What Are The Main Issues Facing Singapore Telecom? Essay Sample For College

The main issues facing Singapore Telecom, a highly successful telecommunications firm is that it operated in a difficult business environment with increasing competition both locally and abroad and also the competition in its primary market. In addition, SingTel also faced the risk of being threatened by major technological and competitive uncertainties that challenge all telecommunications firms. Back in 1997, SingTel lost its monopoly of the mobile sector with the entry of M1 (MobileOne) a cellular phone operator and with the entry of StarHub back in April 2000, SingTel had its first competitor for in the fixed-line telecom.

Singapore itself, the penetration rates of key services (fixed lines, mobile phones, and paging lines) are known to be well above the levels compared to the developed countries. This also indicated the difficulty for SingTel to achieve high rates of growth without the introduction of new and innovative services. Singapore Telecom’s experienced intense downward pricing pressures operating in this new environment partially due to the trends of deregulation, technological advancement and privatization of the telecommunications sector. The telecommunications industry entered a phase driven by fast-changing technology stimulated by the demands of increasingly sophisticated end-users .

With the launched of new services such as Internet telephony, it posed a serious challenge to international call revenues reducing SingTel’s consumers demand for conventional IDD services. The Asian economic crisis had also intensified competition amongst the operators. However this trend created many opportunities, as well as challenges for both telecommunications regulators and operators. This is the first time Telecom faced domestic competition and SingTel faced the fear of additional competitors entering the Singapore telecommunication industry in the mobile and fixed-line markets, competing eagerly for a share of the pie. As the global trends moved towards the convergence of telecommunications, computer and television technologies, it increased the speed of change in the telecommunications companies. Singapore government policies towards the telecommunications industry also experienced major changes.

As the signs of the turbulence swept the telecommunication markets worldwide, fueled by new technologies and the breakdown of old regulatory barriers, it would be a challenge for SingTel on the importance of national boundaries, regulatory constraints, licensing approval, and to other domestic telecommunications providers too. Thus in conclusion, the challenge to Singapore Telecom was to sustain its performance record in the face of an increasingly turbulent and hostile environment.

Singapore’s broad strategy focused on leveraging on its natural advantage of having a strategic location by establishing world-class transportation and materials-handling facilities. As we know Singapore’s telecommunications infrastructure is among the most technologically advanced, comprehensive and efficient in the world, the strategy for service domains like SingTel would be to develop a sophisticated telecommunications and IT infrastructure. As for Singapore Telecom, the government-owned firm which was the sole telecommunications services provider in the country until 1997, SingTel played the major role in developing this infrastructure .

In the process, it achieved high levels of profitability compared to other telecommunications firm. In the year 1999, SingTel announced a major restricting with the primary aim of focusing on growth areas as they have identified e-commerce and Internet-based activities as areas where there are significant growth opportunities with customer segments including corporate clients, small and medium sized enterprise, and residential consumer. SingTel’s overseas investments played an integral part of SingTel’s strategy for long-term growth. Recently, SingTel Group refocused its overseas investments in Asia and initiated foreign investment in several countries, engaged in strategic alliances in order to gain market entry and acquire technological skills, and to undertake diversification into IT and value-added services in order to sustain its growth and profitability.

When faced with competition from foreign callback services, SingTel increased its focus on its customers by setting up specific customers units to manage the diverse telecommunications needs of its different customer segments including corporate clients, small and medium sized enterprise, and residential consumer. Although SingTel already had extensive domestic and International infrastructure, but it still invest heavily in infrastructure and actively implement the latest technologies to offer innovative services. Thus, SingTel’s core competency is crucial in identifying and providing services that suit potential customers’ needs.

Strong market position

Most of SingTel’s strategic, operational and financial dynamics are currently improving. This improvement is an indication that the company current business strategies are proving to be successful. The company has a strong market position in the telecommunication market. Singapore Telecom was ranked 7th out of 26 international carriers in a 1999 Data Communications survey, which rated telecoms providers on value, quality, reliability, speed of repairs, billing and general responsiveness for frame relay and leased-line services. Strong market position enhances the brand image of the company and gives it a competitive edge.

Geographical spread of operations

SingTel has a diverse spread of geographical operations. It is known to be a world-class provider of domestic, international and mobile telecommunications as well as postal services. The Singapore Telecom Group has invested more than S$2.3 billion in telecommunications-related projects around the world, especially in the Asia Pacific. This spread of geographical operations will benefit the company, as it will become less reliant on its domestic market to generate revenues for the whole company. SingTel presence in other markets will also shield it from any potential adverse localized market conditions .

