What Impact Did Increasing Global Economic Integration Have On Inequality? Essay Example

Introduction

In 1944, countries had an agreement encompassing monetary administration and created commercial and financial association rules.[1]. The plan was a setoff unified regulations and policies that offered a framework necessary to develop fixed international currency exchange rates. However, the system collapsed in 1971, and there was an introduction of neoliberalism that intended to bring about trade reforms and allow countries to trade with each other freely.[2]. From the 1980s, globalization and global economic integration fostered international trade. The result was economic growth that enhanced the living standards of people.[3]. Therefore, it is essential to note that the recent wave of globalization has seen rapid growth in poverty reduction in developing countries, which has led to reduced global inequality. This paper describes how global integration has led to economic growth in developing economies, has minimized levels of poverty. It also explains how globalization has minimized global inequality and within-country wage inequality.

Global Integration led to Growth in Developing Economies

On August 15, 1971, the fall of Bretton Woods was one of the most anticipated major economic events in history. [4]. The main reason for the fall of the Bretton Woods was the inflationary monetary policy which was inappropriate for the primary currency country of the system. Notably, the plan ended after President Richard Nixon announced his new remunerative policy, a program that intended to establish new prosperity without war.[5]. Nixon unhooked the dollar’s value from gold altogether.

The Bretton Woods system followed monetary and fiscal policies that required a currency peg to the U.S. dollar-pegged to gold prices[6]. Notably, this made the USA dominant in the global economy. The agreement also led to the rise of the world bank and the IMF, U.S.-backed institutions that would monitor the new system.[7]. Three decades after the Briton Woods agreement, the dollar began to augment relative to other currencies. This inconsistency in value initiated the beginning of the collapse of the Britton Wood system.

The fall of the Bretton woods system gave rise to neoliberalism, which supports globalization and aims to eliminate the gaps in the system’s operation.[8]. Neoliberalism mainly focuses on vend-oriented reform policies like removing price controls, deregulating capital vends, minimizing trade hindrances, and limiting the country’s influence on the economy, mainly through privatization and austerity.[9]. Economic neoliberalism is a remunerative approach and ideological perspective that supports maximizing the remunerative freedom of people and thus minimizing the amount of state intervention to the bare minimum. The neoliberal theories indicate that the well-being of individuals can be fostered by liberating personal entrepreneurial liberties and expertise in an institutional framework that has features of robust private property liberties, free vends, and free trade.[10].

Essentially, globalization transformed the context of public policy in the 1970s, changing the global economic system.[11]. It has equally boosted economies across the globe by making vends more efficient. Through globalization, states can interdepend on each other, something made possible by opening national borders and implementing free trade.[12]. Developed nations have been able to expand the operations of their substantial firms into other countries across the globe.[13]. Significantly, these benefits have helped boost and foster the economies of multiple countries worldwide. One of globalization’s main aims is to augment global trade, which leads to more competition, thus spreading wealth more equally.[14].

Additionally, the exponential growth in developing countries has allowed them to catch up with the industrialized economies, which has minimized the remunerative inequalities between them.[15]. The developing countries have been able to export highly processed products and services, which significantly boosts them through foreign exchange. Through good neoliberal policies, the developing nations can create facilities for the emergence of innovative startups and develop circumstances for entrepreneurship development. [16]. All of these have helped minimize poverty and remunerative inequalities. Through globalization, businesses have gained access to capital flows, robotics, human capital, cheaper imports and substantial export vends. These factors have contributed to the economic growth of developing countries and minimized the rates and aggregate of people living in poverty by boosting their living standards.[17]. The result is a reduced economic gap between the developing and already developed nations across the globe. During the Bretton Woods period, the developing countries had difficulties tapping the world economy due to multiple trade hindrances.[18]. The countries had high restrictions on imports in terms of taxes and tariffs, and they restricted imports quantitively by quotas and licenses. They could not share the same remunerative development that industrialized nations had.[19]. However, after neoliberalism was introduced, it brought with its globalization that encouraged the developing nations to go through vend reforms radical transformations. Many countries resolved to drop the protectionist policies and implemented substantial-scale trade reforms.[20]. Therefore, the economic gap that previously existed between the nations has declined.

