What Is One Power Of The Federal Government Essay Example For College

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers. And effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. (Declaration 83) Surveillance is presenting numerous challenges to our right to privacy. The National Security Agency or NSA is amassing private information about Americans.

Hovel par. 3) Emails, phone calls and other forms of communication are being monitored. Unless we the American voters demand of our elected officials that they curtail the unwarranted surveillance by our government on American citizens, the current state of affairs is nothing but a prelude to our Government usurping our liberty of privacy we are likely to descend into a total surveillance state. The first Issue is that the government has been observing both Americans and foreigners for decades, without our knowledge or regulation of anyone.

The NSA was established In 1952; Its existence was not admitted to the American public until 20 years later, and still, its configuration and activity are largely unknown, even to members of congress and government. It is the biggest surveillance agency in the world. (Mainsails, Berger and Greenland par. 8) In the sass, extreme far-reaching disclosures about the NSA led to senate hearings, which revealed stunning transgressions, with assassination plots, illegal mail opening, massive military spying. (Hovel par. 10) In 1975, Democratic US Senator and former NSA employee Frank

Church alerted us that the Ana’s extending reach could be turned inwards on the American people. “l don’t want to see this country ever go across the bridge. ” He said, “l know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to It that this agency (the NSA) and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss. That Is the abyss from which there Is no return. ” (CTD. In Mainsails, Berger and Greenland par. 13) The congressional hearings led to the 1978 Foreign

Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISH), which required a warrant to conduct surveillance of communications within the US. A FISH court, that was made up of a small group of judges appointed by the chief justice and located inside in the Justice department, FISH was given the Job of deciding whether to grant warrants ” It approves almost all requests (Mainsails, Berger and Greenland par. 12) Second, the unlawful surveillance, the violations of our 4th Amendment and the “culture of Intense secrecy’ (Mainsails, Berger and Greenland par-17) continue thou updated regulations to keep up with changing technology.

Since 9/1 1, The t Off established by FISH, it has collected phone records of and private information about Americans, drawing data from phone companies. These records admittedly give them the ability to track the associations and the activities of anyone whom the agency chooses to target. (Hovel par. 3) As we improve with technology, the Ana’s capacity to capture a surprising assortment and quantity of communications has progressed as well. -Satellites scoop up calls and emails in the ether and beam the information sack to earthbound receiving stations.

One estimate suggests that each of these bases Hoovers up roughly one billion emails, phone calls and other forms of correspondence every day, and the agency has up to 20 bases. (Mainsails, Berger and Greenland) Privacy experts and attorneys urged Congress to update laws governing protections for wireless customers’ location data in criminal investigations, testifying on Capitol Hill that there is confusion among federal courts and other practical complications. (Ruggeri par. 1] Third, the right of privacy, speech and free association is guaranteed to every tizzy in the United States.

Our Constitution is premised on controlling government involvement to protect liberty. The state can intrude on that space only if it has probable cause to believe a crime has been committed, and only when an impartial official reviews the evidence of that cause. The national security state, particularly in this age of an unending “war” on terrorists in every corner of the world, upsets that premise. In the name of security, our government claims the right to investigate citizens, monitor their activities and know their secrets.

On the other hand, the nation’s activities, capacities, budgets and even legal authority are secret, closed from public review, to the extent that when Congress provides supervision, it is limited to selected legislators who are sworn to uphold the curtain of secrecy even from their colleagues. Their concerns may be expressed only to officials, not to the American deters. (Hovel par. 8;9) Fourth, confessions of the sweeping collection of data on Americans by the NSA necessitate that Congress launch a review into the post- 9/1 1 national security state.