Highly developed international network

With reference to Exhibit 2 in the case study, Singapore had high teledensity, high-quality fixed-line services, higher demand for specialized features, lower vulnerability to credit risks and falling tariffs compared to Hong Kong which is in a highly competitive market with many firms competing in every segment of the industry. Having engaged in strategic alliances in order to gain market entry and acquire technological skills, SingTel group uniquely positioned to offer services throughout the e-commerce value chain with new services such as maintenance of cable chips and ownership of Singapore Telecom’s own satellite. Furthermore the company also offers information technology consultancy, systems integration and engineering services. Comprehensive services increase its opportunity to reach out to a wider clientele, thus creating greater revenue generating opportunities.

Weak operating performance

According to the case, Singapore Telecom’s turnover and net profit for the Group in 1998/99 were S$4.88 billion and S$1.96 billion respectively. At the turn of the century, there was the threat of a new full service provider entering the Singapore market, where SingTel faced a number of serious challenges and threats to its position as the leader in the telecommunications industry in Singapore. Based on Singapore Telecom’s Financial Performance in Appendix C, we can clearly see that Gross profit margin reduce slightly by 4.2% between 1998 and 1999. This is because the growth rate of operating expense (6.3%) is more than the growth rate of revenue (1.2%). The two factors leading to this problem might be that the marketing strategies were not effective and SingTel’s ability to control expenses was not strong enough.

However, from the case we can see that the main reason could be the economic crisis and an increase in competition in the market. Specifically, the dividend per share in 1999 upped from 5.0 to 5.5 cents per share and the earnings per share grew from 12.37 cents per share (in 1998) to 12.82 cents per share (in 1999), risen by 3.6%. These increases reflected a significant increasing in net profit to S$1.96billion from S$1.89 billion, an increase of 3.7 per cent from the previous year. Looking at Singapore Telecom financial performance, it is very easy to recognize that most of the ratios of the 1999 financial year had decreased compared with the previous financial year. This implies that SingTel Group managed to get through the worst of the Asian crisis relatively unscathed in the 1999 financial year although there was the threat of a competitor. SingTel Group delivered a very strong set of results for the financial year ended in 1999 and met all its targets against backdrop of highly competitive market.


Being a monopoly of Singapore telecommunication market, SingTel was previously able to earn large profits even if they were slow and inflexible to consumer demands. However such a regulatory advantage was removed in 1997. In fact, they have lost a substantial market share with the entry of their new competitor.

Furthermore, as Singapore telecommunication market is reaching saturation, SingTel would find it less profitable to invest heavily in state-of- the art technology in its home country since the demand may be too small. This ever-changing telecommunication industry is shaped by many factors in which if any players of the market is slow to react to consumer wants and needs, it will find itself soon out of business.

Prognosis of the environment

The vision of SingTel is not only providing first class service to Singaporeans. SingTel aims to solidify its status as the leading service provider in Singapore by providing low-cost services and innovating to cater to consumers’ ever-changing needs. For instance, SingTel has set up specific customer units to manage the diverse telecommunications needs of the different customer segments and to enhance its network infrastructure. This strategy will allow SingTel to capture a larger market share, and maximize future earnings. From the case, we can see that telecom companies that were cash rich and had limited growth opportunities domestically such as Hong Kong Telecom and Singapore Telecom were said to be scouting for good investment opportunities.

In Singapore we recognized that market forces might force operators to focus more on short-term profit margins rather than on long-term gains or national needs. Furthermore, there might not be sufficient incentive for new market entrants to invest or develop their telecommunication infrastructure. Singapore’s telecommunications policies will continue to be geared towards developing a “world-class” telecommunication network capable of providing high quality telecommunication services at competitive prices. While it is recognize that a fully competitive and open market model in telecommunications may be ideal and desirable in the long run, there is a risk that the long term benefits of liberalization to Singapore may not be fully realizable if competition is introduced too rapidly.

Having a good telecommunications infrastructure is one of the critical factors that will drive Singapore’s economic development into the next century and beyond. The decision to introduce competition in telecommunications is influenced by two main factors. Firstly, the real network and infrastructure costs have been falling due to rapid technological advancement .