Decline in The Number of Extreme Poverty in The World

As earlier stated, globalization has made many countries, particularly developing ones, more open to trade[21]. They have increasingly been able to export highly processed products and services to other countries globally. Equally, they have allowed the developed nations to invest in their countries, notably by expanding the operations of their multinational organizations[22]. Through such activities, international organizations rely on developing countries for labor. In turn, the developing countries can have subsequent developments in their economies and a poverty reduction. The countries have realized a reduction in poverty through a fostered standard of living among their citizens[23]. As such, the depreciation of the aggregate of persons living below the poverty level has led to the growth of GDP. Notably, the real wages for the low-skilled workers have augmented the GDP growth rate in developing countries and worldwide[24]. Significantly, the accelerated growth in low-income nations due to trade associations with the developed countries is a high contributing factor to the unprecedented poverty depreciation, just as delineated before.

Significant Global Inequality Reduction

Before neoliberalism and globalization, the rates of inequities were relatively higher.[25]. The gaps between the poor and rich countries were wide. Notably, for approximately 200 years, inequality among nations across the globe has been increasing.[26]. Although some researchers indicate that globalization increases inequality in individual countries, the idea of richer countries transferring incomes to poorer countries implies that it minimizes the levels of inequality for the globe as a whole[27].

Notably, during the Britt Wood period, there were more restrictions on trade, particularly in developing countries.[28]. There was no openness for countries to trade freely with each other. However, after reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a practical change from inequality after neoliberalism and globalization.[29]. Countries have an economic integration and interdependence such that some nations, such as China, are using the Keynesian model to benefit the developing nations. While applying the model, the country’s development finance enables it to allow loans and aid to other nations to serve as a stimulus to the economies while simultaneously minimizing tensions back at home.[30].

Through such economic integrations, nations experience economic growth and development, thus minimizing the remunerative gaps. The governments support each other to grow.[31]. Worldwide inequality is anticipated to continue to fall, and the nations with modest development rates will eventually have an augmentation in the ensuing years.[32]. Significantly, this will further minimize the rates of global remunerative inequalities.[33].

Reduced Within-Country Wage Inequality

Globalized developing economies have viewed global economic integration as a positive force that has improved people’s lives[34]. Critically, the global economic integration has led to a reduction in costs for both producers and consumers and augmented trade between the nations in the agreement of having integrated economies. In most cases, global integration often occurs in regions, thus being referred to as regional integration[35]. The global economic integration has minimized trade costs, augmented the availability of products and utilities, and a wide variety to select from. Also, countries have gained efficiency that enables them to have greater buying power[36]. Significantly, this improves people’s lives because they can quickly get the products and services. They can get what they cannot produce from the neighboring nations through trade and importation[37]. Significantly, trade liberalization has led to an expansion of the market, sharing of technology, and cross-border investment. These have led to an augmentation in employment opportunities[38]. People in the member countries of the regional trade agreements have a chance to work in any national organizations that the countries established as an expansion of operations. An increase in employment guarantees that the people have sources of income, thus having improved living standards and lives in general[39].

As earlier stated in the discussion, neoliberalism, globalization, and global economic integration have led to increased trade[40]. Countries strived to eliminate trade barriers such as taxes and incentives and enabled and facilitated cross-border trading with other nations. As much as this has greatly benefited the already developed and industrialized countries, the developing nations have equally benefited since they have also experienced increased trade.[41]. The companies can export the products and services they produce and process to other countries, some of which are developed nations. The countries can effectively participate in international trade, which is one essential factor contributing to their economic growth, development of infrastructure, and thus enhancing people’s lives.[42].