Special committees in both the House and the Senate should investigate the scope of activities, the legal basis claimed, the operational structure and the abuses and excesses with a public weighing of costs and benefits. The “war on terrorism” has gone on since 2001 , and while our “Commander in Chief” says it must end sometime, there is no end in sight. In 2005,the New York Times reported that the Bush administration had secretly authorized by an order in 2002 for the NSA to spy on Americans and others inside the US, to explore for terrorist activity without the FISH rout warrants. Mainsails, Berger and Greenland par. 6) Secret bureaucracies armed with secret powers and emboldened by the claim of defending the nation have flourished and expanded. The surprise of legislators at the scope of NSA surveillance shows that checks and balances have broken down. (Hovel par. 1;2) The attempts to reform the national security state in the mid-ass offer concerns for today. Too many of the reforms acted to legitimate the Ana’s endeavors rather than eliminate them. The FISH court, for example, has provided less restriction allied to account, Congress must look to draw sharp limits. Hovel par. 12) Our right to privacy is being violated and we do not know what our government is doing with the surveillance data. We know that the NSA is collecting our information Introit probable cause and yet we do not know what is being done with it. We need to require our elected officials to defend the constitution that they swore to do when they took office. Unless we the American people stand up united, and elect officials to represent us and will limit this indiscretion, we will become a total surveillance state.

Big Time (Sports In Schools And Onwards)

Schools are introducing and encouraging students to join their sports program. It is to influence students and to improve their skills in playing, develop confidence and develop good values in sportsmanship.

There are many advantages in joining sports. Sports offer many benefits to students and with sports a person would learn many things that he or she can apply and use to in real life. Not only that, but it would also make you get in good shape. You would learn the value of hardworks, discipline, teamwork, commitment, fair play, and at the same time can save the student money if one can get scholarship.

And if that person becomes a superstar, there is a change he can make lots of money as a professional.There are many athletes in our world today. There are those that are classified as good athletes and the bad athletes. The good athletes are those who consign themselves to the game they’re playing, at the same time keeping their good values intact and of course maintaining their academic performance and grades.

The bad ones are those whose head became “big” enough to fit to a door that they would become so boastful, become so conceited and very proud. These people are usually the types who would get caught in the web of drugs, frequent partying, alcohol, sex, addiction, greed, corruption and would sooner become deprived of the education they deserve. These actions would lead students to get suspended, dropped out or even banned from the school or worse, not being able to graduate at all.But unfortunately, there are those bad athletes who are so good in hiding that they manage to keep their doings silent and not emerge to the public.

This usually what the school’s administrations common problem. Most of them are not aware what their students were doing and resorting to.But these people are not to be blamed completely. One should understand and realize that it’s not easy to be an athlete and a student at the same time.

For one, we have the training and work out to do in order for us to be in good shape and improve performance in playing a game. Then, there is also the school to consider, we of course need to study and keep up with our grades. We have to work hard to keep both because if we lose one of it, then the possibility of failing totally and being suspended is at stake.DefinitionAccording to Wikepedia, athletics or sports are consists of a normal physical activity or skill carried out under a publicly agreed set of rules, and with a recreational purpose: for competition, for self-enjoyment, to attain excellence and merit, for the development and improvement of skill, or some combination of these.

The difference of purpose is what characterizes sport, combined with the notion of individual (or team) skill or prowess. The world athletics is derived from the Greek word “athlos” meaning “contest”. Thus the definition as the collection of sport events.History of SportsThe progress of sport in all parts of history can impart knowledge to us about the great deal of social changes, and about the physical world of sport itself.

There are many modern findings in France, Africa and Australia of cave art from prehistory which provide evidence and proofs of ritual ceremonial behavior and activities. Some of these sources and origins date from over 30,000 years ago, as established by carbon dating. While there is inadequate direct evidence of sport from these sources, it is rational to extrapolate or infer that there was some activity at these times similar to sport.There are artifacts and structures which imply that Chinese people engaged in activities which meet our definition of sport as early as 4000 B.

C. Gymnastics materialized to have been a famous and popular sport in China’s past. Monuments to the Pharaohs specify that a range of sports were well developed and synchronized several thousand of years ago.A wide variety of sports were already inaugurated at the time of the Ancient Greece.

Wrestling, running, boxing, javelin, discus throwing and chariot racing were ubiquitous. This insinuates that the military culture of Greece was an influence on the progress and improvement of its sports or athletics and vice versa. The Olympic Games were held every four years in ancient Greece, at a small village in Pelopponisos called Olympia.Sport has been gradually more systematized and synchronized from the time of the Ancient Olympics up to the present century.

