This paper discusses the Norman conquest of Ireland, which began in 1170 and the impact this had on Irish life, including religion, society and politics. It concludes that the immediate effect of the invasion and conquest was the re-organization of Ireland’s administration, which became more centralized and subject to Norman sovereignty. A parallel development took place in the Irish Church, which was re-organized and placed more emphatically under the jurisdiction of the Pope.
Within Irish society, a process began that resulted in segments of society becoming culturally more English, a process that over time had important consequences for literature and the arts. Although this paper focuses on the immediate consequences of conquest, it briefly describes the long term Effect, which would subject Ireland to colonial rule for almost a thousand years, resulting in exploitation and oppression of a whole people. Primary material consulted are The Song of Dermot and the Earl and the chronicle of Gerald of Wales.The Song is a poem in Old French from a mss (the Carew mss) housed in Lambeth Palace, London.
It was written in the late twelfth century. The author is unknown but whoever penned the work “did not rely solely on written materials” but included some eyewitness testimony (Orpen and Regan xix). A certain Maurice Regan, who had served as King Dermot’s interpreter, is said to have “showed” the author “his history”. The poem covers the arrival in Ireland of Strongbow, Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (1130-1176) in 1170 followed by Henry II of England (1133-1189) in 1171.
While the author is unknown, the poem is written from the perspective of King Dermot (Mac Murchadha or Dermot MacMurrough, 1110-1171). The poem begins with high praise for Dermot, describing him as loving the generous, hating the mean and as a “worthy king” (3). Gerald of Wales (1146-1223) gives an account of the conquest in his chronicle, available at the Fordham University Medieval Sourcebook. Gerald was related to many of the Normans who invaded Ireland and describes them as heroes.
His description of Dermot is unflattering:Now Dermot was a man tall of stature and stout of frame; a soldier whose heart was in the fray, and held valiant among his own nation. From often shouting his battle-cry his voice had become hoarse. A man who liked better to be feared by all than loved by any. One who would oppress his greater vassals, while he raised to high station men of lowly birth.
A tyrant to his own subjects, he was hated by strangers; his hand was against every man, and every man’s hand against him Barnard 26). Strongbow also left an account, edited by Barnard.In addition, the papal bull, Laudabiliter issued by Pope Adrian in 1155 and Pope Alexander’s confirming edict of 1171 provide primary material, available at Library Ireland. Who were the Normans? The Normans who invaded the then free and sovereign territory of Ireland were the rulers and elite of the Angevin Empire, which combined the territories of the Duke of Normandy with those of the English kings following the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror (1027-1087 ) in 1066.
Henry II was the first ruler of the House of Plantagenet, and was territorially ambitious.He may have had Ireland in sight for some time before 1155, when in return for a pledge of allegiance Pope Adrian IV ceded Ireland to him with his bull. At this period, the Pope believed that he had the authority to cede any territory considered pagan to a Christian ruler who could invade and conquer provided that they also evangelized the people and brought them under the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. It was on the same basis that, for example, the Bull Inter Caetera (1492) would divide the new world up between Spain and Portugal.
Behind both Bulls lies the conviction that the Pope is the earthly representative of Jesus Christ, who is King of Kings and therefore sovereign of the whole world. However, why was Ireland considered pagan when Saint Patrick has taken Christianity there in the and Irish missionaries had kept the faith against Viking raids as well as sending missionaries into continental Europe, a story told by historian Thomas Cahill (1995). The answer lies in the way in which Christianity developed in Ireland, where it evolved into what is referred to as the Celtic Church or Celtic Christianity.Also, areas of Ireland remained pagan or Christianity there had assimilated local tradition.
One of the problems of describing Celtic Christianity is that because the tradition died out, writers tend to read into it their own ideas so that it can champion their agenda on such issues as gender equality and a nature reverencing spirituality so that Celtic Christianity becomes “an artificial construction created out of wishful thinking, romantic nostalgia and the projection of all kinds of dreams about what should and might be” (Bradley vii).What can be said is that Easter was celebrated at a different time, that monks wore the tonsure differently, that Abbots appear to have exercised more authority than bishops and that the latter did not have a fixed seat. Writers add to this conjecture that women and men enjoyed greater equality (perhaps women were priests) and that monastic communities may have included some married men and women as well as celibate monks. A reverence for nature as a vehicle of divine revelation is also associated with Celtic Christianity which expressed itself in “poetry and music” in “spirituality” and mysticism (Bradley 75).