The international trade domain is a competitive labor market. The players try to develop new commodities and ways to outshine their competitors.[43]. The same has been the case for the traders from developing countries[44]. Many more traders from these countries are striving to get involved in the aggressive labor vend. They also try to create new strategies and tactics to augment the demand for their commodities, thus effectively competing with their counterparts from other countries, particularly the developed ones [45]. The increase in trade and involvement in international associations due to global economic integration has led to a decline in the gender gap. The traditionally prejudiced group of individuals, such as women, now have equal opportunities as men in the competitive global labor market[46]. Critically, this has helped minimize the inequalities in the income capacity between men and women. Women, just like men, are also becoming empowered economically, thus helping reduce the within-country income inequalities that previously existed[47]. Generally, the trade reforms undertaken in developing countries have been accompanied by extra remunerative growth resulting in a decline in income gaps[48]; this has also been facilitated by the countries’ involvement in rapid and profound trade reforms and rapid integration into the global vends vends[49]. Although, various stakeholders in international trade, such as UNCTAD, indicate that business also has a hand in increasing income inequality. Because while the people get wages through the provision of low-skilled labor, the wealthier individuals continue to be more affluent from the benefits they get from trade trade[50]. As such, this makes the poor poorer and the rich richer. However, it is essential to note that, while wages are a source of income, wage inequality does not always lead to income inequality.[51].

Conclusion

Generally, neoliberalism brought a new dawn for economies all over the globe. It got with its globalization has seen many countries and economies around the world, particularly the developing economies, witness tremendous economic growth and development. The globalization era has led to a somewhat minimization of worldwide inequality. It has helped to depreciation the aggregate per capita gap between developed and developing nations. The collapse of the Bretton Woods system led to neoliberalism, a proponent of globalization and aimed at eliminating the gaps and inequalities in the operating systems. In the last 20 years, there has been an integration in the global economy whereby countries have worked to implement trade reforms and remove the trade barriers that might hinder them from having cross-border associations in trade with other nations. Such Integration in the economies has led to an augmentation in the employment opportunities as the developing countries can easily offer their unskilled labor; this, in turn, increases the wages and income that the people earn, thus improving their living standards. All these have been efforts that have seen a relative decline in the levels and rates of poverty in developing countries.

Similarly, governments across the globe have had a change in foreign direct investments, something that has made them have tremendous economic development, which in turn leads to increased growth in the global economy. Although, pressure on low-skilled workers in wealthy nations has sparked discussions concerning the effect of global remunerative Integration on industrialized nations. People indicate that globalization can make developing countries poorer and rich countries richer. Also, some stakeholders in international trade suggest that as much as it minimizes within-country income inequalities, it has the potential of equally augmenting the gap by making rich people more affluent and the poor ones poorer. Essentially, by creating and executing the appropriate policies that guarantee the Integration of industrialized and developing nations, global remunerative integration will result in high growth and poverty minimization.

Bibliography

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Dollar, David. “Globalization, poverty, and inequality since 1980.” The World Bank Research Observer 20.2 (2005): 145-175.

Ezcurra, Roberto, and Alba Del Villar. “Globalization and spatial inequality: Do economic integration affect regional disparities?” The Annals of Regional Science 67, no. 2 (2021): 335-358.

Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: 1-9.

Ganti, Tejaswini. “Neoliberalism.” Annual Review of Anthropology 43 (2014): 89-104.

Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): 1-15.

Samimi, Parisa, and Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi. “Globalization and economic growth: Empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.” PloS one 9, no. 4 (2014): e87824: 1-7).

Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): 49-64.

Springer, Simon, Kean Birch, and Julie MacLeavy, eds. The handbook of neoliberalism. Vol. 2. New York: Routledge, 2016: 1-293

Venugopal, Rajesh. “Neoliberalism as concept.” Economy and Society 44, no. 2 (2015): 165-187.

Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004:138-348

Wu, Jing Cynthia, and Ji Zhang. “A shadow rate New Keynesian model.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 107 (2019): 103728.:1-29

[1] Dollar, David. “Globalization, poverty, and inequality since 1980.” The World Bank Research Observer 20.2 (2005): p.147.

[2] Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004: p.140.

[3]Ganti, Tejaswini. “Neoliberalism.” Annual Review of Anthropology 43 (2014): p.92.

[4] Bordo, Michael D. The operation and demise of the Bretton Woods system; 1958 to 1971. No. w23189. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2017: p.6.