As such, the natural monopoly argument is no longer absolutely true for the telecommunications industry. Secondly, although the “homogenous” telecommunications services provided by the monopoly operator have been adequate in meeting the needs of most end-users in the past, it will not be sufficient in fulfilling the increasingly diversified and sophisticated demand for telecommunications, especially in the rapidly changing global business environment.

Thus liberalization, deregulation and competition offer a viable approach to ensuring the provision of better quality of services at highly competitive prices to the end consumers.  They also stimulate more innovative services aimed at satisfying the needs of different market segments with custom-made solutions. In Singapore, liberalization policy is aimed at increasing consumer choice and stimulating greater efficiencies in the use of scarce resources.

Full support obtained from the government

The telecommunications industry had rapidly become one of the most competitive and turbulent industries. Singapore had about the most advanced information technology infrastructure in the world. The government had invested in its rapid development by providing financial support, protection from market forces and managerial talent while urging the adoption of competitive rates and standards. The Singapore government has listed out a number of programmes to further develop and expand the Infcomm sector in Singapore[I21] .

Opportunity for SingTel to monetize passive infrastructure

Singapore Telecom has initiated foreign investment like merger and acquisitions. The lower penetration rates in Singapore suggested high potential for growth. The necessary infrastructure needed to carry out a successful business are all already in place and companies will to enter the market can cut cost in this aspect with the refocused of its overseas investment in Asia. Trend of privatization was carried out to raise private capital for infrastructural development in order to ease the fiscal burden on the state thus improving the quality of service and to reduce prices for consumers .

In this case, the privatization of Singapore Telecom aims to increase its flexibility, to prepare it for the challenges of global competition and technological advancements and to stimulate the development of the Singapore stock market. Thus, SingTel have enhanced its product offering thereby increasing revenue generation opportunities .

Intense competition

SingTel is facing intense competition in the fixed line telecoms sector with the entry of StarHub in Year 2000. Due to competitive and pricing pressures, there is increased sophistication of consumers who increasing demanded higher standards of quality and service. Intense competition could result in loss of market share and lower average revenue per user.

Regulatory risks

SingTel’s operations in Singapore and other countries are subject to extensive government regulation which limits its flexibility to respond to market conditions, competition, new technologies or changes in the cost structure. Such decisions can significantly affect SingTel revenues and costs as well as its competitive position. Adverse regulatory decisions could negatively affect the market position of the company. Maintaining existing customers or growing the customer base in a mature market is difficult. This could affect the company’s average revenue for customer and ultimately its profit margins .


Singapore has enjoyed political stability since independence in 1965. Singapore Telecom having successfully met the challenge of changing from a government department to become the largest listed firm in Singapore has faced little disruption of policy implementation, which has enhanced the effectiveness of the delivery mechanism of public services. Thus, SingTel can strengthen its relationship with the public overcoming the barriers in the process of building, maintaining and developing relationship with the consumers.

However, Singapore still faces some political weaknesses. For example, the consumers might have the belief that the Singaporean Government always wants to introduce new methods and new approaches to earn more from the public which in turn caused consumers’ feelings of insecurity and concern. These issues may make adverse impact in SingTel’ operation.


The world experienced a regional economic crisis in financial year 1998-1999. Almost all nations in the world have been involved in this economic downturn. SingTel faced increasing competition both locally and abroad and this affected the share prices of SingTel. The emergence of new and cheaper technology such as Internet telephony that provided by competitors make SingTel compete with competitors in Singapore. However, SingTel process a wealthy financial strength with highest market share in telecommunication industry. Due to its good experience as well as strong management team, SingTel would be able to cope with this economic uncertainty and keep its profitability from large reduction. Thus, the risk of financial crisis is not too high and will not be a great threat to SingTel.


The consumer attitudes changed due to the trends of deregulation, technology advancement and privatization, more sophisticated and demanding consumers were causing turmoil in the once highly profitable industry. Consumers now demand higher standards of quality and service with the entry of new telecoms providers. Singapore Telecoms has engaged in strategic alliances in order to gain market entry and acquire technological skills and undertaken diversification into IT and value-added services in order to sustain its growth and profitability levels .


Customer-expectations risk is the very real threat of failing to provide advertised or expected customer service. Some internal works performed by its subsidiaries like maintenance of network cable and billings are customized in order to suit the needs of the differentiated services offered to consumers. As seen in the case, there are ample opportunities for SingTel to move from a single domestic market producer to doing business in multiple countries.