Actions and activities needed for food and continued existence or the survival of a person became regulated activities done for pleasure and competition on an increasing scale, e.g. hunting, fishing, and horticulture. The industrial revolution and mass production brought increased leisure which allowed increases in spectator sports, less exclusivity in sports, and greater accessibility.

These trends are unrelenting with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became dominant, further adding to the increase in sport’s fame and popularity.History of Sports in SchoolsWhile anthropologist would remind us that games go back to the earliest history of the human race, and that even animals play, a less reticent origin of athletics in schools may be found beyond the college walls of colonial and revolutionary days in the pioneer life of the colonists and the earlier citizens of the Republic. A game of football is documented in Virginia as early as 1609.

In New England and the Middle Atlantic colonies it is to such facets of the community life as market days, barn-raisings, and husking that the seeker for the origins of athletic sports must turn.The New England thanksgiving custom of men kicking a football about their backyards bears little fa�ade to a team game. The participants in exertions were generally younger men, although occasionally older persons engaged in them. With the growth of social organizations of various kinds and the rise of militia companies, rivalry between such bodies led naturally to the assessment of athletic skills and this to a fa�ade of group contests, which however, exerted little if any influence upon the life of colleges and schools.

COLLEGE GAMES AND CONTESTSSuch contests as have just been mentioned were basically of the people. In colonial days, the young man who ensues from school to college and who thus entered the life of learning and scholarship thereby set himself apart from his friends and neighbors. Before 1800, he was ostensibly given little to such lenience and diversion as they pursued. A man known to be especially gifted in this way was thereby belittled in public estimation.

If he was known to make much of it, he was more likely to be despised.It was taken for granted that he could not be good for much else. Brains and brawn were supposed to be developed in inverse ratio; strength was closely associated to brutality. Doubtless, the fact that a large percentage of the undergraduates of those days were intending to enter the Christian ministry had much to do with this approach, it was more than half a century before the discovery was made that Christianity could be muscular.

On the other hand, intermittent attention, often of a repressive nature, was aimed to games at some colleges.Most of the college faculties perforce allowed free-for-all fights between student classes, and it is not unlikely that, in the launching of freshman, tests of skill or strength had their part. So far as athletics were concerned, the century was portrayed in colleges by an almost complete absence of anything approaching organization, rules or what we now regard as team games, as exemplified from contests between sides.The early history of a few of the modern college games can be traced with a degree of certainty.

The twenty years between 1886 and 1906 contain the genesis of those defects which are to be traced tracked down in our college athletics of the present day. The enthusiasm of the progress at that time abounded a large part of the impetus which triggers the modern college sports and games. It must be remembered that athletics of that period harbored the potentials of both beneficent and harmful progress in later years. That so many of their evils continued persisted beyond the first quarter of the twentieth century is due to the rankness of growth which they are allowed to accomplish during the time of their most rapid expansion.

On the other hand, since 1906 the value of athletics and their place in college life have come to be better taken into account and understood.Investment Made by Most College AthletesIn college sports, it seems that everybody gets paid except the athlete. That’s a raw deal. The players endows with the labor that produces winning teams, which in turn, generates heightened fan interest.

As a result, football stadiums and basketball arenas are filled to capacity, translating into fatter operating budgets for the athletic powers.Clearly, big-time college sports means big business. It is said that last year, the payouts for football teams playing in bowl games ranged from $750,000 to $13 million. Last fall, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) cut a new deal with CBS for TV rights fees to air exclusive broadcasts all NCAA men’s basketball tournament games.

That contract is worth $6.2 billion and has been extended to the year 2013.Boy, that’s a free enterprise. But there’s still a big problem with this scenario – the athletes are systematically barred from getting into the cash flow cycle.

The NCAA prohibits college athletes from earning money based on their status as amateurs. Coaches can do commercials and nobody questions their integrity or sense of fair play. For athletes, that’s a no-no. That is one that could jeopardize their eligibility and ultimately cause them to be banned from further collegiate competition.

