Voters’ Characteristics In Presidential Elections Sample Assignment

The characteristics of voters involved in the presidential election campaigns are an essential criterion for determining such indicators as prevailing age and race characteristics. Based on the review of the official data provided by the United States Census Bureau (2018), in the recent 2016 elections, older adults made up the predominant percentage of the population casting their votes for one of the two candidates (24.2%) (p. 6). This parameter has increased significantly over the years because, according to the same resource, this number in the 1980 election was 16.8% (United States Census Bureau, 2018, p. 6). During the indicated period, white electors were also represented in the most significant number (in the latest election, they accounted for approximately 66%) (United States Census Bureau, 2017). Such a correlation allows stating notable trends in the population’s involvement and the specific methods of political campaigning.

Both parties in power cultivate voters through various methods of engagement and agitation. For instance, according to the United States Census Bureau (2018), the principle of mail voting is a typical technique that simplifies the voting process. People who cannot attend polling stations for specific reasons have the right to send their votes by mail, and this practice is particularly relevant to older people with reduced mobility. Also, according to the official data, the largest category of the population who does not vote because of employment are young people (18-29 years old – 18.4%, 30-44 years old – 19.%), while among older adults, this figure is only 2.8% (United States Census Bureau, 2018, p. 14). An opportunity to engage the elderly population enables party representatives to campaign effectively and count on the target group in question.


United States Census Bureau. (2018). Characteristics of voters in the presidential election of 2016. Web.

United States Census Bureau. (2017). Voting rates by race and Hispanic origin. Web.

Bean-Coin: Currency And Commerce

The suggested currency is called “Bean-coin” and it is a currency for vegan website activity. It is backed by the commodity such as ready meals sold by the website. The website awards users with a certain amount of currency for substantive activity such as posting, sharing, and commenting on posts about healthy food. In exchange for certain bean-coins users can order vegetarian meals thus monetizing their activity in promoting the website on the Internet and creating meaningful content.

The trust will be established through the guarantee of delivery within 5-14 business days as well as comments from people who received it. Given the nature of a one-time bilateral exchange (from website to user and from user to website), the currency will be a low-velocity one. As it exists within the website only and cannot be exchanged for anything else than a limited number of commodities, digital technology is essential for the bean-coin existence which likens it to digitally obtained and distributed bit-coin (Golumbia 122).

The implicit meaning of the change, as compared to awarding real money for web activity is to liberate users from taxation as their distribution is not regulated by the state. It also challenges the monopoly of the official government to create and distribute currency, which is, according to Rushkoff, is a novelty of a digital society (125). Unlike in the situations described by Bearman, the currency is unlikely to be used by drug dealers as it is a single-purpose currency withdrawn from the global economic exchange. The limited number of commodities that this currency could be exchanged for seems to warrant this assumption. Yet, theoretically, if more items are added to the list, it might attract foul players.

Works Cited

Bearman, Joshuah. “The Untold Story of Silk Road, Part 1.Wired. 2015. Web.

Golumbia, David. “Bitcoin as Politics: Distributed Right-Wing Extremism.” MoneyLab Reader: An Intervention in Digital Economy, edited by Geert Lovink, Nathaniel Tkacz, and Patricia de Vries, Social Science Research Network. 2015, pp. 118-31.

Rushkoff, Douglas. Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity. Reprint edition, Portfolio, 2017.

Activism And Extremism In The Internet

Displaying one’s public opinion on the Internet is often accompanied by a response or feedback from other people with different backgrounds. Radicalization is one of the alarming effects displayed in platforms that presuppose opinion exchange (Tufekci). Among comments, one could find anyone from a terrorist recruiter to a 15-year-old boy because nicknames and empty profiles do not mean anything, which, to a certain extent, protects people from reprimands for an opinion (Yayla and Speckhard).

The experiment conducted on Reddit demonstrated that a white male received more approval from people when social isolation was evoked than a black female did. While on average neither of the messages was criticized harshly, the black female’s post attracted more Internet trolls than the white male’s post. Such a reaction was probably due to the popularity of the topic and the fact that black people were often the ones who started it. The oversaturation of the information field with posts on social isolation seems to have created a rejection reaction towards the “populist” issue.

Excluding a few provocateurs, most of the audience who replied to the message was rather polite and offered their vision while emphasizing the weak points in the original message, which were deliberately left in it. Such reactions point towards the self-organization of the community where rules of behavior start to form with the help of moderators (Kamenetz). Interestingly, in the black female’s post people tended to avoid being overly critical.

This effect might be attributed to the overall fear of being accused of intolerance to black people as the issue is rather sensitive, which nonetheless did not stop inadequate people from responding in an abusive tone. All in all, the experience demonstrated that regardless of gender and race the majority of Redditors seem to be polite and tolerant of others’ mistakes.

Works Cited

Kamenetz, Anya. “Right-Wing Hate Groups Are Recruiting Video Gamers.NPR.Org. 2018.

Tufekci, Zeynep. “YouTube, the Great Radicalizer.The New York Times, 2018.

Yayla, Ahmet, and Anna Speckhard. “Telegram: The Mighty Application That ISIS Loves – Part I.VOX – Pol, 2017.

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