To fully answer this question one must look at the underlying philosophies behind Hitlers leadership. What did he stand for and did his ideologies have any redeeming characteristics? Indisputably he had an ability to lead and motivate. He was revered with almost God like fanaticisms by his people. This essay will set out to establish the basis of his leadership and within that framework, the nature of the man and his vision for the world.
Hitler was in many ways a great leader and his influence on the German people was immense; he used his motivational and powerful speaking abilities to gain support and popularity. Hitler knew how to appeal to people’s baser instincts and made use of their fears and insecurities. He could do that, however, only because they were willing to be led, even though his programme was one of hatred and violence. Hitler was extremely Anti-Semetic and when Germany was in the state of social instability and crisis Hitler was able to easily deflect that frustration on to the Jews. After the economic and social hardship of the Great Depression Hitler began to rebuild Germany. He saw a nation of unemployed and hungry citizens and promised them economic prosperity in return for absolute power. Hitler was convinced Germany’s past suffering was due to the Jewish population, and as a result initiated a campaign of hatred and isolation towards the nation’s Jewish community. Hitlers propaganda machine promoted the theory that the Aryan race was superior to any other. Jews, Negroes and any other race that did not satisfy Hitlers Aryan mould were to be treated as lesser beings. One of Hitlers many ambitions for Germany was to achieve total Aryan supremacy. Hitler wanted to make all Germans perfect physical specimens. All of them tall and strong with blue eyes and blond hair though he himself was short, with brown eyes and hair. Hitler claimed that the Germans were the purest Aryans and therefore superior to all other peoples. Hitler made sure that all Germans knew this, he told the German people what they wanted to hear, that they were in fact the master race and that they were superior to any other persons. Although many were opposed to Hitlers idea of Aryan supremacy the German people supported him enthusiastically regardless. Hitler took this hatred he possessed for the Jews and his pursues of Aryan supremacy to an extensive degree. Between 1939-1945 Hitler took action, extermination, or death camps were established for the sole purpose of killing men, women, and children. Jews were not the only victims of the Nazis during World War II, The Nazis also imprisoned and killed people who opposed their regime on grounds of their ideology; Roma (Gypsies); Germans who were mentally impaired or physically disabled; homosexuals; and captured Soviet soldiers. Heinous crimes inflicted upon the prisoners within the concentration camps and during Hitlers reign were intense beyond belief. So called camp doctors would torture and inflict incredible suffering on Jewish children, Gypsy children and many others. Patients were put into pressure chambers, tested with drugs, castrated, frozen to death, and exposed to various other traumas. Thousands of Jewish and Gypsy women were subjected to severe treatment. They were sterilized by the chemical injections, producing horrible pain, inflamed ovaries, bursting spasms in the stomach, and bleeding. Josef Mengele and Heinrich Himmler were the people primarily concerned in assisting Hitler carry out the holocaust and killed many Jews. Hitler believed the complete extermination of the Jews was in fact the Final Solution and pursued this perverse belief to the extreme.
Perhaps Hitler could be considered to be a man of vision and indeed a great leader. This conclusion can only be arrived at through speculation on what type of world Hitlers vision would have led to. As such one must use the subjective powers of imagination to picture a world inhabited by one master race. This would only succeed at the cost of billions of lives. The world would undeniably be ruled under a fascist regime and such freedoms as individuality, religion and democracy would ultimately cease to exist. As a result the world would almost certainly be torn into turmoil as there would be great conflicts over power.
Hitler was responsible for the deaths of over six million innocent people including Jews, Gypsies, Germans who were mentally impaired or physically disabled, homosexuals and anyone who opposed his regime or who didnt fit his ideal Aryan description. Hitler stole the German peoples freedom of speech and democracy, and their traditional values were exploited. Hitler was in many ways an inspiring leader and visionary and he did a lot of good for Germany. He provided employment and stabilized the economy, Hitler told Germans they were the master race and promised them the world. He played on national resentment, feelings of revolt and peoples fears and insecurities to attain his desires. Hitler was an evil genius. With the help of fanatic disciples and gullible masses, he profoundly changed Germany and the political face of Europe; unleashing the most terrible war in history and unprecedented genocide in which more than six million Jews died. Hitler was undeniably a monster and an amoral man who viewed his fellow human beings as mere bricks in the political structure he wanted to erect.
A Walker Between Worlds
Shamanism is a great mental and emotional journey that involves the shaman and the patients to transcend their normal, ordinary definitions of reality to a deeper level of consciousness. Shamanism is the sustenance of human vitality. It is a system of healing based on spiritual power from personal helping spirits whom the shaman encounters on journeys into other realities. Shamans seek spiritual power in the form of healing, knowledge and understanding.