[5] Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.52.

[6] Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.50.

[7] Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004: p.142.

[8] Ganti, Tejaswini. “Neoliberalism.” Annual Review of Anthropology 43 (2014): p.92.

[9] Venugopal, Rajesh. “Neoliberalism as concept.” Economy and Society 44, no. 2 (2015): p.167.

[10] Ganti, Tejaswini. “Neoliberalism.” Annual Review of Anthropology 43 (2014): p.93.

[11]Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.59.

[12] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.2.

[13] Samimi, Parisa, and Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi. “Globalization and economic growth: Empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.” PloS one 9, no. 4 (2014): e87824: p.2.

[14] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.5.

[15] Ezcurra, Roberto, and Alba Del Villar. “Globalization and spatial inequality: Do economic integration affect regional disparities?” The Annals of Regional Science 67, no. 2 (2021): p.337.

[16] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.5.

[17] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.3.

[18] Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.53.

[19] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.7.

[20] Springer, Simon, Kean Birch, and Julie MacLeavy, eds. The handbook of neoliberalism. Vol. 2. New York: Routledge, 2016: p.12.

[21] Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004: p.145.

[22] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.10.

[23] Samimi, Parisa, and Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi. “Globalization and economic growth: Empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.” PloS one 9, no. 4 (2014): e87824: p.4.

[24] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.17.

[25] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.6.

[26] Springer, Simon, Kean Birch, and Julie MacLeavy, eds. The handbook of neoliberalism. Vol. 2. New York: Routledge, 2016: p.32.

[27] Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004: p.150.

[28] Dollar, David. “Globalization, poverty, and inequality since 1980.” The World Bank Research Observer 20.2 (2005): p.153.

[29] Springer, Simon, Kean Birch, and Julie MacLeavy, eds. The handbook of neoliberalism. Vol. 2. New York: Routledge, 2016: p.34.

[30] Wu, Jing Cynthia, and Ji Zhang. “A shadow rate New Keynesian model.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 107 (2019): 103728.:p.18.

[31] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.50.

[32] Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.58.

[33] Dollar, David. “Globalization, poverty, and inequality since 1980.” The World Bank Research Observer 20.2 (2005): p.156.

[34] Ibid, p.158

[35] Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004:p.200.

[36] Ezcurra, Roberto, and Alba Del Villar. “Globalization and spatial inequality: Do economic integration affect regional disparities?” The Annals of Regional Science 67, no. 2 (2021): p.340.

[37] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.9)

[38] Samimi, Parisa, and Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi. “Globalization and economic growth: Empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.” PloS one 9, no. 4 (2014): e87824: p.5.

[39] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.6.

[40] Springer, Simon, Kean Birch, and Julie MacLeavy, eds. The handbook of neoliberalism. Vol. 2. New York: Routledge, 2016: p.24.

[41] Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.61.

[42] Sargent, Daniel J. “The United States and globalization in the 1970s.” The shock of the global: the 1970s in perspective (2010): p.61.

[43] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.10.

[44] Ezcurra, Roberto, and Alba Del Villar. “Globalization and spatial inequality: Do economic integration affect regional disparities?” The Annals of Regional Science 67, no. 2 (2021): p.351.

[45] Samimi, Parisa, and Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi. “Globalization and economic growth: Empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.” PloS one 9, no. 4 (2014): e87824: p.7.

[46] Springer, Simon, Kean Birch, and Julie MacLeavy, eds. The handbook of neoliberalism. Vol. 2. New York: Routledge, 2016: p.41.

[47] Foghani, Sara, Batiah Mahadi, and Rosmini Omar. “Promoting clusters and networks for small and medium enterprises to economic development in the globalization era.” Sage Open 7, no. 1 (2017): 2158244017697152: p.23.

[48] Li, Nan, and Recep Ulucak. “Turning points for environmental sustainability: the potential role of income inequality, human capital, and globalization.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022): p.12.

[49] Dollar, David. “Globalization, poverty, and inequality since 1980.” The World Bank Research Observer 20.2 (2005): p.170.