It is really bad to know that college athletes are at the mercy of ancient rules governing amateurism.There are also athletes having jobs. This has become a hot topic in college sports in the recent years. In 1999, it seemed that the NCAA made a legitimate effort to impart some fiscal leeway, passing legislation allowing athletes to earn up to $2000 during the school year working part-time jobs.

In assumptions and principles, it’s a step in the right direction, a move to be applauded but in reality, it’s a cruel joke. Given the burden of being a college athlete, putting 20 hours a week at a part-time job is not very practical. The hours athletes would spend working at a job are already spoken for. Typically, they already spend that much time every week in team meetings, practices and traveling out-of-town games not mentioning the academics.

And depending on the sport, the time demands during the off season aren’t that much different from the actual season.That’s why college athletes should be paid some kind of reasonable stipends, which would be made part of the awarded scholarship. Since they don’t have time to work, it’s the only way they can receive money without breaking any rules. With a stipend in place, coaches and athletic administrators wouldn’t be burdened with monitoring potential abuses by school alumni and or booster club members.

It is just a fair thing to do, especially for those athletes who come from low income families.While it is true that athletes who are on a “full ride” have all the basics covered for school. That includes tuition, books, and room and board. Even so, the scholarship does not include a spending money allowance to help cover the incidental expenses such as laundry and bath items or being able to go to the movies or for foods.

The NCAA uses the term “student-athletes” in referring to the folks who play collegiate sports. They’re supposed to be just like the rest of the student body; the only difference is that they play competitive sports. However, it is obvious that student-athletes aren’t treated the same as their non-jock counterparts. A chemistry student going to school on academic scholarship would not be prevented from working part-time to help pay for incidentals.

The same is true for all other majors who do not play sports for the school.One might be wondering on why athletes can’t get the same deal. Simple. It’s because of sheer greed.

College sports officials need to end their shameful hypocrisy. They should start giving back to those who help make the institutions NCAA powerhouses. The athletes deserve some financial consideration in helping to build a multi-billion dollar industry. It’s just the right thing to do.

Exploitation of College AthletesBeing an athlete is not at all easy. You have to deal with different problems too such as exploitation. Once common exploitation is that being an athlete and a student doesn’t clash at all times. We need to keep our good work on both areas or else we’ll be banned from the school we’re situated.

You have to attend practice everyday and trainings. And at the same time you’ll have to deal with the school works. Being an athlete doesn’t mean that we’ll be an exemption to other students. Still, we have to study hard and keep up with our grades.

There are many athletes who weren’t able to meet both ends because of the lack of time. If not, we can’t cope both of them at the same time. It can damage our studies and our concentration.Not only that our academic performance is at stake, our financials are also at stake.

Not all of us are born rich. There are athletes who are poverty-stricken. So basically, the finance for room, board, tuition, and other fees are ever present. An athlete would be lucky if he is offered a scholarship.

But not all schools offer scholarship to athlete no matter how good you are at it. In schools that don’t offer scholarships, the players aren’t under strict control. Athletes don’t have to practice or play if they don’t want to. These players are under no obligation to their coaches.

Drugs, sex, addiction, partying is also a form of exploitations in college athletes nowadays. In drugs, it cannot be escaped that people would take this substance to make themselves feel good, to make themselves active in the game. Being an athlete also means being popular. Of course the temptation is always around.

Sex, addiction, partying is a source of temptations. If a person becomes involved with any of these things, it might just affects the athlete’s ability and performance in academics and at the same time his sports.College sports exploitations are racism. The blacks are often ridiculed by the whites.

These people are often subjected and exploited by coaches, officials and the system itself. Most significantly, their talents have been prioritized over their education, resulting in many of them graduating unskilled or not graduating at all.The “Flutie Factor”Whether it’s called the ‘Flutie factor’ or ‘mission-driven intercollegiate athletics,’ the outcome of having a winning sports team is showing up at admissions offices nationwide.” -USA Today, “Winning One for the Admissions Office,” July 11, 1997.