A shaman is a person male or female who has chosen a quest in life beyond most adults that involves discipline, mind training, courage, and perseverance. It is often difficult for westerners to understand that shamanism is a spiritual practice and a method of healing that is not dependent upon any culture’s official religion. Priests differ from shamans in the sense that Priests tend to go by the book. Performing rituals that have been done the same way for generations. Shamans learn from eachgeneration and change what best suits each patient and shaman relationship.
Shamans honor the ancient wisdom of our ancestors and learn from it. Marie-lu Lorler, a Native American Indian shaman, relates some ancestral wisdom:Generally, shamans use a lot of metaphors and stories for explaining their visions. This is how rich spiritual heritage can be dated back to the beginning of time.
The sun and the earth are the pure essence of life. They are often referred to as our great grandparents. Traditional shamanic story telling reflects that our great-grandparents, who are our ancestors, loved each other very much and their love produced growth in this world. Their love created three realms of life: plants, animals, and humans. This life is obligated to share a deep respect for each other and its creators. For shamans, the stones of the earth are their oldest relatives. Stones have lived longer then any other realm of life, and in turn hold the truth and memories of the world since it began. This truth can only be accessed by talking and listen to the stones. Shamans call them their brother stone.
Three Worlds of a Shaman Shamanism is typically based on three principles. First, human beings are able to understand and work productively in altered states of consciousness. This can be induced by monotonous sounds, such as steady drumming or chanting. Second, a person can enter other realms of reality normally imperceptible to people who are not working in an altered state of consciousness. Third, a person can bring back helpful healing knowledge for themselves and others from those realities.
A tree is a classic representation of the mind of a shaman. A tree has 3 main sections, a trunk, branches, and roots. The trunk represents the normal ordinary reality that we all live in is known as the middle world. The roots represent the lower world or underworld where a shaman journeys to reach helping spirits and deceased souls. This is often the hardest world to reach because the shaman may have to enter through his or her deepest fears. Most healing work is done in the lower world. The branches represent the upper world. This is where the heavenly spirits are held. The shaman can contact the gods and the realms of immortality here. Dream interpretation is a good example of assistance from the upper world.
Shamans are masters of energy as a medium of transformation to the spirit world. The spirits can appear in any form (i.e. plants, animals, ancestors, etc.) while in an altered state of consciousness. The spirit world may be thought of as a shape shifting state of consciousness that responds to the needs of the individual shaman. Some spirits can be heard as our great ancestors who give insight into the healing processes. It is possible that the spirits need to work with the shaman so they can come to an end or a new beginning. Spirits sees the shaman as a kind and humble servant dedicated to making life better for others.
Healing Spirits What the shaman does during a session is less important than the way he or she derives the power to perform. Shamans are able to visit invisible realms of reality that often include shape shifting and consorting with the dead. Each shaman has personal helping spirits. Most often these helpers are the spirits of certain animals, elements, and the shaman’s ancestors. For this reason, shamanism often reveals deep hidden wisdom of times past.
A shaman will bring the seeker or patient through a number of ancient rituals to awake the sickness and bring to the earth his or her guardian spirits to help the seeker. Somewhat like hypnosis, the patient’s mind enters into a deep trance evoked by drumming or chanting. A shaman will use the mind, body, and most importantly spirit powers to perform such acts. Because shamans work with personal spirits, they receive personal instructions.
The great truth to shamanism is that it is a highly personal path. One of the primary services performed by shamans is soul retrieval, the search to recover and restore a person’s vital essence when it has been lost or stolen. From a shaman’s point of view, physical and emotional illnesses are due to loss of personal power.
The rejuvenating of the spirit is what keeps us alive and strong. In indigenous cultures it is often believed that the soul may wander at night during sleep and can be stolen by a vengeful sorcerer or captured by a wounded animal in need of strength and health. In many places people fear that the soul of someone recently deceased may latch onto the living and sap its vital essence in attempts to remain alive in this reality. Shamans and shamanic practitioners can rescue such souls, retrieve, and restore them.
Personal ReflectionsIt is obvious that a shaman possesses incredible amounts of control during the altered state of consciousness. It should also be stated that, control in an altered state does not necessarily guarantee the ability to heal. The shaman holds an abundance of knowledge and power to heal. However, modern culture is stifling the spiritual aspect of healing. There has been a drastic transformation by modern thought and culture that does not care or nurture the communities in which shamanism strives.
On the other hand, the more people surrender to corporate capitalism and institutions, the more the people feel the need to cherish and honor personal dreams, visions, and hopes. The earth and all of its non-human dwellers are crying out for help and respect. The spirits are calling upon the humans to honor what is not understood. We need shamans today and forever, for they are wise, healing elders that profoundly influence every culture on this earth.