[50] Ezcurra, Roberto, and Alba Del Villar. “Globalization and spatial inequality: Do economic integration affect regional disparities?” The Annals of Regional Science 67, no. 2 (2021): p.352.

[51] Wolf, Martin. Why globalization works. Vol. 3. Yale University Press, 2004:p.266.

‘When I Was Puerto Rican’ By Esmeralda Santiago Essay Sample For College

Esmeralda Santiago’s memoir ‘When I was Puerto Rican’ tells the story of a girl who tries to survive against all odds. Everything revolved around her, from her family to moving to a different society, which drove her to question where she belonged. Despite her achieving outside success in Brooklyn, the juxtaposition brings alone cultural loss when she does not associate herself with a traditionally expected Puerto Rican behavior. However, identity, especially in the cultural aspect, does not just encompass ethnic heritage and customs. Negi struggles to find solid ground when parts of it sound unreliable and do not make sense. While culture, ethnicity, and traditions play a vital role in self-realization, self-identity is personified and unique as one’s fingerprints, representing one’s connection to others.

Her identity realization struggles are first experienced when she was young upon questioning her Papi about the soul. Her father’s answers on it gave a sense of self-doubt, stating that she experienced things her father did not. ‘The doubt in his voice let me know I knew something he did not because my soul traveled all the time, and it appeared he never did.’ (Santiago, 50). She claims that she feels her soul walking beside and watching her. When she feels her Papi does not experience the same things she does, it commences her journey of trying to figure out her identity. The case of her outward soul questioning and believing her soul could be walking beside her depicts the commencement of her identity split. A typical fact conceptualizes the soul as never departing, especially when one is alive. However, in this case, when the two are considered separate, there is a conflict in what one thinks or visualizes of themselves.

For the Puerto Ricans, a jibaro is one patriotic person who celebrates aspects of music, art or even images related to Puerto Rico. It is a mandatory requirement for all grade levels to read and familiarize themselves with the jibaros. Jibaros’ songs depicted hardships and struggles, but the reward was a life of independence which gave a deeply rooted aspect of nationalism. Coming from a family where it was a routine to listen to radio programs about the jibaros, Negi grew up wanting to like them. However, Mami constantly told her she could not be a jibaro because she was city-born (Santiago, 17). She recalls being scolded for even trying to be a jibaro wondering why her family did live like them but were not considered jibaros. That sense of distinction could not be easily fathomed or understood as a child. In a place where many people did not celebrate the patriots, she viewed it as hypocritical to honor those looked down on (Santiago, 18).

Identity and self-realization should not be a switch one pull to fit into different situational circumstances. It should be a constant that defines one throughout all walks of life. For Negi, however, when at school, she has to constantly navigate her feelings in diverse situations. It happened more because she differed with the school rules, noting that her family structure was the opposite. She was expected to be quiet and not yell, which often happened at her house. She went home with a torn uniform and some bruises, and Mami forbids her from fighting at school. It was a clear sense of conflict since she was never clearly banned from fighting with her siblings, which often happened (Santiago, 34). Doing different things in different settings expanded her conflict, fueling her identity crisis (Litchart, 1)

In one of her father-daughter moments, she asks her Papi what sin is. In his explanation, her father mentions that they are Catholics but not very good ones. He also claims that saying God’s name in vain is a sin, yet many people do it. She is conflicted about where her religious stand is since her father does mention that they believe in God and are Catholics but do not consider themselves are very religious. A plain black and white explanation, especially to a child, is either right or wrong with no in-between for easier understanding. Although, when the answers do not give concise answers, the child is conflicted about what to believe.

As she narrates, Negi was just a nickname while her real name Esmeralda was seldom used, a truth she did not know. While she asks questions about if other people have handles, she discovers that most do not use their nicknames daily, unlike her. It was a weird revelation as she wondered why people need nicknames while they have their real names.

‘It seemed complicated as if we were two people, one who was loved and the official one who, I assumed, was not.’ (Santiago, 19).

Her concerns echo her split identity crisis, in which she did not know if to behave as Negi, the dark child in the family, or Esmeralda, as the government knew her or people who did not know her too well. What would happen if both of these groups happened to be in a common setting; would she be Negi or Esmeralda?

