War In Ernest Hemingway And Tim O’Brien’s Stories Homework Essay Sample

Soldier’s Home and How to Tell a True War Story are short stories written about the wars. In the Soldier’s House, Hemingway narrates the time after the First World War, and O’Brien connects the events with the Vietnam War. In a comparison of O’Brien’s description of war with Hemingway, it can be noticed that they have a lot in common. O’Brien sometimes uses postmodernism, interspersed with almost poetic fragments built on repetitions. In both analyzed works, the topic of the soldier life consequences for men and their perception of reality is raised.

Another common element used in the stories is exaggeration. It is used to increase the expressiveness of speech, the ability to concentrate on a certain object (Meyer and Miller). For example, O’Brien uses hyperbolic expressions, even the initial phrase “This is all true” is later refuted, but attracts the reader’s attention. Another example is the reaction, when Rat does not receive an answer for his letter: “The dumb cooze never writes back” (O’Brien para. 7). In Hemingway’s story, the narrative is conducted on the third side, but the main character of the soldier is prone to exaggeration. “His lies were quite unimportant lies and consisted in attributing to himself things other men had seen, done or heard of, and stating as facts certain apocryphal incidents familiar to all soldiers” (Hemingway para. 5). They used this technique to draw attention, and emphasize contrasts – the horrors of war and ideas about it, peaceful and military life.

However, where Hemingway has the absurdity of war adjacent to triumphant masculinity, O’Brien does not have any in his memory – it also becomes absurd and carries absolutely nothing but bewilderment, pain, and destruction. Almost every stereotypical “male act” ends in shame and self-dissatisfaction. Burned after the senseless death of a comrade, a village with civilians is not at all the triumph of the winner, who showed to the enemy their own power. It is the senseless anger of a cruel child who understands that he is wrong, but does not want to restrain himself. A nose broken in a fight is not a reason for pride, but a paranoid expectation of revenge from someone to whom the nose was broken.

Works Cited

Hemingway, Ernest. “Soldier’s Home.” So Many Books, 2020. Web.

Meyer, Michael and D. Quentin Miller. The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature. 12th ed., Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2019.

O’Brien, Tim. “How to Tell a True War Story.” North Dakota State University, 2020. Web.

Healthcare Insurance: Effects Of Adverse Selection

It is quite natural that those people who know or suspect that the probability of them falling sick is high are most likely to buy insurance. On the same note, many people do not like paying high insurance premiums than the expenses they are likely to incur in hospitals. Therefore, it goes without saying that people will go for insurance plans where they pay the minimal amount of premiums but get the maximum cover. This type of reasoning and action by the public is referred to as adverse selection. Adverse selection is more pronounced in the Medicaid insurance plan than the Medicare plan (Getzen 84). To begin with, Medicaid is tailored for the poor in society whose contribution is minimal. Additionally, Medicaid covers a significant number of nursing homes where the elderly are taken care of. Consequently, even the elderly who are covered by the Medicare eventually qualify for Medicaid after spending long time in nursing homes. Similarly, since paying for medical services individually is expensive, many poor people will choose to enroll for Medicaid (Getzen101).

Rationality of the Uninsured

Though it has been argued that for security purposes everybody should have health insurance, some people still do not have it. These people prefer to pay for their medical expenses whenever they fall sick. It might seem as an irrational idea, but some people have said that it is actually economically rational. Firstly, if these people do not have health problems, they end up spending less than those who pay insurance premiums (Getzen 110). Secondly, these people avoid paying high insurance premiums regularly and can invest the money elsewhere. On the same note, the uninsured avoid the many regulations that are put in place when one buys insurance, for instance the in network coverage.

Physicians’ payment in the U.S.

In the United States, commercial insurance contracts cover the largest number of people under the age of 65 years. Consequently, they pay the huge amount to physicians compared to other insurance organizations. The commercial insurance contracts usually use the modified form of Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRV’S) as a base for their payments. In other instances, the Medicare payment levels are used as a yardstick for payments (Getzen 115). It is important to note that mode of payment has changed from the initial use of fees structures, to the present use of relative value scales. This change has been necessitated by the large number of issues that payment modes have to address.

Relative Value Scale Determination

Initially, a common service was given one point while the other services were given points relative to this service. Thereafter, physicians and insurance firms agreed on the amount to be paid per point and payment was calculated based on the same. However, this changed with the introduction of RBRV’S where the estimates of point value is made based on different factors. The factors include; physician time, intensity of effort, practice costs as well as costs of advances specialty training (Getzen 114).

Agency

An agent is defined as a person who executes certain duties on behalf of another person for a fee. In the healthcare industry, physicians act as agents of patients. Though, an agent seems to increase the cost of a transaction, the knowledge and valuable information agents have end up reducing the ultimate cost incurred (Getzen 126). However, if agents carry out their duties under circumstances of imperfect information, they are bound to bring about problems which could have been avoided if the transaction was carried out directly.