Suffice it to say that the Pope wanted bishops to exercise authority and for irregularities in belief and worship to cease. Even before the Norman conquest, there was a reforming movement in Ireland, led by the bishops who may have thought it would be in their own interests to conform with Rome (Duffy 72). Remaining outside the Roman Empire, Ireland had not inherited the administrative divisions that elsewhere were accommodated to the structures of the Church, with bishops as centralized authority figures.According to a contemporary writer, Ireland in the twelfth century was regarded as a “magical and mysterious country” one that was “just as exotic as the far-off lands of the East” (Bradley 74).
To Henry and the Pope, it was a land that required taming. The Bull refers to “rebellious, godless and pagan rulers”. Ireland in the Twelfth Century: What led to the Norman Invasion. Ireland was a loose confederation of local clan chiefs and kings until Brian Boru (940-1014) became High King, unifying the clans and chiefs under his rule.
When he died, however, no successor was able to occupy the throne and only did so against the threat of rebellion. Subsequently, various rivals bid for the High Kingship. Dermot was king of Leinster, succeeding his older brother. The high King opposed Dermot’s succession, fearing that he might try to claim the throne.
Dermot was temporarily removed. However, after regaining his throne he was again ousted by the next High King, who invaded Leinster in 1166. Fleeing to Wales, Dermot later met Henry II in France and asked him for help in regaining his throne and obtained “letters authorizing” Henry’s “vassals” to aid him (Duffy 55).He then met with Strongbow, probably before 1167 who pledged his support.
Almost certainly, Dermot had resolved both to regain Leinster and to claim the high kingship, since he offered Leinster Strongbow (Duffy 66) even though technically he did not have the authority, since kingship in Ireland “was exclusive to the male descendants of previous kings”. Gerald says that Strongbow did have a claim based on his marriage to Dermot’s daughter (Duffy 66). Dermot invaded Ireland, recovered Leinster but was then defeated, so called Strongbow to keep his pledge.Dermit had some Norman help before 1170 when Strongbow arrived but this marks the real beginning of the Norman Conquest that soon brought the territory around Dublin under control.
In 1171, Henry II decided to consolidate the conquest, becoming the first English king to visit Ireland (Duffy 60). He took with him some 500 knights and 4000 archers (Duffy 71) Henry’s main lieutenant in Ireland was Hugh de Lacy (d. 1186) whose ancestor had landed in England with William I. According to Duffy, Henry did not entirely approve of Strongbow’s invasion which he saw as “freelance” and wanted to assert royal control (71).
Over the next century, although Gallic or Irish enclaves remained, most of the island fell to Norman rule. According to Duffy, the bishops welcomed the conquest and submitted “without hesitation” to Henry (72). Many Kings also willingly submitted, seeing in him a protector against the independent invasions of English barons (101). Known as Hiberno-Normans, these barons owed loyalty to no one Conquest was steady although interrupted in “1173, when both Strongbow” and De Lacy “were summoned by Henry for military service in Normandy” and William FitzAudelin was placed in charge (Roche 197.
Dermot died from disease, towards the end of 1171. The former kingdoms became counties, which were fewer in number. From the late twelfth century until the Tudor period, the Earls of Kildare (the FitzGeralds) acted as Deputy Lords of Ireland. What was the short-term impact? Over the short term, large parts of Ireland became subject to English rule.
Henry, who took the title “Lord of Ireland” as bestowed in the bull then appointed his son, John (known as John of England, or John Lackland, 1166- 1216) as Lord in 1185 (Duffy 94). Henry III succeeded John in 1216.The feudal system was introduced. Strongbow headed the “pyramid of lordship” and under him land was parceled out in “manageable estates” (Duffy 82).
Bishops became administrators of Diocese but Henry began a tradition of appointing only non-Irish Archbishops of Dublin and by the “late thirteenth century” bishops “were sometimes absentees” who rarely visited Dublin (Duffy 105). Bishops, too, became feudal lords with the Archbishop acting as “an instrument of English government in Ireland” (Duffy 105). Henry convened a synod at Cashel where the bishops embraced reforms (Roche 192).The system of parishes with established borders and permanent clergy, then only embryonic in Ireland, replaced the loose organization and was welcomed by the clergy (Duffy 73).
Although most Irish kings were confirmed in their posts, real power now lay with the English. Some dioceses were amalgamated, which alienated those who lost status. The “monastic center of Glendalough” famous for its learning “all but passed out of the pages of history” when it ceased to be the seat of a bishop (Duffy 106). Normans were encouraged to settle (Duffy 83).
