also significantly impacts the city’s ability to sustain a healthy population. The city’s residents are at risk of various diseases, including cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis, that can be transmitted through contaminated water (Liu et al., 2019). In addition, the pollution negatively impacts the city’s food supply, as many of the city’s crops are irrigated with contaminated water (Cheung et al., 2019). The pollution of Hong Kong’s water resources is a major environmental issue that significantly impacts the city’s biodiversity and ability to sustain a healthy population (Pan et al., 2019). The city’s government needs to take action to address the water pollution problem and protect the city’s environment and its residents. The figure below shows the impact of water pollution on sustainable development.

The impact of water pollution on sustainable development

5.0 Conclusion

Water pollution is a major problem in Hong Kong, and it is a threat to the city’s sustainable development. Several factors cause water pollution, and it negatively impacts the environment. To address the problem of water pollution, it is necessary to implement policies and measures to reduce the discharge of pollutants into water bodies.

References

Bashar, T., & Fung, I. W. (2020). Water pollution in a densely populated megapolis, Dhaka. Water, 12(8), 2124.

Chen, B., Wang, M., Duan, M., Ma, X., Hong, J., Xie, F., … & Li, X. (2019). In search of key: Protecting human health and the ecosystem from water pollution in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 228, 101-111.

Cheung, P. K., Hung, P. L., & Fok, L. (2019). River microplastic contamination and dynamics upon a rainfall event in Hong Kong, China. Environmental Processes, 6(1), 253-264.

Liu, L., Tang, Z., Kong, M., Chen, X., Zhou, C., Huang, K., & Wang, Z. (2019). Tracing the potential pollution sources of the coastal water in Hong Kong with statistical models combining APCS-MLR. Journal of environmental management, 245, 143-150.

Pan, T. D., Li, Z. J., Shou, D. H., Shou, W., Fan, J. T., Liu, X., & Liu, Y. (2019). Buoyancy Assisted Janus Membrane Preparation by ZnO Interfacial Deposition for Water Pollution Treatment and Self‐cleaning. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 6(21), 1901130.

Appendix

The figure below shows water pollution in Hong Kong water.

Water pollution in Hong Kong water

What Does It All Mean? Sample College Essay

Thomas Nagel is an American philosopher, currently a University Professor of Philosophy and Law Emeritus at New York University, where he has taught since 1980. His main philosophical interests include political philosophy, ethics, and the philosophy of mind. His research on the mind-body connection and criticism of reductionism in the scientific and social sciences are well known. Nagel was born to a Jewish family in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In 1958, he graduated with a B.A. in philosophy from Cornell University, where he first encountered Ludwig Wittgenstein’s writings. Then, with the help of a Fulbright Scholarship, he went to the University of Oxford to pursue his studies under Gilbert Ryle and J. L. Austin. In 1963, he graduated with a degree in philosophy from Harvard University. In 1963, Nagel started working as a teacher at Rutgers University. However, in 2008, he was awarded the Rolf Schock Prize in Logic and Philosophy by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

In What Does It All Mean? Thomas Nagel offers a lucid and provocative introduction to the main questions about life’s meaning and other chapters of his book: mind-body dualism, free will, and the nature of consciousness. Nagel begins with a brief history of the problem, tracing its origins to the dawn of Western philosophy. He then considers how the question has been addressed, including religious, naturalistic, and existential approaches. Nagel concludes with a brief overview of the current state of the debate.

Nagel’s book is a clear and helpful guide to a complex and often confusing subject. He offers a fair and evenhanded survey of the different positions that have been taken on life’s meaning (Nagel, 1987). Moreover, he provides a helpful framework for thinking about the issue. What Does It All Mean? It is essential for anyone who wants to understand the philosophical debate about life’s meaning.

While Nagel’s essay is pessimistic in its overall tone, it provides an interesting and thought-provoking perspective on the search for meaning in life. Nagel’s argument that the search for meaning is ultimately fruitless will surely spark debate among readers. However, his insistence that the only way to find meaning is to accept the mystery of life is sure to resonate with many people who have struggled to answer the question of what it all means.

Nagel’s essay is a thought-provoking exploration of many subjects that will leave readers much to ponder. Overall, Nagel’s work is a valuable contribution to the philosophical literature on many subjects about life. Those interested in learning more about Nagel’s views would do well to read “What does it all mean?”. This work is sure to provoke thought and discussion among its readers.

How Do We Know Anything?