We see identity being hinted at again when Negi moves to Brooklyn. In a way, she was to switch things up and try to navigate a more intense social stage of being in a public school in a different country. The diverse ethnic groups, social regards, and way of life of her new town heightened her crisis. In her case, it was not a friendly situation, nor was it a safe space for the new learner from Puerto Rico (Gonzalez, 6).

In Performing Arts High School, she is advised to adopt an American and English persona whose purpose was to humor the audience. She gives it a shot despite having no experience or intelligible monologue of a middle-aged mother-in-law from the twentieth century who is over-possessive. The audition or the character was not a reflection of Negi’s personality, yet he did not skip a beat wanting to go for it. Albeit, she was able to do the monologue. Her willingness to try and get on with it revealed her expertise in code-switching when t came to different personalities at different times and situations. Her way of adapting to new identities as per her current environment or company did play its part in her crisis.

Identity and its realization does not encompass belonging to a certain ethnicity or geographical location only but also has to deal with one’s true personality and character. When these two are in conflict or one assumes another person’s identity, a crisis begins. For Negi, her identity crisis began at home at a tender age. While charity begins at home, the people close to you play a vital role in shaping character and personalities, whether by emulating role models or keeping off. However, as earlier pointed out, identity is unique to an individual, just as fingerprints.

References

LitCharts. “Identity Theme in When I Was Puerto Rican.” LitCharts, 2022, www.litcharts.com/lit/when-i-was-puerto-rican/themes/identity

López-González, Crescencio, and Makayla Steele. TiTle: Emancipating the Self: The (Un)Becoming of Esmeralda Santiago’s Identity Letras Hispanas. 2018.

Santiago, Esmeralda. When I Was Puerto Rican. Marco Book Company, 2009.

Whether The Use Of Social Media Is Useful Or Detrimental For Creating And Maintaining Relationships Sample Paper

Social media has trended massively over the past few years. There has been a considerable percentage of people using social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, and other growing platforms (Uhls et al., 2017). In 2005, it was reported that five per cent of adults were into social media, and the number has currently shot to 70 percent (Allen, 2019). Social media usage is also popular among businesses. It was reported that many businesses use social media sites repeatedly for advertising and marketing; this has increased over recent times. Hence, this has brought interest to individuals, businesses, and society, but there is also a growing concern about physical connections, especially people misusing social media. It is vital to understand that despite the benefit social media has in society, it may adversely impact our lives, physical relationships, and psychological well-being (Burman, 2021). This essay will present arguments whether the use of social media is useful or detrimental for creating and maintaining relationships.

Lack Of Physical Connection

First, obsession with social media can change patterns in physical activities and meetups, contributing to isolation. Reports indicate individuals who have technological devices like computers and mobile phones are likely to spend more time browsing than meeting and connecting to others, especially in public places(Burman, 2021). Traditional ways of interaction involved people meeting up in parks, visiting each other at their homes for lunch or dinner, or going to the movies with friends. Lack of physical intimacy is linked to depressive behaviours and symptoms and other serious issues. Various questions have been raised on social media’s impact on physical relationships, especially in young people (Burman, 2021). According to some findings, young people use media to make and maintain friendships more than before. Also, approximately everyone has been reported making new friends through various platforms while fewer connect with offline friends daily.

Negative Online Comparisons

Also, researchers have identified social media as playing a significant role in self-objectification, self-esteem issues, and high-risk behaviours, especially with young people (Allen, 2019). The nature of social media has provided a platform where individuals judge themselves based on how they see others have social validation. Also, social media has caught cyberbullying behaviours among individuals; you find people having online grudges due to controversies and tarnishing each other’s names. It is noted that online bullying is linked with more risks like suicide than traditional bullying (Uhls et al., 2017). It can lead to mental instability and related conditions like depression and antisocial behaviours. Additionally, health experts think that digital technology may have more adverse effects and changes in physical development in ways not yet discovered. This is because the exposure to technology is happening at an early age hence may have neural level changes and cause more risks (Allen, 2019).