This will be an opportunity to secure corporate clients who will require an integrated telecommunication service across several geographical regions in the world. In addition, telecommunications provider could bundle a package of services that includes corporate lines as well as consumer lines as their marketing tactic.


From Appendix A, looking at the telecommunications growth in other foreign countries, we see that many countries have increased their number of lines from year 1990 to 2000. For countries that have low growth rates, it could well indicate a high demand for basic telecommunication services in the coming years. Therefore if SingTel fail to capture the market for corporate lines, it faces the possibility of losing consumer business. Thu[I32] s if SingTel were to bring along its technological competencies and efficient production capabilities into such market, they could possibly capture the foreign market shares. As for the relatively affluent countries which already have the basic telecommunications services, SingTel could still introduce new telecommunications-related value added-services.

The Qin Dynasty: China’s Most Interesting Rulers


                        China has a long interesting and intriguing history of its rulers and Emperors. Some emperors were tyrants and ruled with an iron fist, some stayed longer and some went underground as quickly as the rose. One of the most interesting was the Qin dynasty with its power it had wielded and the system that the emperor used to rule over many states that he captured but demised only after 15 years. There were many other emperors that had been before and after him but they did not have the power and the unmatched skills of the king. Therefore, this paper will give a full history of this kingdom led by Qin Shi Huang.

The Qin Dynasty

                        Qin Dynasty was one of the greatest empires like no other in the Chinese history. This is the dynasty that was very different from other dynasties that existed before it and those that came afterwards. Qin’s Empire was a role model for almost all the empires that emerged after it. (Lewis 2007) confirms that, “The dynasty, held and played an important role in the Chinese history and it had a substantial influence on all the following dynasties”. The empire led by Emperor Qin Shi Huang survived for only fifteen years and it was from the year 221 B.C. to 206 B. C. the dynasty had all the best military commanding power and it was the first to practice a unified administrative and it worked very well. Emperor Qin had all the leadership skills that enabled him to use his military influence, conquered and subdued his neighbors. He extended his empire far and wide to reach the current neighbors of China. (Chen & Liu 2003) note that, “Emperor Qin pushed China’s borders south to the current day Vietnam and current day Korea, however the central kingdom remained in the Yellow River Valley” Emperor Qin magnificently and significantly used innovative methods to unify his empire. The methods were not only politics and bureaucracy, but he also used economy and society, culture and ideology, spiritualism and religion as well. However, he warned people not to call him King but Emperor was what he preferred to be call.

                        Emperor Qin was the most influential emperor in the history of China like no any other of all the emperors who ruled China in those years. He is believed to be the one who set the foundation of the current united People’s Republic of China. However, before him was Emperor Yingzheng who had started the unification process by waging a very successful war campaign that had subdued more than five other states or empires like Yan, Chu, Zhao, Wei and others (Chen & Liu 2003). This emperor before Qin was successful because these states or empires were in constant war with each other for close to 500 years thus weakening them militarily. (Chen & Liu 2003) in their account in the book ‘State Formation in Early China’ they say, “The state of Qin was in full development as Emperor Qin defeated other six states which ended chaos that was caused by wars among the vassals of more than five hundred years hence he established a unified and centralized kingdom and Xianyang as the capital city”. So, when they were attacked, they were easily defeated and they had no power to rebel anymore and when the Qin dynasty took over, it also maintained the military might which ensured no uprising anymore and instead he extended the military campaigns against other kingdoms.

Therefore, Qin dynasty utilized his military power to rule his empire and all the other kingdoms, states and empires he had captured. He ensured that the empire was united without any dissidence, those who were heard raising opposing views seemingly to oppose his rule were prosecuted and the capital punishment he meted out to them was burying them alive. On the other hand, he employed many ways to achieve the unification of his empire and make it the strongest empire. The many ways were based on culture, politics, and bureaucracy and also military, here are some as follows:

First and foremost Emperor Qin believed that everybody was bad so the best way to rule or manage these kinds of people is using force as (Lewis 2007) narrates, “Qin was a legalist and legalists believe that people are basically bad and it is necessary to control them by regulating every minute of their lives to maintain their discipline”. Lewis continues to say in his book ‘The Early Chinese Empires’ that if anybody was overheard suggesting that one day things will improve the person was put to death as quickly as possible without trial (2007).