The first documented use of “Flutie factor” had nothing to do with college applications. It came in a Washington Post article on November 29, 1984; only days after Doug Flutie ’85 lobbed the Hail Mary pass that beat Miami in what has become the most talked game in BC football history. The aspect in this case was the predicament that Flutie presented to National Football League (NFL) scouts trying to verify whether BC’s undersized (5’9″, 176-pound) quarterback could rationalize the money a professional team would need to pay for his services.By the time the term made its July 1997 appearance in USA Today in what has become its “classic” form-linked to boosts in applications-the newspaper was able to assert that “Boston College’s example is so widely known in admissions circles, it’s called the Doug Flutie factor.

The surge in interested students was almost as phenomenal as the minuscule quarterback’s legendary touchdown pass.” USA Today went on to say that applications to BC “went up 30 percent in two years” as a result of Flutie’s association with the University.Successive references to the Flutie factor have quoted applications increases of 33 percent (in the New York Times, 3/31/99), “through the roof” (Washington Post, 4/24/00), 40 percent (The Diamondback, University of Maryland student newspaper, 4/5/01), and 25 percent-a gain achieved, according to the Christian Science Monitor of January 15, 2003, “after Doug Flutie threw a Hail Mary pass to win the 1984 national championship.”Whatever the percent increases or mythical championships attached to it, the Flutie factor has adequate authority today that some universities have invested in college football in the hope of replicating what they believe happened at Boston College in the mid-1980s.

In a January 2003 New York Times Magazine cover story called “Football Is a Sucker’s Game,” writer Michael Sokolove said that officials at the University of South Florida were building a major football program in the hope that “the kind of magic” ascribed to “the Flutie effect” would then strike the Tampa campus.And they aren’t the only ones. The State University of New York at Buffalo and the University of Connecticut, for example, have both moved to Division I-A in football in recent years, and officials at both institutions cite the Flutie factor as a basis for those actions. Sokolove himself credited it with “transforming BC from a regional to a national university.

” So was the Flutie factor real? The answer is that Doug Flutie increased applications to Boston College, but not nearly as much as the public and the media believe or as academic planners at some institutions seem to hope in justifying the millions of dollars they invest in football.In short, the term “Flutie Factor” refers to the victory of a team which would led the school you are in to become more popular and exposed. This exposure would benefit the school for it would increase the possibility of student’s applications for the school. In order to ensure that you gain acceptance to a number of schools, it’s important to apply to a wide range of schools that are reach, target, & safety schools.

This factor can have a major impact on enrollment decisions. It is also important to understand the individual application process for each school by having an understanding of how may applications you will be competing with and what your odds are.ConclusionThe competitions and contests, the pleasure in bodily activity, the loyalties, and the honor that form a part of that cosmic being called college athletics are the reflections in our college life, the characteristics that are frequent to the youth of the world. These and other less pleasing phenomena of college athletics will be scrutinized in the hope that those facets which are good may in course of time attain an unassailable prevalence over those which are less worthy to survive.

There can be no question of abolishing college athletics, nor should there be. What can be looked for is a steady establishment through concrete action of a few general principles, to which all men would agree in the abstract. Even this slow change will be impossible without the sanction of an enlightened college and public opinion.After some report of the development of the amateur status which, although it applies to all competitive games and sports, pertains especially to college athletics, it is purposed, first, to treat rather generally of athletics in schools, next, to discuss in detail a number of aspects of college athletics, and, finally, to enquire concerning the values that now inhere or could be brought to in here in this aspect of college life.

Therefore I conclude that, being an athlete and a student at the same time is not a piece of cake. It requires too much work and pressures to much to the student. It requires too much patience on the athlete’s side and discipline. You need to balance both in order to succeed on both endeavors.

The Burewala Textile Mills Limited

Introduction and Background: Punjab Government set up Burewala Textile mills limited at Burewala with 51200 spindles. A company under the same name and style “The Burewala Textile Mills Limited ” was incorporated in the same year to acquire the mills from the Punjab government.