Ghosts Connections

Individuals need to note the difference between online and offline support. Despite individuals saying how social media helps them feel more connected and understand their friends emotionally, which is critical in the emotional connection, there are more concerns on these wide networks that lead to superficial interactions that hinder intimacy (Faelens et al., 2021). These days, individuals have unlimited access to their peers through technological devices like mobile phones, resulting in romantic, corporate, and social connections.

Based on research from Subrahmanyam, after comparing face-to-face interactions and text messages, the hypothesis is that digital interactions can have more temporary because they are briefer and makes one feel good. Still, the feeling dispersals quickly compared to face-to-face interactions (Allen, 2019). She notes that today people are tech natives; they may be less interested in the online-offline division. Additionally, she thinks there is much connection between the physical and online world; hence it may be difficult to judge. Therefore, both aspects should be well balanced to achieve well-being.

Broken Families

Additionally, studies have shown how social media have hindered marriages and relationships because of lack of physical time and exposure to third parties in relationships. It has allowed people to be more engaged and cares about their partner’s online activities, making others upset about what their partners have chosen to share (Burman, 2021). Sharing too much can lessen intimacy in a relationship, while sharing too little can cause others to question the authenticity of a relationship. They are finding a healthy balance between the two has been controversial, leading to breakups and divorces. Also, it limits quality time spent with partners and decreases attention in relationships (Burman, 2021). According to a recent study, other negative effects of social media include outstation. If someone is engrossed in social media activities, they will always feel irritated if their partners or family members are interrupted. Therefore, these are among the pitfalls social media has, but despite that, there are positive aspects sit has on creating and maintaining relationships.

Counter – Argument

Social media has proved to have a positive aspect in creating relationships. It has enabled people to connect with many populations globally at any time. This has created new friendships and led some individuals to meet their life partners online. Also, social media has given opportunities to couples who live far from each other to connect on chats and video calls to maintain relationships. Additionally, parents can now monitor their children’s behaviours and characters by having insights from online statuses, photos, friends, and other activities. Apart from personal relationships, customers and businesses can now keep a positive relationship through online inquiries and feedback to ensure the smooth running of the business (Enke & Borchers, 2019). Notably, if a company is strategic and proactive in creating content and posting, it keeps followers entertained and increases brand popularity.

Conclusion

Social media has taken its place in the real world and interfered with many lives. From the look of technological advancement in this dynamic world, social media will continue gaining popularity and usage over the coming years. As users continue to log in to their social profiles, they are being removed from the real world and put into a virtual space with different dynamics. Since it has positive and negative effects, it is upon parents, guardians, policymakers, and teachers to ensure children use social media constructively to lead to their positive development. For example, teachers should encourage social media for educational purposes. Parents should set ground rules on when and how to use social media. Policymakers should ensure explicit content is out of reach to underage children to avoid risky behaviours like sexual violence. This way, children can grow up in a safe online environment that does not affect them physically, emotionally, and socially.

References

Allen, S. (2019). Social media’s growing impact on our lives. American Psychological Association. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://www.apa.org/members/content/social-media-research

Burman, S. (2021). Social Media and its Impacts on Human Relationships. Buddhism and Social Responsibility in the New Normal (BUSRIN)(Lanna Journal of Buddhist Studies and Cultures)3(1). https://firstojs.com/index.php/LJBSC/article/view/1021

Enke, N., & Borchers, N. S. (2019). Social media influencers in strategic communication: A conceptual framework for strategic social media influencer communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication13(4), 261-277. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1553118X.2019.1620234

Faelens, L., Hoorelbeke, K., Soenens, B., Van Gaeveren, K., De Marez, L., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E. H. (2021). Social media use and well-being: A prospective experience-sampling study. Computers in Human Behavior114, 106510. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563220302624

Uhls, Y. T., Ellison, N. B., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2017). Benefits and costs of social media in adolescence. Paediatrics140(Supplement_2), S67-S70. https://publications.aap.org/pediatrics/article/140/Supplement_2/S67/34168/Benefits-and-Costs-of-Social-Media-in-Adolescence