Boroughs were established.Irish who remained “beyond the pale” (outside of Norman territory) were forbidden from marrying Normans, from speaking English while Normans were forbidden from wearing Irish clothes and from learning Gallic. With land newly sub-divided and a rotation of crops established, “the appearance of the very countryside was different, filled with such new manors and farms, and with new towns, castles, mills, churches and religious houses … peopled with a fairly high density of immigrant communities speaking a different language” from the native population (Duffy 112).Cahill points out that in this respect the Hibernian-Normans were different and became “more Irish than the Irish” (213) intermarrying and adopting Irish customs.
Dublin was given its first charter (Roche 190). On the one hand, creating boroughs gave a degree of local autonomy. On the other hand, both secular and religious administration was centralized. Celtic Christianity declined and the “Irish church as it had existed for 700 years … was to be no more, and it was to be no more by its own volition” (Duffy 74).
However, Bradley points out that as a result of the Norman Conquest, something of a revival of interest in this tradition occurred.He says that this revival corresponded with renewed interest in the Arthurian legend as Normans attempted to establish their own cultural claim to English origins and identity (Bradley viii). Before the invasion, Ireland was divided into 150 kingdoms. Now, there was a single lordship (Rigby 145).
A parliament was convened in 1297. This continued until abolished by the Act of Union in 1800. Long term effect Duffy says that the Norman invasion left a permanent mark on Ireland, representing an episode of “conquest, colonization and cultural change” that “contributed to the making of Europe as we know it” (85).Ireland would not be entirely free again.
Since the end of colonial rule in 1922, the island of Ireland has been divided between the South and the North, which remains part of the United Kingdom. He says that Henry’s invasion is probably the single most important “turning point in Irish history” yet comments that at the time this was not as catastrophic as later writers suggest. If we depend only on contemporary Irish accounts, we might be unaware that a radical transformation took place (Duffy 85).This is due to the way in which the invasion occurred, with Irish collusion not least of all that of Dermot but also with the support of the bishops and of many Irish rulers.
Dermot would subsequently be portrayed as a traitor to Ireland, although according to Duffy there had been “nothing ‘unpatriotic’ about the how Irish kings had flocked to Henry or about Dermot “inviting English assistance” although tradition would think otherwise. By tradition, the kings chose a high king and there was no reason why that King had to be Irish. The kings may well have regarded submission to Henry as temporary (Duffy 71).Duffy, though, cites the seventeenth-century Annals of the Four Masters that described Dermot as having “done extensive damage to the Irish” and as dying from “an insufferable and unknown disease through the miracles of God” (75).
US President John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) wrote a drama based on the story of Dermot, warning his citizens to learn a lesson about “devotion to their country” by “pointing the finger of scorn at the example six hundred years since exhibited, of a country sold to a foreign invader by the joint agency of violated marriage vows, unprincipled ambition and religious imposture” (xii-xiv).Reference to the violation of marriage vows is to the alleged abduction by Dermot of the wife of one of his rivals. The place played by the Papal Bull also complicates the issue of legality, in terms of the law of the day. Roche points out that not much mention was made at the time of the Bull but suggests that this helps to explain why the bishops cooperated with Henry.
He also notes that Henry was by then “out of favor” with the Pope (due to the murder of Thomas Becket) so may not have alluded in public but only in private to the Bull (192).The bull was later reaffirmed. One interesting result of the conquest was that Ireland became more staunchly loyal to the Pope than the majority remained in England, whose Henry VIII led the English Church into Protestantism. By 1220, Norman power in Ireland had seriously declined and only Dublin remained under English rule.
Elsewhere, Irish rulers regained power. Wars elsewhere, lack of sufficient settlers and others factors, including constant revolts made it difficult to sustain English power.In 1315, Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) invaded Ireland, extending his fight with the English to the island. He was actually crowned high king in 1329, which supports the idea that for the Irish to ally themselves with non-Irish even to appoint a non-Irish king was not, at least then, thought unpatriotic.
It was Henry VIII (1491-1547) who decided to re-assert English rule in Ireland. He closed monasteries and began a series of repressive measures against Catholics. Ireland under the Normans had yielded good crops and proved profitable.Even the small enclave that remained under English rule was profitable, so when Henry turned his attention toward Ireland he was at least in part motivated by profit.
Under Henry VIII and subsequent English rulers, who from 1541 took the title king of Ireland, the tactics employed by Henry II and John were replicated. Protestants were encouraged to settle. Many did so in the North, which would choose to remain part of the United Kingdom when independence or home rule was finally granted Ireland. Power was taken out of Irish hands.