Emperor Qin declared himself the supreme emperor of the empire and all issues concerning the economy of all the states he had captured and subdued were to be under him for as long he will rule. He was the emperor who authorized the production and use of coins with the commonly known Ban Liang Coin which was to be the medium of exchange in the whole country or empire. During his powerful reign, he authorized the standardization of measures and weights. Even though Qin was a tyrant the move of standardizing measures and weights impressed his people because many corrupt business people were cut in the bud. Therefore this move checked corruption throughout his empire. “The standardization of the writings which made Qinzhuan to be the standard font and standardization of measures and weights was to encourage and promote trade in all his states including the captured states.” (Keightley 2000) writes in his book ‘The Ancestral Landscape: Time Space and Community in Late Shang China (1200- 1045 B.C.).’ The weights and measures standardization were also meant to unify all other weights and measures of the new states that Emperor Qin suppressed. This was another simple but meaningful step Emperor Qin took to unify the entire empire.

Another important project was agriculture of which he authorized. Irrigation was initiated to promote the economy of the state and benefit the people of his empire. However, to resume full control he denied his people all the riches like; he took away all the land from people more especially the nobles. All these huge tracks of land were under his empire which most of them he took went under intense agriculture with forced labor from criminals and dissidents who escaped the wrath from the emperor. This is one way he ensured that there is no shortage of food and he indeed achieved his goal. Agriculture was practiced throughout his empire. He knew if people were hungry the can revolt against his dictatorial rule. Different varieties of food were produced in large quantities throughout the year because of the many irrigation schemes or projects he had started. The Great Wall was a menace when it was heard by people and Emperor Qin threatened to send lazy people to build the wall. Farming was done by all and the main farming activities were rice and silk making and those who defied doing this were punished or put to death or sent to build the wall.

Emperor Qin promoted the improvement of all infrastructures which included building of roads throughout the state or the empire. He was the emperor who knew the importance of roads but primarily he wanted to build them so that his soldiers were able to move quickly anywhere and incase of any uprising it will be quelled easily. Therefore, many roads were built during his reign. He knew very well many people were not happy with his rule even though in the other part he did many other things for the good of his people especially the production of food which was enough for them. While building roads he authorized the building of the Great Wall of China. It was the biggest ever project that was authorized by him. The wall was meant to protect his empire from outside attacks and he was correct. The Great Wall required immense resources and sacrifice to complete it. For Emperor Qin to achieve his ambitions he took to forced labor from his subjects and heavy taxes that were imposed on them, those who did not comply with this ruling were subjected to hard labor and or execution. The roads he built accelerated his Empire’s economic growth.

To consolidate his iron fist rule, he paralyzed the education sector because he believed if people got educated they will revolt against his rule. (Watson 1992) in his book ‘The Tso Chuan: Selections from China’s Oldest Narrative History’ notes that, “Emperor Qin had fear that if people were educated their thinking will be altered and they will at last overthrow him, this led him to burn thousands of books”. However, Emperor Qin was the one who encouraged the standard written character. This was a way he wanted to cover his arrogance by pretending that he encouraged education but the right education was not profitable that is why he was burning books. “All the books were destroyed except for the copies held in the Qin Imperial Library” (Lewis 2007). The reason behind him burning books was to suppress any educated people who wanted to question his tyrannical tactics and rule.

Because of superb spying system he employed he had been informed that some educated people were questions his rule behind the scene. When he had this he was infuriated and he mercilessly went round his kingdom and pulled together close to five hundred scholars and buried them alive. Of hearing this act all people literate and illiterate went silent and nobody dared to raise any question or concern. “This worst episode happened during his second year in power which came to be known as ‘To Burn The Books and Bury the Scholars Alive’ and this was the time during which the Great Wall construction was going on and building of many luxurious palaces” (Chen & Liu 2003). His rule was the worst and many innocent people were living in constant fear.

He also overhauled the government system in the central government and around the provinces under him to tighten his grip in the government. He divided his empire into 36 provinces and down further into districts. Emperor Qin Shi Huang was a total tyrant who oppressed his people by executing and forcing them into hard labor to build the Great Wall, roads and irrigation channels but history has it that he is the only Emperor who developed his empire, provided enough food for his people and protected them from being attacked by other kingdoms which most of them were later to be under his authoritarian rule. Nevertheless, many of his people were not happy with him and they had no room to question his rule, he had spies who reported any ill minded people. If people did not report criminals, they faced consequences like imprisonment and execution. So, people never attempted to hide any criminal activity or indecency among them.