The company started with authorized capital of the Authorized Capital of Rupees 33.5 million and a paid-up Capital of Rupees 15.00 million. The company was taken over by Dawood Group in 1957 and production facilities were expanded by installation of 1036 looms and a most modern cotton Ginning Factory.

At present the company has an installed capacity of 62912 spindles and 312 looms in its textile division with annual production capacity of 15.542 million Kds of cotton yarn of an average count of 20s and 11.828 million meters of cloth of an average 50 picks per inch respectively while Ginning factory has annual capacity to gin 144000 bales of cotton.The company is well known for the quality of its products in local as well as foreign markets.

The previous policy of producing coarse and medium varieties has been changed and the company is now concentrating on production of super class counts (unto to 120s) of yarn and high value added Fabrics. BTML undertook implementation of ISO 9000 in September 1996 and has recently been awarded ISO 9002 certification, which will help in boosting the export of yarn and fabrics.Production facilitiesBTM had an initial installed capacity of 51,200 spindles. The mills have been continuously updating its manufacturing facilities.

A major modernization program took place from 1988 to in 1994 which most modern machinery from Japan and Western Europe was added to the spinning facilities. The mills now have five spinning units, comprising of 63,000 spindles. BTM has a weaving capacity of 312 looms. The weaving unit has earned laurels for producing high value-added fabricsProduction lineThe mills specialize in production of yarn in fine and super fine counts.

Yarns produced by the mills are used in Weaving, Hosiery and Sewing Thread Industries. High quality weaving and hosiery yarns are singed and waxed as per customer requirements. The yarn counts vary from 28/1 to 120/1. BTM is the only mills in Pakistan to produce yarn counts above 80/1.

The mills also have the facilities to produce two fold yarns for high value added fabrics and specializes in “S” twist yarns for the Sewing Thread Industry. The sewing thread is commonly produced in 28/1, 34/1 & 47/1 yarn counts. The weaving unit produces superior quality value added fabrics like Swiss Voiles, Popplins, Gabardines and Fancy Shirting’s along with Cambric’s Lawns and LathaQuality and customer satisfaction:Quality and customer satisfaction have always been the focus of all activities at BTM. The management, right from the beginning, has stressed on product quality and customer satisfaction.

All employees are committed to work together to provide the customers with products and services to their absolute satisfaction.In September 1996, the management decided to implement international quality management system, ISO 9000, within the organization. The objective was to ensure consistent quality to its customers at competitive prices and to their complete satisfaction. Also to prove to the outside world that Pakistan has the capabilities to meet international standards.

All the formalities were completed in a short period of 14 months and the mills were awarded ISO 9002 certificate inDecember 1997Organization theoryChap # 1Dimension of organization:Structure dimensions* Formalization: The Burewala textile mills limited company is highly formalized therefore more rules and regulations are enforced on the employees. The written documentation describes the behavior of the employees.* Specialization: The specialization is the norm of the company .Every task is divided into separate jobs.

The person who is assigned the particular task, he/she is responsible to perform this task.* Standardization: The Company describes the work contents and then describes how this work will be performed.* Hierarchy of authority: The Company has vertical structure the authority moves from top to downward. The communication is made through proper channel and cannot be break.

* Complexity: The Company has divided the work activities into the no of department. Every department is responsible to perform their own work.* Centralization: The company is highly centralized every decision-making is made at the top level.* Professionalism: The certain education, training and skills are required from the new employees.

System of the Burewala textile mills limited:Open system:The company has to interact to the environment i.e. supplies, customers to survive in the market. The company adopts the new changes from the environment and provides the clothes according to the customer need.

Chap#2Strategic management and organization effectiveness:Official Goals of BTML:* The official goals of BTML are to provide quality products to people.Operatives Goals of BTML:* To increase market share.* To increase profitability.* To increase efficiency and productivity.

* To introduce new products in the market.Organizational Strategy:Porter’s strategy: Portor introduced three strategies, which can helps to achieve the organization goals i.e. low-cost leadership, differentiations and focus.