Catholics were subjected to many restrictions, increasingly losing land and becoming impoverished. Over time, Ireland became so poor that Cahill describes it as “a third world country at the edge of Europe” (213). Many aspects of traditional Irish culture were destroyed. In some respects, the way in which the colonial power went about destroying local culture resembles the type of cultural genocide that took place across the globe during the years of European imperialism.
So many Irish migrated elsewhere that the population was “reduced by a third. 1171 saw the start of what the Book of Leinster described as the “wretched rule” of the English, who “came to Ireland and “destroyed it” (Duffy 75). The Book of Leinster dates from the late twelfth century. Yet the Irish remained independent of spirit and developed what might be called a love-hate relationship with the British.
Neither Gallic culture nor the Gallic language ever quite disappeared. Also, just as the Hibernian-Normans became more Irish than the Irish, some Irish became more English than the English, at least in terms of mastering the language.Ireland has produced many literary giants of the English language, a long-term effect of the Norman Conquest, although the Normans at the time spoke a form of French. As part of the Angevin Empire, then of the British Empire, the Irish were linked with the wider world, from which for some years before the invasion of 1170-1171 they had been isolated.
Through migration and service overseas with the British Empire, Irishmen traveled the world. What can be said is that the Norman conquest “irrevocably changed” the “course of Irish history” as well as transforming the “face of Ireland” (Duffy 81).
The Pros And Cons Of The Internet
When the internet first made its appearance to the public in the early 90s, people are more interested in doing things manually. It was like any other technology that was first introduced to the world: it would take a few months, maybe years, before the people gets to try and incorporate them in their everyday life. If you look back a few years ago on the relationship of computers and people and contrast it to what it is now, you’ll see what the previous statement meant.
HISTORY Internet dates back to the 1960s. With the operation of packet-switching technologies, the very foundations of the Internet became stable.Packet-switching works in such a way that an information, or data, is broken up into smaller pieces and sent individually to its destination. At the end of the trip, the pieces assemble and made available to appear the same as it was at the sender’s side.
It made information dissemination easy: one data can be stored and accessed by multiple users at once. The Internet was actually designed for use by the military. Its main purpose serves as the connecting line between two or more troops situated in far parts of any battleground. It ensured that the communication is not compromised.
However, computers back then were massive, but able to connect several computers at once. The logic was that if a base was gunned down or attacked, the system remains fully operational. An attack on the mainframe, however, might even cause more disaster. Eventually, the public was made aware that such technology was existent and, with the promotion of personal computers, the Internet developed.
E-mail and forums formed in several networks. In the late 1988, the vision of a virtual community became a reality with the introduction of the Internet Relay Chat, or IRC.The World Wide Web wasn’t known until later, when it was introduced by Tim Berners-Lee. His dedication to making a “standard linked information system” that could be made available to different computers stirred the curiosity of researchers.
Browsers were fabricated and introduced to the public, taking in its trail a boom in users until now. The Internet is growing at an exponential rate even as we read this paper. EXPONENTIAL We enjoy most of the services offered by the Internet: e-mail, chat, social pages, forums… even role-playing games. Students use the Internet to look for answers to home works, moms for recipes, dads for cars.
It offered a convenient non face-to-face communication to people we don’t actually know. Somehow, the Internet posed that sensibility. What we do not know, however, is that the Internet also poses a grave threat to its users. Since we don’t know who it was from behind the other computer screen, it seemed that we can do everything.
The point is clear, though. We don’t know who we talk to and we might get harmed in the process. Children, especially, might get their selves exploited with using the Internet. An article in Reader’s Digest (R U In Ur PJs? , August 2006) offers a view of children subjected to child pornography.
They were brutally raped or mutilated by pedophiles. As disturbing as this might sound, pornographic materials were exchanged over the web as though “they were like trading baseball cards. ” Furthermore, the feature stresses on the possibility that more children are harmed anywhere in the world, their innocence blurred by the acts of perverts around them. The internet as we know can be used for other forms of fraud and illegality.
Shopping online has its benefits: you can stay where you are and let your fingers do the shopping. Be aware though, several people have encountered a theft or two.Take for example a friend of mine. He had been looking for a particular specification of a digital SLR lens for a long time until he came upon a listing on E-bay.
He contacted the seller, asking for the price. Since it was second hand, the seller gave it to him for only half the price. My friend laid out a down payment for the seller, and to his horror, the seller didn’t contact him anymore. The money he sent was forever lost.
