WAN Technologies Paper Essay Example For College


Wide Area Technologies, WAN, refer to connections made of devices in far different geographical areas. The network is commonly used by organizations having several branches distributed in a country or state. The connection helps the organization integrate its different operations and helps the branches communicate with each other (Ghanaatian et al., 2019). Also, WAN technologies incorporate point-to-point technologies and Packet-switched and circuit-switched networks. The listed WAN technologies have different data transmission technologies different from each other and with varied bandwidth requirements and limitations.

Point-to-Point WAN consists of several Local Area Networks, LANs used in an organization’s network. They are often connected to the main network source being used in an organization. The connection between LANs to make a WAN is a serial connection. An example is the use of telephone lines which telecommunication companies lease to the users. Another example is using a modem to access the internet as the two points are connected with Point-to-Point WAN (Biferale et al., 2019). Point-to-Point WAN transmits data through ethernet cables, where the most commonly used ethernet cable is the Synchronous Optical Network, SONET. The data transmission speed ranges from 10Mbps to 10Gbps and also depends on the area the network is set up, as some areas have obstructions that lower the transmission speed. From the transmission speed, Point-to-Point WAN have high bandwidth, enhancing quality connections. However, the bandwidth is limited to only transmitting small amounts of data.

Packet Switched WAN enhances the transmission of data in packets from one device to the other. The data packets have headers containing the address and source of the data and the payloads, which contain the transmitted data. The TCP protocol’s break protocol performs the data packets’ reassembling once the data has reached its destination. Email is an example of the day-to-day use of Packet-switched WAN technology. On sending email, the email is sent in fragments with the header stating the email address, the message and the attachment (Li et al., 2019). These fragments are reassembled upon reaching the receiver. Bandwidth in Packet-switched is in high demand because of the many users of email across the world. Hence, it faces much congestion because of simultaneous multiple users. The congestions make the use of the network unstable.

In-Circuit Switched WAN; each communication process creates its physical circuit, which is then terminated on completion of the process. The communication process maintains the circuit through the two nodes or devices involved in the communication process. Unlike Packet-switched WAN, circuit-switched WAN only enables the communication between two devices at each given time. Hence, this WAN’s bandwidth requirements depend on the devices in the communication process (Rajagopalan, 2020). However, bulky data causes delays in the network. In circuit-switched WAN, data is transmitted in either data-gram, where data is sent in singular forms or data-stream form, in which data is sent continuously. An example of a circuit-switched WAN is telephone companies providing services through Integrated Service Digital Networks. The data transmission rate in circuit-switched WAN is relatively higher compared to Packet switched WAN.

In conclusion, using WAN technologies has eased communication and connection between nodes far from each other. These work well unless an obstruction of the network slows down the connectivity speed and reliability of the connections made. The use of each technology also depends on the needs of the user or organizations, the number of nodes to be connected, and the amount of data to be shared.


Biferale, L., Bonaccorso, F., Buzzicotti, M., Clark Di Leoni, P., & Gustavsson, K. (2019). Zermelo’s problem: optimal point-to-point navigation in 2D turbulent flows using reinforcement learning. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science29(10), 103138.

Ghanaatian, R., Afisiadis, O., Cotting, M., & Burg, A. (2019, May). LoRa digital receiver analysis and implementation. In ICASSP 2019-2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (pp. 1498-1502). IEEE.

Li, S. Y., Yang, X. Q., Chen, T., Wang, D., Wang, S. F., & Wan, L. J. (2019). Tri-Stable Structural Switching in 2D Molecular Assembly at the Liquid/Solid Interface Triggered by External Electric Field. ACS nano13(6), 6751-6759.

Rajagopalan, S. (2020, November). An Overview of SD-WAN Load Balancing for WAN Connections. In 2020 4th International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Where To Invade Next Sample Essay


“Where to Invade Next” is a 2015 documentary film directed by Michael Moore. The film explores various European social and economic systems and how they could benefit the United States. Moore visits countries such as Italy, France, Germany, and Iceland to highlight programs and policies related to education, healthcare, and workers’ rights. The film raises questions about American exceptionalism and the ability of the U.S. to learn from other nations. Overall, “Where to Invade Next” presents a critical look at American society and politics while offering a hopeful and inspiring vision for a better future. The documentary begins with a statement that seems to indicate that the United States is incapable of producing operative answers to the social issues it continues to face. Hence, Moore visits other countries to borrow a leaf from them to answer various issues in his country of origin. The film evaluates the French healthcare system, which is influenced by various cultural, political, and economic forces.