The Burewala textile mills limited adopt the differentiation strategy for achieving its goals. The company provides new variety of clothes in the market to make its product unique in the market and to get competitive edge over their competitors. TheCompany targets the customers who are concern with quality as well price.Miles and snow strategy Typology: He introduces four types of strategy i.

e. prospector, defender, analyzer and reactor.The Burewala textile mills limited uses the analyzer as it is trying to maintain current market and adopts the moderate innovation. The company uses tight control plus flexible culture.

The analyzer to balance efficient production of current line of product with the creative development of the new product and line. As this strategy is combination of the prospector and defender.Organization effectiveness: It is not difficult for the companies to set goal, but thing is how effective the organization is in achieving the goals. The Burewala textile mills limited company sets multiple goals then with the help of the employee and certain rules and regulations on the employees to achieve its goals.

Chap#3Fundamental of Organization structure:Chap # 4Open system design systemEnvironmental uncertainty in BTMLIn framework of environmental uncertainty the unstable environmental change and simple environmental complexity is applicable which means high moderate uncertainty. As the business of BTML is making clothes of both male and female which keeps on changing with the passage of time, the elements change frequently and unpredictably, but the external elements are small and they are similar in nature. They are basically in fashion industry the life the fashion is very small.Management processes in BTMLMechanistic Structure: The structure of the BTML is mechanistic as more rules and regulations, written works are common in the organization.

The characteristics of the mechanistic origination like division of labor, hierarchy of authority rigidly define tasks, knowledge and control of tasks are in the hands of the top organization and communication is vertical are present in it. The management has a traditional view they think that people don’t work without rules and regulations.Chap # 5Interorganizational relationshipOrganizational Form and Niche: When the new organization enters in the market it has to find niche from the market if it is able to find right niche it becomes successful. Like every new company BTML entered in the market and firstly it finds its niche i.

e. garments of men and women and then makes research and development to make it successful in the market.Strategy for Survival: In order to remain in the market BTML defined it niche and then focus on this niche to make it successful. The BTML adopts generalist strategy as it has wide range of market the garment industry of men and women.

It has a competitive edge over their competitors.Institutionalism: The population ecology assumes that all new organizations appear in the population ecology. After appear in this population ecology or going through all the processes i.e.

variation, selection, and retention it becomes institutionalized. It means that it has got favor not only from its suppliers, investors as well as customers about it products. Nowadays its products of cloth are considers unique, attractive and good quality in the market.Chap # 6Manufacturing and service TechnologyOrganizational Manufacturing technology: In organization level BTML uses LARGE-BATCH AND MASS PRODUCTION that is a manufacturing process characterized by long production runs of standardized parts.

Output goes into inventory from which orders are fulfilled, because customers do not have special need.Departmental Technology: The framework of departmental technology is presented by Chales Perrow which has two dimensions i.e. Variety, AnalyzabilityDepartmental technology Framework of BTML:> Routine Technology: It is characterized by little task variety and use of objective computation procedures.

The task is formalized and standardized.e.g.The production department includes in it.

> Craft Technology: It is characterized by fairly stable streams of activities but the conversion process is not analyzable or well understood.e.g.Designer of the garment.

> Engineering Technologies: It tends to be complex because there is substantial variety in the tasks performed, but activities are performed in standardized way.e.g.Accounting and finance departments> Nonroutine Technology: It has high task variety and the conversion process is not analyzable and well defined.

e.g.Research & development departmentFramework for department technology BTMLLow Variety HighLowAnalyzabilityHighWorkflow Interdependent among Departments: There are three types of interdependent among departments i.e.

pooled interdependent, sequential and reciprocalIn BTML the sequential interdependent is performed as the product of one department becomes the input of the other department therefore all the process is high dependent if problem lies in first department and it is not detected the problem will absorb by all process, therefore care should be made in each process.Chap# 7Information technology in BTMLThe Company does not use IT fully in all positions it does not Transaction Processing System, Data warehousing, Data mining however it has intranet in the department with which in formation can be shared among department. However Company is trying to adopt the new changes in IT field, but it will take time it to get familiar with IT and fully use it. The company doesn’t use Management Information System, Decision Supporting System and Executive Information System in business level.