It wasn’t all bad for the Internet, however. When we realize that there are actions that are not appropriate in the World Wide Web, it is easier to steer away from harm.There are network etiquettes—netiquettes—that people are made aware of to ensure that they are secured even when browsing the web. The basics are fairly simple: don’t give away personal information like address, contact details, and credit card numbers; report cyber bullies to the authorities; keep away from suspicious websites and downloads.
L’EGALITE The Internet is being widely used for virtual communities and the like. But who would have thought the Internet could be used as an election campaign material? President Barack Obama did!Other presidential candidates have created their own websites, but the First Black President’s website seemed to be the most popular. This is according to a website popularity and analytics company called Quantcast. Quantcast performs a monitoring on the websites on their list, tracking changes like daily traffic and demographic profiles.
Their researches show that Barack Obama’s website has attracted 12. 7 Million United States citizens, with regular visitors coming up at 30 percent and passers-by at 70 percent. Furthermore, it also shows that the demographics of the sites visitors were mostly older females with an African American descent.These people have no children within the ages of 6 and 17, with a higher educational status attained and higher degree of affluence.
Election campaigns on the web, though widespread and exhausting in itself, is thus proven to be effective in reaching for a larger group of people; more so now that the Internet is acting as a hodgepodge of people with different nationalities, religions, and races. The idea of people congregating on a virtual location while they take the time in between work and school to peek into the details of the then-running president is now achievable.Consequently, this may be one of the reasons why President Obama appealed to the people so much: he was so open to the people thru this website that they felt that he would bring about change. GENERALISM The Internet is a haven for people of all walks of life; however, mere innocent surfing could lead into surprises that could hurt and lead us into dangers.
There are choices to be made, situations to be considered. The Internet could be likened to a country with many regions and states: each state is different from the other, and there’s a likely chance that you’ll get lost. Stand your guard and who knows? Danger could be avoided.
What Has Labor Union Done To Benefit Working Class
Labor union is mainly an organization of employees and also the unemployed who have come together so as to form an umbrella body which will deal with issues concerning their payments, the conditions and nature of work place and also the duration of working. The labor union is mainly composed of the workers themselves, experts, retirees and the jobless.
The sole objective of the union is mainly to ensure that there is an improved and favorable working condition for its members. The labor union has done a lot for its working class members.Since its formation almost three hundred years ago, the union has undergone numerous transformations so as to adopt and handle the real problems of the moment. Such problems are mainly instigated by political influence and also economical problems.
The first thing that the trade union has done to benefit the working class is the introduction of the benefits to workers. During the initial years of its formation, the labor union introduced insurance scheme where by the members was protected against sickness, joblessness, retirement and also gathering for funeral services (Viscusi, 1980).Labor union has also benefited its members by providing them with professional training. This training is majorly aimed at equipping the union members with enough skills so as to increase their chances of acquiring better jobs and also to enable them climb the ladder quite easily.
This then will mean an increased salary for them thus improving their living conditions. The training also involves providing legal advice to the members on issues like employment rights and how to go by whenever these rights are violated by their employers.Infact the labor union usually represent its members in court in order to ensure that their cases are dealt with correctly in reference to their rights as stipulated by the labor laws. This has helped many employees to overcome cases such as harassment, discrimination and also underpayment.
Labor union has also ensured that each and every one of its members receives better pay commensurate to what he/she has delivered. The union does this by representing their members in negotiating with the employers regarding issues like salaries and also the nature and conditions of work.In other cases, labor union can call for strikes whenever matters concerning their well being are not handled well. Such matters may be things such as their demand for a pay increase, poor working conditions, and lack of recognition or delay in handling of their cases.
By paralyzing most of the activities in various firms and organizations, their employers can speedily handle their cases and a solution to a problem can be reached quickly rather than later. This then easience the handling and solving of cases for the union members.Labor union has also developed laws that are of much important in handling of cases related to its members. They do this by formulating laws, and then they seek for support from the public and also from politicians.
They sometimes support politicians who are on their side to higher offices. Such politicians when they are in office will ensure that the proposed bill concerning the labor union are discussed and passed into law. Conclusion: The labor union has done a lot in improving the conditions of the working class citizens.Over the years, the union has formulated legislative laws whereby each and every member is protected against poor working conditions, poor remuneration, safety at the work place and also ensured rules governing the poor working conditions and instant firing and promotion of workers are followed All these has been documented and many more are still to be documented.
Workers are now very much comfortable and they can all say ‘Thank You’ to the labor union.