- Bruchac Joseph, The Native American Sweat Lodge. 1993,
- The Crossing Press Grim John A., The Shaman. 1983,
- University of Oklahoma PressHarner Micheal, The Way Of The Shaman. 1990,
- Harper and Row Publishers Inc. Lorler Marie-lu, Shamanic Healing. 1989,
- Brotherhood of life, Inc. Saunders Nicholas J., Animal Spirits. 1995,
Great Gatsby And Morality
After the events of this story have unfolded, the narrator Nick, focuses on theman most like himself; Gatsby. Both Nick Carraway and Jay Gatz hail from themid-west, where morals and the right way of getting ahead are instilled intothem. They travel to New York, where the morals are paper-thin and everythingseems turned upside down. The saps with morals stay in the ashheaps while thecareless, foolhardy upper society do what they please. Nick stays true to themid-west morals of an earnest, hardworking living while Gatsby tries to be justlike the others on East Egg. Nick says this of him, Gatsby believed in thegreen light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eludedus then, but thats no matter-tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out ourarms further…..And one fine morning- (189). A central theme of the novel Ithink, is the idea that people arent satisfied with what they have, they arealways going further and further, never knowing when to stop, and alwaysstriving for that bright star that seemed so close that he could hardly failto grasp it. (189). To Gatsby the green light symbolizes Daisy, Daisy in away represents her peers in the same social strata as her. Daisy is a fool,living vicariously and so are the characters in this book. The green lightrepresents the wild and recklessness of the times. These were times when womenfor the first time were drinking and smoking alongside the guys, their war wasover and so were their troubles. The green light for them means go, after mostwars the economy experiences a boom, this was no different. They are cocksure,thinking that whatever they do is right, and they always push on. They dontcare what happens to others as long as they remain untouched and unrivaled. Thisselfishness is shown in nearly all characters except Nick, who accepts his lifeand is satisfied. He works hard and scrapes by, but he is living the life hewants, I am one of the few honest men that I have ever known.(64). Hessensible and thinks out his actions. He doesnt have the green gleam in hiseye that everyone else seems to have. He is an observer to the situation, andwhen he talks of Gatsby believing in the Green Light, he sums up Gatsbysphilosophy and possibly what was written in the back of his most recent editionof Hopalong Cassidy; the way to live his life dedicated to Daisy. Hiswhole life was devoted to re-wooing Daisy and finally have that one finemorning when she would be his completely. I do not think that he knew when tostop. Once Gatsby achieves his dreams and Daisy is now seeing him on a regularbasis, he doesnt know what to do. This whole time he wanted her so much andhe couldnt get her, he was dreaming. Dreaming that the green light wouldshine on him, and once it did, he couldnt help but go further, stretch hisarms just a little further, and ask Daisy to leave her husband. On page 139 inthe hotel scene Daisy says to Jay, Oh, you want to much! I love youknow—isnt that enough? But for Gatsby it isnt enough, he wants moreand more and really it is this dream of one fine morning that is thereason he is killed. He lives his life as a dream. He accomplishes theAmerican Dream by coming from nothing and getting everything but all hisprofit go to Daisy, she is his dream all along, and it is from this situationthat in the end he is killed, caught in the tangled web of the Buchanansmarriage. Tom is a good example of not knowing when to stop. He was born intowealth and went to a prominent college. His life is set up, he has wealth, abeautiful wife, a child, a lavish lifestyle, and no worries. His decision tohave extra-marital affairs is a key example of stretching his arms, andindulging himself to the point of fallout. This is common among his peers, therich New York crowd. Gatsby follows Daisy from the time he arrives back untilthe day he actually has his dreams come true and he meets her. She is symbolizedby the green light at the end of her dock. To me, this green light isrepresentative of not only Daisy, but of all the other people in her socialclass who love the color green as well, and happen to live on the East Egg. Isay they love the color green because all they are interested in is money. Moneyis an important factor in this novel. When Gatsby flaunts his money around hegets peoples attention. When he dies and can no longer shine his green light,the attention dies too. The New York society is very materialistic, and Gatsbyhas everything someone in a material world could want; a huge house, servants,lots of cars, fame, and extra money to throw around to parties and houseguests.
He has everything except personal satisfaction. He knows that Daisy is theanswer, and she is represented in the light. In a way, the far-off green lightrepresents all that is unobtainable to Gatsby. It is his pipe dream. He hasalready conquered a material world, and all that drives him in this novel has todo with him gaining the green light and having Daisy shine from his dock. Ithink Daisy can easily be compared to her peers; the kind of people that attendGatsbys parties. They are driven by green. They love money and areattracted to anyone that has it and is willing to spend it. This can be seen onpage 50 when Nick stumbles into the library where Owl Eyes is admiringGatsbys books, Its a bona fide piece of printed matter. It fooled me.