In the film, Moore highlights the benefits of the French healthcare system, such as longer hospital stays, more one-on-one time with physicians, and the availability of comprehensive preventive care services. He also mentions that the French have a lower infant mortality rate and longer life expectancy than the United States. The French healthcare system emphasizes preventative care, which leads to fewer hospitalizations and fewer chronic diseases.

Political Forces

Political forces have shaped the French healthcare system over time. Political ideology, interest groups, and historical events have all played a role in fashioning, swaying, and nourishing the French healthcare system (Geeraert, 2018). For example, the French tradition of a strong central administration and a belief in universal access to healthcare has helped to produce and sustain a comprehensive national health insurance system. This system is funded through payroll taxes and is open to all residents of France, regardless of income or health status. Interest groups, such as doctors and hospitals, have also wielded sway in the French healthcare system by calling for policies that benefit their members. For instance, the powerful medical lobby has effectively pushed for higher compensation rates for doctors and has shaped the rules governing the healthcare industry.

Economic Forces

Various economic forces have also informed the French healthcare system. The country’s government spends around 11% of its GDP on healthcare compared to the United States is significantly less which is estimated to spend around 18% of its GDP. However, the French healthcare system is considered one of the best in the world. The French healthcare system is designed in a way that encourages competition as the system has numerous private healthcare providers that compete with the public sector, thus leading to increased efficiency and innovation in the sector (Rodwin, 2018). Additionally, the healthcare system in France has implemented various cost control measures, including negotiations with pharmaceutical companies to maintain the system’s financial sustainability.

Cultural Forces

Cultural forces have played a major role in creating, influencing, and sustaining this system (Geeraert, 2018). This includes nationalism which has been a driving force in the development of the healthcare system as the French believe that access to quality healthcare is a fundamental right of all citizens and is an essential component of their national identity. The laissez-faire attitude, which emphasizes personal freedom and autonomy, has also helped sustain the healthcare system’s private sector. Many French people are willing to pay for private medical services to receive more personalized and less bureaucratic care. Additionally, the French have a strong prominence on preventive care, which is reflected in their healthcare system, as they believe that it is better to prevent illnesses from occurring than to treat them after they have developed.

In contrast, the American healthcare system is market-based, where insurance companies are the main providers of care. The American system is often condemned for being expensive and unreachable to many people. The cost of healthcare in the United States is among the highest in the world, and many citizens scrap to afford insurance. This often results in individuals forgoing necessary medical treatment, which leads to poor health outcomes and higher hospitalization rates. Economic, cultural, and political forces also inform the American healthcare system.

Economic Forces

Since its inception, economic forces have played an important role in shaping the American healthcare system. Economic forces have influenced the growth and development of the American healthcare system by driving the demand for new and innovative medical treatments, drugs, and technologies (Haas et al., 2020). This has led to a substantial upsurge in healthcare spending and the growth of the healthcare industry. Additionally, economic forces have sustained the American healthcare system by providing the necessary funding to support ongoing research and development in the field. Additionally, healthcare insurance companies, hospitals, and other providers rely on the country’s economic conditions to generate revenue and maintain profitability.

Political Forces

Various political forces have also shaped and influenced the American healthcare system. These political forces include Government involvement, which has also been instrumental in shaping the American healthcare system (Haas et al., 2020). As recently as 2010, the government passed the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which aims to expand access to healthcare and improve the quality of care for millions of Americans. The Private sector, including insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, and hospitals, has significantly impacted the American healthcare system. They have been able to shape policies and regulations through lobbying and campaign contributions, allowing them to maintain their dominant position in the market.

Cultural Forces

Cultural forces have played a significant role in the American healthcare system’s creation, influence, and sustainability (Wagner, 2021). They have shaped how healthcare is perceived, delivered, and financed in the United States. Some of the key cultural forces that have influenced the American healthcare system include Individualism in American culture which has resulted in a healthcare system primarily focused on individual choice and autonomy. Consumerism has also influenced the healthcare system by encouraging patients to act as consumers and to demand access to high-quality, cost-effective healthcare services. This has led to a system characterized by competition, innovation, and cost-containment measures.


To improve the current American healthcare system, I would recommend various measures that would profoundly benefit the system. These recommendations include Increase access to care which can be done by expanding Medicaid coverage, increasing subsidies for private insurance, and ensuring that everyone has admittance to affordable health insurance (Wagner, 2021)—reducing costs which can be achieved through measures such as increasing competition among healthcare providers, negotiating lower prices for drugs and medical devices, and reducing administrative costs associated with healthcare billing and insurance. Additionally, I would recommend strengthening the primary care system, which can involve increasing the number of primary care physicians, expanding the scope of practice for nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and improving the coordination of care between primary care providers and specialists.