In chapter 2 of his book, “How do we know anything?”, Thomas Nagel presents the major issue of how we can know anything at all. He discusses the various methods humans learn, such as perception, memory, reason, and introspection. He continues by saying that each of these approaches has its drawbacks and that we cannot rely on any of them to provide a comprehensive understanding of the world. Nagel concludes that we must accept that there are some things we cannot know and must be comfortable with the meager information we currently possess.

One of the main arguments that Nagel uses in this chapter is that our senses are limited and that they do not give us complete knowledge of the world. He observes that just a few colors and sounds are visible to our eyes and ears. He also contends that we frequently confuse one thing for another and that our senses of taste and smell are not very dependable. Nagel concludes that we should exercise caution when using our senses since they are not always accurate indicators of reality. Another argument that Nagel makes in this chapter is that our memories are also limited and that they can often mislead us. He points out that we frequently forget things we do not want to remember and that our biases and preferences frequently influence our recollections. Additionally, Nagel contends that our memories can frequently be warped by our wishes and concerns and are frequently formed by our culture and upbringing. Nagel concludes that we must exercise caution while using our memories and refrain from placing an undue amount of reliance on them.

Nagel’s final argument in this chapter is that our reason is also limited and that it can often lead us astray. He points out that we frequently make mistakes when we try to reason about the world since our reasoning depends on our presumptions and ideas. Additionally, Nagel contends that our reason can frequently be twisted by our wishes and concerns and is frequently formed by our culture and upbringing. Nagel concludes that we must exercise caution when applying reason and that we should not rely on it excessively.

Other philosophers have argued that we cannot know anything for sure. They argue that our limited experience limits our understanding of the world. They conclude that our only hope of understanding the world is to find out as much as possible about it (Boland, 2018). We learn that it is important to question everything and to think for ourselves. We also learn that we can never really know anything for sure and that we should always be open to new ideas and ways of thinking.

The chapter also emphasizes the importance of critical thinking and skepticism and how they are essential tools for learning and understanding the world. Finally, we learn that we should always be willing to change our beliefs if new evidence contradicts them. In conclusion, Nagel argues that we cannot rely on any method to give us complete world knowledge. He argues that our senses, memories, and reason are all limited and that we must be content with the limited knowledge that we do have.

Free Will

In his essay “Free Will,” Thomas Nagel argues that we cannot have a clear and objective understanding of our actions and intentions. He contends that we cannot reach the objective reality of our intentions and acts because they are subjective. This implies that we lack certainty regarding our motivations and the degree to which our actions are free. According to Nagel, we can only hope to comprehend our behavior by drawing on our experiences. This presents a challenge because our subjective perception is frequently skewed and unreliable. Nagel concludes that we are unable to comprehend our own free will clearly.

Nagel begins by discussing the problem of determinism. He contends that our actions are not genuinely free if determinism is true. This is due to the idea of determinism, which holds that our actions are predetermined by external factors over which we have no influence. As a result, it is impossible to say that we are fully accountable for our deeds. Determinism, according to Nagel, cannot coexist with the idea of free will. He uses our instincts of common sense to support this assertion. We strongly believe that we are in control of our acts and that these activities are voluntary. These intuitions are incorrect if determinism is real.

Nagel then turns to the problem of indeterminism. He contends that since indeterminism does not allow us any control over our acts, it cannot resolve the issue of free will. Indeterminism would imply that although earlier events do not predetermine our behaviors, we nevertheless have no control over them. Even if we would not have any influence over them, we still could not be held accountable for our deeds. According to Nagel, indeterminism does not give us a good grasp of our free will.

Nagel then considers the problem of self-determination. He contends that only when we control them can our acts be free. This implies that our intentions must be driven by our own free will rather than those of others. Nagel argues that if earlier causes decide us, we cannot be self-determining. This is because we would be unable to control our intentions and be held accountable for our acts. According to Nagel, self-determination is essential for the existence of a free will.

Nagel then turns to the problem of akrasia. This demonstrates that we are not fully in control of our acts; he contends that akrasia is problematic for the idea of free will. He contends that akrasia is a sort of self-deception in which, despite knowing what is right, we deceive ourselves into believing it is not in our best interests to act morally. The fact that we are not truly in control of our actions is a concern.

Nagel then turns to the problem of moral responsibility. He contends that if we are not in control of our acts, we are not accountable for them. This is a challenge since it implies that we are not answerable for our deeds. Nagel then addresses the issue of freedom. He contends that we are not truly free if we do not have control over our behavior. This is an issue since it implies that we are not accountable for what we do.

Other philosophers generally define free will as the ability to act freely without overriding forces. They explain its centrality in terms of our ability to make choices that are not determined by prior causes (Myers, 2019). As it enables us to take responsibility for our acts, many also consider it crucial in our ethical and moral lives. In contrast, Nagel has a more pessimistic perspective on free will, contending that it might simply be an illusion. He contends that our perception of free will might result from our finite viewpoint and that, in reality, our decisions might be influenced by hidden factors that we are unaware of.