This fellas a regular Belasco. He doesnt even know the man, I wasbrought by a woman named Roosevelt. Ive been drunk for about a week now.
(50) He doesnt know Gatsby, but he likes him none the less based on hisshallow values. Owl Eyes is a common man in this society and his words give usinsight to these people. They dont care whos house they party at, they arewild, unbridled, and reckless people who are living their lives for fun. This ishow Gatsby had it planned. He hopes from the very first party that Daisy wouldbe one of the people stumbling to his front door, she would see him, fall inlove again, and she would be his in every sense, just like it should havehappened. In a sense hes trying to bring the glow of the East Egg over to theWest. It is not only Daisy who has this green light, most all the people thatlive on East Egg do as well. They go-go-go, and never look back. Theyre goingtoo fast, there is no way that this can last; hence the number of wrecks andcollisions in this book. When Owl Eyes crashes his car, they ask him how ithappened, Dont ask me, I know very little about driving-next tonothing, (59) is how he replies. They dont ever realize that they couldlearn from their actions. They do something, it happens, and they say, Atfirst I din notice wed stopped. (60) Then they gear up and go-go-gosome more. Its very easy for these people to put the blame somewhere else, andif they cant think of a reason this doesnt seem to bother them. Daisykills a lady, sees her lover killed, and then takes a vacation to reset and wecan only assume that it will continue. Daisys light will continue to shine,constantly interrupting the lives of the people she comes across. Daisy in is asituation that is comfortable for her. She has security, a family, and no realworries. It is her way of being a beautiful little fool (21) that allowsher this freedom. Tom goes out with other women, abuses Daisy, and she doesntdo a thing about it. Daisy has her green light shining, and it is accomplishedby being a fool. She doesnt seem to register that this is an unhealthymarriage, all she lives for is her easy, lethargic way of life. When things getrough, all she has to do is hide in the shadow of her great big hulkingspecimen (16) of a husband, Tom. When Daisy hits Myrtle she runs back to Tomand everything straightens itself out, and even when they were in Chicago wewere made to believe that something of this sort might have happened before whenDaisy says to Tom, Youre revolting, do you know why we left Chicago? Imsuprised they didnt treat you to the story of that little spree. (139) Itseems Daisys light will always be shining, drawing people into the tangledmarriage of her and Tom. Gatsby in some way knows Daisy is materialistic. Hetells Nick, Her voice is full of money. Nick agrees and writes, It wasfull of money-that was the inexhaustible charm that rose and fell in it, thejingle of it, the cymbals song of it…High in a white palace the kingsdaughter, the golden girl..(127) He has worked to where hes at just so hecould show Daisy how much money he has and it helps him a lot. Daisy, aftertouring the mansion starts to cry, It makes me sad because Ive never seensuch-such beautiful shirts before. (98) He has finally shown her what he hasand what he can give her, and Daisy decides that she will make her move in thechess game that her and her husband seem to be playing by having an affair aswell. It seems to me that in some sense that to the Buchanans Gatsby and Myrtleare mere playthings, there for their personal entertainment. Im sure that thegreen light did not shine only for Gatsby, Myrtle was no doubt caught by thisbeacon in Tom. To Myrtle Tom glows, he stinks of the fact that she hopes Tomwill be her knight in shining armor. Myrtle hopes to marry Tom, and shes surethat he would, except, (Daisys) a Catholic and they dont believe indivorce. (38). All Tom wants is to live vicariously, he cares practicallynothing about Myrtle when compared to the way she feels about him. To her hesthe answer and not even abuse will drive her away. Myrtle, in search of herone fine morning finds only death, resembling Gatsby. She is mesmerized byToms empty promises, similar to Daisy and Jays relationship. Gatsby ishypnotized by Daisys light as well. He hadnt seen or talked to Daisy sincethe day he left Louisville. All he has is the idea of Daisy. This idea that hehas that she is the most perfect, best woman in the world is somehow pinnacledin the green light. On page 25, he stretched out his arms toward the darkwater in a curious way, and far as I was from him I could have sworn he wastrembling. Gatsby is entranced by this green light because it symbolizesDaisy. All he has is knowing that she is over there somewhere because the lightat the end of her dock is shining. He doesnt know her situation, if shesstill the same person he fell in love with, or even if she would talk to him.
The only thing he knows is that shes there and he still loves her. Gatsby andMyrtle both try to break into the closed, old-money society of the East Egg.
They dont realize that some dreams, no-matter how you try, come true. Americawas based on the dream that anything can come true and Gatsby swallows this ideawhole. In the end he went to far and it meant his demise.