In conclusion, the French healthcare system has been informed by various factors, categorized into either economic, political, or social forces. Despite spending less money, France has one of the best healthcare systems in the world. The American healthcare system is market-based, where insurance companies are the main care providers. Additionally, it has been affected by various cultural practices, such as individualism, which has emphasized individual choice and autonomy. Numerous ideas can be implemented to improve the current system in America, including strengthening the primary care system, among others. Bottom of Form


Geeraert, J. (2018). Healthcare Reforms and the Creation of Ex‐/Included Categories of Patients—“Irregular Migrants” and the “Undesirable” in the French Healthcare System. International Migration56(2), 68–81.

Haas, S. M., Janumpally, S., & Kouns, B. L. (2020). The Economics of Health: An Overview of the American Healthcare System. Evaluating Challenges and Opportunities for Healthcare Reform, 100-124.

Rodwin, V. I. C. T. O. R. (2018). The French health care system. World Hosp Health Serv54(1), 49–55.

Wagner, S. L. (2021). The United States healthcare system: overview, driving forces, and outlook for the future. Health Administration Press.

Contemporary Art Review Essay Example


Work 1:

Duane Hanson's "Tourists II"

Duane Hanson’s “Tourists II,” 1988

Artist: Duane Hanson

Title: Tourists II

Date: 1988

Medium: Polyester resin, fiberglass, oil paint, clothing, and accessories

Dimensions: Approximately 72 x 42 x 42 inches (183 x 107 x 107 cm)

Stylistic Movement: Photorealism, Pop Art

Cultural Origin: American

Current Collection: The Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA

Work 2:

Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Still #21

Cindy Sherman’s Untitled Film Still #21, 1978

Artist: Cindy Sherman

Title: Untitled Film Still #21

Date: 1978

Medium: Black and white photograph

Dimensions: 8 x 10 inches (20 x 25 cm)

Stylistic Movement: Appropriation, Conceptual Art

Cultural Origin: American

Current Collection: The Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA

Duane Hanson’s “Tourists II” and Cindy Sherman’s “Untitled Film Still #21” offer insightful commentary on their eras’ cultural and social identities through their depictions of persons and how they are portrayed in popular media. Both pieces question gender, class, and identity and mirror current cultural and societal challenges. Hanson and Sherman challenge the cultural narrative and give new perspectives on humanity by portraying characters in unusual ways. Hanson’s hyper-realistic sculptures and Sherman’s costume and role-playing in her images challenge representation and show how art can defy cultural narratives.

Social or Cultural Identity

Tourists II, 1988, by Duane Hanson, reflects the social and cultural identity of the post-World War II era in America. During this time, America underwent significant changes, including a rapid expansion of consumer culture and the rise of mass-produced goods. Hanson’s sculpture depicts a tourist as a symbol of this new American consumer culture, reflecting American society’s changing values and priorities at the time.

Cindy Sherman’s work, on the other hand, reflects the cultural identity of the late 20th century and early 21st century. During this time, there was a growing awareness of feminist issues and a challenge to traditional gender roles and expectations. In her self-portraits, Sherman challenges traditional notions of femininity and the representation of women in popular culture. By creating various personas and characters, she questions the authenticity of identity in an era characterized by mass-produced images and a proliferation of media.

Shaping of Social or Cultural Identities

Tourists II, 1988 by Duane Hanson and Cindy Sherman’s work have significantly influenced social and cultural identities. Hanson’s work critiques the post-World War II American consumer culture and highlights the impact of mass-produced goods on individual identity. This work continues to be relevant and serves as a reminder of the ongoing influence of consumer culture on modern society.

Cindy Sherman’s work has also significantly impacted the representation of women in popular culture. Her self-portraits challenge traditional gender roles and expectations, and her work continues to be a powerful statement on the representation of women in society. Sherman’s use of personas and characters has inspired a generation of artists and activists to question the authenticity of identity and representation.

Modern or Contemporary Expression

Tourists II, 1988, by Duane Hanson and Cindy Sherman’s work have significantly influenced modern and contemporary expressions of the shared theme of cultural identity and representation. Hanson’s work inspires artists who are critical of consumer culture and its impact on individual identity. For example, contemporary artists such as Jeff Koons and Damien Hirst have drawn upon Hanson’s work to explore similar themes. Contemporary artists such as Yasumasa Morimura and Mariko Mori have drawn upon Sherman’s work to explore similar themes. In this way, the works of Duane Hanson and Cindy Sherman continue to shape and inform contemporary expressions of the shared theme of cultural identity and representation.