References

Getzen, Thomas E. Wiley Pathways Health Care Economics. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2007. Print.

Catholic Culture Vs. Deaf Culture

Cultures define humans because they dictate how a group conducts its activities and how its members interact based on beliefs and traditions. Although in some instances an individual has the liberty to decide whether to belong to a particular culture or not, it is not always the case. For instance, no one chooses to be deaf and related to the community of people with hearing impairment. On the other hand, belonging to the Catholic culture is a choice not determined by the fact that I was born in a family that appreciates its religious traditions. Nonetheless, the two entities bear similarities and differences which demonstrate the constituents of culture.

The Catholic culture is recognized globally because it has existed for ages. Historically, its establishment can be traced to the 1st century during Jesus Christ’s existence and the rule of the Roman Empire (Isacco et al. 330). One distinct characteristic of the catholic culture is that it has an elaborate organizational structure headed by the papacy, which regularly gives directives to the members. The group has distinct traits, beliefs and norms which guide its behavior. For instance, similarly to other Christians, the Catholics believe in Christ as the Messiah (Isacco et al. 330). However, the differentiating factor is that they also pray to Mary the mother of Jesus who intercedes to God on their behalf. Additionally, the Pope, who is the religious leader and a representative of God’s authority on earth, thus being crucial in making important decisions. Other traditions include attending the mass every Sunday, Ash Wednesday and Good Friday celebrations, and the belief in the immortality of the soul. All the abovementioned traits and practices are what categorize Catholicism as a culture.

The Catholic culture has a unique set of challenges that affect its members. First, numerous cases of sexual abuse of children have been reported to the church leadership. Such unlawful acts are often perpetrated by priests, which questions ethics among these members of the clergy (Boyette). Another common and controversial issue is the Catholic stand on abortion. Although the community condemns and casts out anyone involved in the act, it allows for forgiveness to anyone who repents. I have a personal connection with Catholicism because I was born in the culture and I have practiced its traditions all my life.

The deaf culture, on the other hand, focuses on the use of sign language and the interaction among individuals with hearing impairment. The American Sign Language (ASL) has been used across the globe as the standard of communication in groups and can therefore be applied to narrate the culture’s history. The origin of ASL can be traced to 1814 when the first school for the deaf was established in Hartford (Hoffman and Andrews 427). The main trait of the community is language, which is a unifying factor among its members in all regions. Although the deaf cannot speak normally, they are comfortable and enjoy using signs to communicate. Some common values of the deaf culture include respect for one another, accepting the condition as normal, and highly regarding deaf babies. Additionally, there are shared practices and behaviors such as physical touch, eye contact, and thumping of floors used to gain and maintain attention. Moreover, unlike other people, the deaf always takes more time to know each other for the first time and also require longer goodbyes. Even though this group is considered disabled, the shared values and customs are what classifies it as a culture.

The members of the deaf culture similarly encounter various contemporary challenges. The main problem individuals with hearing impairments face are discrimination. For instance, in workplaces, they are viewed as weak, slow, and less productive, which is not always the case (Martell). The deaf is equally intelligent and capable, all they need are specialized equipment that can help them participate effectively. Moreover, there are few interpreters and translators, which has created a barrier between the deaf and individuals who can hear well. I have friends and family members with hearing impairments, and interaction with them has made me identify personally with the deaf culture.

Consequently, there are similarities and differences between Catholicism and the deaf culture. There are no major resemblances between the two but they both give the members pride and a sense of belonging. Individuals with hearing impairment do not consider themselves disabled but different (Hoffman and Andrews 426). Similarly, I have a unique identity based on spiritual doctrines defined by Catholic beliefs and traditions. The difference between the two societies is that the values of the deaf culture are a result of the need to improve interactions, while Catholicism is a religious culture grounded on faith. Even though the two entities are different, the fact that they both have a history and bring people together identifies them as cultures.

Everybody belongs to a particular culture because, without it, it is impossible to live in harmony. Consequently, the deaf also has a culture embedded in the sign language and the appreciation of their members. Although it is different from Catholicism because the latter is based on faith and regular worship rituals, they both involve people with shared values and traditions. Additionally, the two have a unique set of challenges based on their principles. Nonetheless, the Catholics and the deaf have beliefs, norms, and characteristics that unite them as cultures.

Works Cited

Boyette, Chris. “What the Pope has Said on Key Issues Facing the Church – CNN”. CNN, 2015, Web.

Hoffman, Dan, and Jean F. Andrews. “Why Deaf Culture Matters In Deaf Education”. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, vol. 21, no. 4, 2016, pp. 426-427.

Isacco, Anthony, et al. “How Religious Beliefs and Practices Influence the Psychological Health of Catholic Priests”. American Journal of Men’s Health, vol. 10, no. 4, 2015, pp. 325-337.

Martell, Angie. “Understanding The Injustices Faced By The Deaf Community”. Iglesiamartell, 2021, Web.

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