Ultimately, Nagel concludes that the question of whether free will exists is deeply frustrating, as it is impossible to know whether it does or not. However, he argues that it is still important to consider, as our beliefs about free will can significantly impact how we live our lives.

Free will is important because it allows us to make our own choices and decisions. It allows us to control our destiny. Nagel argues that free will is the cornerstone of our ethical and moral lives. Without free will, we would be nothing more than robots blindly following the orders of others. We would have no control over our lives and no ability to make our own choices. Free will is what makes us human. It allows us to love, laugh, and feel joy and sorrow. It is what gives our lives meaning.

The Meaning of Life

Nagel’s “The Meaning of Life” addresses the question of what, if anything, makes life meaningful. He starts by separating the topic into two meanings: first, what is the point or purpose of existence in general, and second, what is the reason or purpose of a specific person’s life? According to Nagel, neither question can have a complete solution, but both can have partial ones.

In addressing the first question, Nagel considers various possible answers, including the idea that the meaning of life is to be found in its relation to God or some other transcendent reality. Nagel rejects this idea, arguing that it is based on a false dichotomy between the immanent and the transcendent. Nagel contends that the meaning of life can only be found within life. This does not imply that life has a clear objective or purpose; rather, it just means that each person must determine his or her meaning in life.

Nagel then turns to the second question and considers various answers that have been proposed. He begins by considering the idea that the meaning of an individual’s life is to be found in his or her contribution to the lives of others (Vos, 2018). Nagel rejects this answer, arguing that it fails to consider that each individual is unique and has his or her perspective on life. Nagel then discusses the contention that pursuing happiness is the ultimate goal of existence. This response, according to Nagel, is more promising but still has some drawbacks. Finally, Nagel discusses the notion that pursuing our faculties for autonomy and reason will reveal the meaning of existence. This is the most favorable response, but Nagel contends it is also the least thorough.

In the end, Nagel concludes that the meaning of life is a question that each individual must answer for himself or herself. There is no single answer that applies to everyone. In his book, Thomas Nagel discusses the meaning of life and whether or not it can be known. He starts by examining the various approaches that individuals have used to provide an answer, including religion, philosophy, and science. Nagel goes on to say that none of these methods can entirely resolve the issue. He says in his conclusion that everyone must find their path to understanding the purpose of life.

Some philosophers believe that life’s meaning is something we create for ourselves. This means that we give our own lives purpose and meaning. We can do this by setting goals and working towards them. We can also find meaning in our relationships with others, in our work, and our leisure activities.

Other philosophers believe that the meaning of life comes from outside of us. This means that we do not create meaning in life but come from a higher power or the universe itself. This higher power might be God, or it might be something else. Either way, these philosophers believe that the meaning of life is given to us rather than something we create. Nagel, however, believes that the purpose of life is something we make for ourselves. By establishing and achieving goals, we give our lives direction and significance. Additionally, our interactions with people, jobs, and leisure pursuits all value us.

Nagel’s arguments highlight the importance of trying to understand the meaning of life. He shows that this is a question many people have asked throughout history and that there are various ways to attempt to answer it. He also contends that it is impossible to know the response fully. This emphasizes the significance of people taking the time to think about their own lives and what they value most. Each person can only expect to discover their unique response to the question of what the purpose of life is through this process. The chapter thoroughly examines the query, “What is the meaning of life?” It emphasizes how critical reflection and self-discovery are to obtaining an answer to this query.

Conclusively, it is clear that Thomas Nigel has given much thought to how we know anything and the meaning of life. His arguments are well-reasoned and provide a convincing case for his point of view. I agree with his assertion that our sense of perception is the foundation upon which all our knowledge is based. Without our senses, we would be unable to interact with the world or learn anything about it. Our free will is also a crucial part of our lives, as it allows us to make choices and gives meaning to our existence. Finally, I agree with Nigel that our sense of purpose motivates us to live meaningful lives. Our responsibility is to identify our roles in the world and do everything we can to fulfill them.

References

Boland, T. (2018). The spectacle of critique: From philosophy to cacophony. Routledge.

Myers, W. (2019). Milton and Free Will: An Essay in Criticism and Philosophy. Routledge.

Nagel, T. (1987). What does it all mean? A very short introduction to philosophy. Oxford University Press.

Vos, J. (2018). Meaning in life: An evidence-based handbook for practitioners. Bloomsbury Publishing.

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