Comparative analysis

Formal Characteristics:

Duane Hanson’s Tourists II, 1988, and Cindy Sherman’s art share formal traits. Both painters portray the human figure in realistic, emotional ways. Each artist uses different mediums and techniques. Tourists II, a lifelike fiberglass-reinforced polyester resin sculpture by Duane Hanson, invites viewers to stroll around and study it from numerous viewpoints. Cindy Sherman’s two-dimensional photographic self-portraits allow viewers to view the image as a single, fixed arrangement.

Influence of Traditions and Ideologies:

Duane Hanson and Cindy Sherman’s unique cultural traditions and philosophies have had a significant impact on their artwork. American artist Duane Hanson was active in the mid-to-late 20th century when mass production and consumerism were becoming increasingly pervasive in American culture. His work Tourists II, which features a tourist, a representation of the emerging American consumption culture, reflects this cultural context. The commercialization of American society and the resulting loss of originality and individuality can be read as a critique of Hanson’s work.

Contrarily, Cindy Sherman was influenced by the feminist movement and the notion of tearing down socially constructed gender stereotypes. She regularly utilizes herself as a model to produce photos that question conventional gender norms and expectations. Her work frequently examines how women are portrayed in popular culture and the media.

Representation of Social, Historical, and Cultural Climate:

Tourists II by Duane Hanson reflects the cultural and social milieu of the late twentieth century by focusing on consumerism and commercialization in American society. The artwork is a commentary on the decline in authenticity and originality in American society and features a tourist, a representative of the modern American consumer culture.

Similar to this, Cindy Sherman’s art captures the social and cultural context of the time by questioning conventional gender norms and expectations and examining how women are portrayed in popular culture and the media. The photos she produces make a strong statement about the ongoing fight for gender equality as well as a critique of how women are objectified and sexualized in modern culture.


Chris Ofili’s work, The Holy Virgin Mary, shares several parallels with the works of Duane Hanson and Cindy Sherman in terms of historical themes and settings. Like Hanson and Sherman, Ofili addresses the theme of cultural identity and the representation of women in contemporary society.

In The Holy Virgin Mary, Ofili presents a unique take on the traditional representation of the Virgin Mary in Western art by using vibrant colors, glitter, and elephant dung, which was a departure from traditional depictions of religious figures in art. In this way, he critiques the way in which religious figures have been used to perpetuate patriarchal structures in society and addresses the theme of cultural identity and representation.


The historical themes addressed in the works of Duane Hanson, Cindy Sherman, and Chris Ofili are still highly relevant today, and their art continues to offer a powerful commentary on contemporary society. The representation of women in popular culture, religion, and the media continues to be a topic of ongoing discussion, with issues such as the sexualization of women and the perpetuation of patriarchal structures still being addressed in contemporary art and activism.

The Holy Virgin Mary is a particularly relevant work in this regard, as it highlights the ongoing struggle to represent women in a positive and empowering light. The use of vibrant colors and unconventional materials in this work serves as a powerful statement on the importance of challenging traditional representations of women and rethinking cultural norms. In this sense, Ofili’s work is not only a powerful critique of patriarchal structures but also offers a vision of a more inclusive and diverse society.


The comparative analysis of Duane Hanson’s Tourists II, 1988, and Cindy Sherman’s work highlights the relevance and value of the perceived notion of the artist’s responsibility to society and the impact of these works of art on modern and contemporary culture and practice. Both works explore similar themes, reflecting the social and cultural identities of their respective eras. Furthermore, they have had an influence on the modern and contemporary expression of the shared theme. By examining the visual and historical aspects of each artwork, this analysis has demonstrated how both works have been influential in shaping modern and contemporary ideas of identity, gender roles, and the notion of the artist’s responsibility to society.


Bronfen, E. (2021). The Other Self of the Imagination: Cindy Sherman’s Hysterical Performance. In Hysterical Methodologies in the Arts: Rising in Revolt (pp. 179-202). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Russell, J. (2020). The meanings of modern art. Routledge.

Stallabrass, J. (2020). Contemporary art: a very short introduction (Vol. 146). Oxford University Press, USA.

Toama, Q. Z. (2019). Body Language in the Works of Sculptors George Segal and Duane Hanson. Al-Academy, (91).