He ruled for only fifteen years. Emperor Han took over but later was overthrown by peoples uprising.


                        The current People’s Republic of China is all accredited to Emperor Qin who for only fifteen years in power managed to unite China which was disintegration into many small states. He is also remembered because of the China’s Great Wall which he initiated and it is one of the greatest tourist attractions in China now.


Chen, X. & Liu L. (2003). State Formation in Early China. London: Duckworth Publishers.

Keightley, D. (2000). The Ancestral Landscape: Time Space and Community in Late Shang China (1200- 1045 B.C.). Berkeley: Institute for Asian Studies, China Research Monograph.

Lewis, M. E. (2007). The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. Cambridge: Harvard (Bleknap).

Watson, B. (1992). The Tso Chuan: Selections from China’s Oldest Narrative History. New York: Columbia.

Qing Dynasty Or Manchu Dynasty

The Qing dynasty also known as the Manchu Dynasty existed between 1644 and 1912. It was established by the Manchu who occupied the northeast region of China, it would begin its gradual expansion towards China Proper in 1644. Initially, it was referred to as the Jin dynasty but later changed to Qing.

The Manchu who are the ethnic minority group in china were able to maintain a grip of power through the use of various strategies. After the capture of Beijing in 1644, the Qing Dynasty issued a decree requiring the Chinese to have their hair shaved; this though resulted to a rebellion. The Jin government responded swiftly, it quelled the rebellion and massacred the Han Chinese elites believed to be behind the rebellion. After this, stricter rules were introduced and intermarriages between the Chinese and the Manchus were abolished. The Han Chinese that would not shave their heads were to be executed summarily. The resultant dissenters were brutally taken out; these massive killings have remained well documented in Jiading. The Qing Dynasty also maintained control through summarily persecuting those that were thought to be critical of this rule. The dynasty initiated a program of censorship or what has come to be referred to as literary inquisition where the leadership examined closely volumes of literature with an intention of deciphering whether they contained materials that were maligning or seditious. As Kent (1987, 166) puts it “thousands of suspect volumes were sent to the capital, provincial governors and their subordinates spent an increasing proportion of their time processing sedition cases.”

Manchus acquisition of power was aided by the astute management of the fighting forces. The military was drawn from the various ethnic groups forming permanent fighting units; this was far superior from the hunting units that existed before. These fighting units were arranged into what was referred to as the banners with each comprising of over 7000 warriors. Each of the existing banners contained members of the same ethnic group. The Qing Dynasty hence can be said to have been brought into power by the incorporation of the Han Chinese who collaborated at the promise of hefty rewards. The Qing Dynasty was able to establish a strong leadership that offered stability and were able to make immense contributions especially towards economic growth and commercial expansion. This period has come to be referred to as the Golden Age (Charles, 1966).

The fall of the Qing Dynasty was brought forth by a number of factors both internal and external. Indeed the era of the Qing Dynasty has been observed as the most prosperous in the history of China. However, it was rocked by internal problems that were as a result of the largely impoverished regions in china. The first major factor was the dynasty’s interaction with the west. Britain had a huge interest in china because of its tea and silk, in return they imported opium which had devastating social and economic effects. This led to its abolishment sparking a war between china and Britain which Britain largely won. Britain acquired Hong Kong and eventually China was turned into a colony (Charles, 1966).

The internal problems also rocked the dynasty; the most devastating was the Tai Ping rebellion in the 19th century. It brought forth a sense of religious change by introducing Christianity. There was also the Mohammedan uprising and other strings of rebellions. These uprisings and the public sentiments against the leadership were exacerbated by the invoking of the memories of the massacres that took place at the beginning of the reign of the dynasty. These fueled a growing sense of uprising and the stability of the dynasty was threatened by the expansionist policies of Japan. Japan had entered a crucial era where it began conquering the neighboring states and moving towards modernization. Facing such internal and external problems, the ground was ripe for the rise of revolutionaries and the Qing Dynasty fell in 1911.


Kent Guy (1987) The emperor’s four treasuries: scholars and the state in the late      Chʻien-lung era. Harvard Univ Asia Center,

Charles P. F. (1966) A concise history of East Asia. Heinemann, University of Michigan


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