No E-commerce in the BTML is currently used, but there is need to use this facility.Cha # 8Organization Size, Life cycle and ControlOrganization Life CycleBTML at life Cycle Stage: There are four stages of life cycle i.e. Entrepreneurial, Collectivity, Formalization and Elaboration.

BTML comes under the stage of Elaborative as it was established 47 years ago and it made great progress in that period that it becomes leader in the market.Bureaucracy in BTML: The structure of the BTML is highly bureaucratic, as there are rules and regulations to perform the work activities, divisor of labor, hierarchy of authority, and written communication and records proves it to bureaucratic. The decision-making is centralized.Dynamic Control System: If we apply dynamic control the BTML will be using Bureaucracy Control as already been stated that their area strict rules and regulations divisor of labor, hierarchy of authority, and written communication and records proves it to bureaucratic.

Chap # 9Organization culture and ethical valueBTML employee are very productive when new employee get job in Burewala textile mills limited ,company arrange meeting for introduction with old employee , some time company arrange tea party, with tea party collaboration between employee arise, in non program making with the help of other employee . Burewala textile mills limited give the first preferences to their customer, after the customer company gives the consideration to our employee.Organization design and cultureCulture of Burewala textile mills limited is bureaucratic. The company has a culture that support a methodical approach to doing business establish policies and rule as a way to achieve the goal personal involvement is very low in companyEvery decision is made on the base of codified rule, and decision is made top-level management, and gives to low level to implement it.

Source of ethical value in organization:Some time no of new employee and external environment influence the culture of the company such as Government impose duties on the business of the company, for making the culture, the company assign the work to the committee, is responsible in making decision, in this committee top manager of different department include and making decision according to the need of company.]Whistle blowing:In this company every person arise his voice against the company ruleChap#10Innovation and changesBTML adopts the changes through incremental process. In this system company uses existing system and current management to improve its product. BTML deals with the woman and man clothes, so the changes in the product is necessary to compete the other company in the marketThe Ambidextorces ApproachThe overall structure of BTML is mechanistic but for Technology , Company adopts the ambidextorces approach .

BTML behave in organic way, when the situation calls for the innovation of new idea and uses the mechanistic structure, to uses and implement it.New product success:Success rate of BTML is very high as compare to other competitors in the market; people demand the clothes of the BTML and give the preference as compare to others. The BTML better understand the needs of their customer and paid much more attentionStrategies and structure changes:The technical department of BTML, when involve in changes, give the empowerment to the lower level employee and administrative department of BTML with the tight control, implement these changes.Culture changes:When BTML adopts new changes with environment, when BTML give training to new employees, tell about the norm and value of company ,and learn to employees , how to uses the new technologies.

Chap # 11Decision making processNow a days the environment is very complex, large no f competitors in the market, management have not better information for decision making so, BTML manager often involve in non programmed decision. In comparative environment the decision must be made very quickly, time pressure, a large number of internal and external factor effecting in decision-making. Due to the shortage of time, mangers of BTML cannot evaluate every alternative so, the mangers of company use3s the bounded rational decision making approach and some time made on their own experienceCargine decision-making model:BTML uses the cargine decision-making model for achieving the goals.When the problems arise BTML manager solve the problem with mutual agreement and accepts satisfactory rather than fulfill the standard.

in the comparative environment time for decision making is very short so, BTML solve the problems very quickly , in program decisions follow the rules and regulation and in non programmed decisions, with bargaining and on personal experience try to solve the problems.Chap#12Conflict, power, and politicsChartFormal position:Above chart show that top management have the certain responsibility and rights . Top management set the goals and give to lower level staff for achieve such goals.Resources Top mangers give recourses to every department according to their needs.

Information controlBTML gives the first preference to clients, collect the information from environment to fulfill the needs of clients and necessary for the decision making .company through internal networking also exchange information between different departments.Horizontal recourse of powerIn this chart some parreal level show that people involve in communication, which is very good for company to quickly achieve its goalsDependencyVarious departments depend on each other to complete its goals e.g.

sales department, for sales of goods depend on production department.