“What You Pawn I Will Redeem” And “War Dances” By Sherman Alexie University Essay Example

Sherman Alexie’s short stories “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” and “War Dances” portray two native American men, who lead different lives, yet whose narratives share common features and explore similar topics. In the first story, the reader witnesses a day of a homeless person in Seattle who spots family regalia in a pawn shop window and attempts to earn money to buy it. The second story tells about a man who experiences hearing loss and thus becomes lost in his thoughts and memories, remembering the times when his father was alive. Both Alexie’s works are packed with powerful and thought-provoking scenes that can make readers understand better the experience of people who lost their loved ones. There are many themes present in the two stories, yet the topics of alcoholism, family relationships, and death and illness seem to be most relevant and elaborate.

The main character of “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” struggles with alcohol abuse, which impairs his desire to lead a normal life and keeps him in his position as a homeless man. The addiction has consumed him to the point when he can no longer function without it, he turns to spirits to find a way to make money, “bought three bottles of imagination” (Alexie, 2003, p. 7). A similar situation happens to the father of the man from the second story, but he eventually dies because of it (Alexie, 2009). Alexie paints a vivid picture of how alcoholism can crush individuals’ will and make them dependent, unable to recover, and gradually move them into the grave.

The second topic of significant importance is the family relationships, which play a central role in the stories’ narratives. The main character of the first story is attached to his grandmother, Agnes, and the memories of her, at one point, he thinks that returning the family regalia will bring her back. Such is also representative of the main character of “War Dances”, who does not stop thinking about his father. Even after his passing, he needs his presence, for example, when a doctor tells him a strange compliment about his beautiful brain, he wants to share the joke with the father (Alexie, 2009). Both characters experience strong feelings towards their family members, and their thoughts are often preoccupied with the memories of the time when they were alive.

All the events presented in the stories seem to revolve around the theme of death, which manifests itself in many aspects, and not only the loss of dear family members. The passing of Agnes becomes the turning point in the life of the first story’s main character, at one point, he says, “I’ve been killing myself ever since she died” (Alexie, 2003, p. 21). Thus, the death of his grandmother triggers his self-destructive mechanism, which is gradually progressing and pushing the main character to his demise. At the same time, the “War Dances” the main character fears his death because of the alleged tumor in his brain, “I was scared that I would die if I slept” (Alexie, 2009, p. 15). Death follows every step of the characters, prompting them to think about or even move towards it.

“What You Pawn I Will Redeem” and “War Dances” explore the themes that often become taboo in contemporary literature, alcoholism, family relationships, and death. The main characters of the stories experience them in different ways, yet remain significantly affected by them. Alcoholism drives the first story’s main character to the extremes and makes him homeless while leaving the “War Dances” main character without his father. Death pursues both characters, constantly reminding them of its presence, killing their family members, and waiting for them to follow suit. Yet, despite all the darkness, the main characters constitute examples of empathic and compassionate people who just miss their loved ones.

References

Alexie, S. (2009). War dances. The New Yorker.

Alexie, S. (2003). What you pawn I will redeem. The New Yorker.

Atoms In The Human Body

Introduction

Billions of years ago, when the dense speck expanded, the matter and antimatter should have disappeared and left nothing but energy. Still, some amount of matter remained and filled the world with numerous particles (Sundermier, 2015). Those particles circulating through the dark matter across the universe might pass through an individual’s body. These elements turned out to be the ones that made human life possible. The body of a typical human being of 70kntsg consists of 7*1027 atoms (How many atoms are there in the human body? 2015). Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen are the fundamental atoms the body is built of (Sundermier, 2015). It also consists of some amounts of other vital elements.

Main body

The life circle is known to be renovated in certain time frames – the renovation is indeed understood in many different ways. While for many, the “reboot” implies losing weight and renewing the image, the human body – its atoms and cells, in the first place – reboots regularly. Atoms construct molecules, which turn into cells, then tissues, and, finally, construct organs. Daily, the body takes in new atoms from the air, food, or beverages. They then incorporate in the cells, most of which regenerate every seven to fifteen years, many of which existed for a million years (Sundermier, 2015). Annually, 98% of all the atoms in the body are replaced. More than that, the DNA in every cell relentlessly copies itself. The atoms of hydrogen produced in the Big Bang, oxygen, and nitrogen, circulating in the human body, were created in the burning starts. The lifetime of the atoms is even more fascinating – they are forever. To be more precise, for a proton, for instance, it lasts over 1025 years (How many atoms are there in the human body? 2015).

Conclusion

In comparison, the current age of the universe is though smaller than 1010 years. This sophisticated construction called “body” is indeed a mysterious notion, bearing within itself millions of atoms born millions of years ago.

References

Sundermier, A. (2015). The particle physics of you. Symmetry. Web.

How many atoms are there in the human body? (n.d.). JLab. Science Education. 2020, Web.

Health Policy: Ohio’s Consensus Model

A Consensus Model is a document that was developed by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) and the Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) Consensus Work Group. The key purpose of the Consensus Model is to foster the collaboration of APRN educators, regulatory bodies, and other professionals across the US. This paper focuses on examining the extent to which the state of Ohio meets the regulations of the Consensus Model.

The review of Ohio’s board of nursing website shows that the state clearly defines its Consensus Model. This document regulates the practice of individual practitioners in such dimensions as education, licensure, and certification to ensure that the professionalism of nurses meets the expected levels. Accreditation is another area that implies a formal review and assessment by an authorized agency (“Comparison of the APRN Consensus Model”, 2018). The national accreditation body is assigned the role of designing evaluation procedures and monitoring their implementation. As for competence, it is to be assessed by professional organizations rather than by regulating boards.

Considering that modern healthcare faces an increased level of care services and costs, the Consensus Model proposes a new role for APRNs. In particular, the document requires developing a unique set of competencies that is to be transparent, accountable, inclusive, evidence-based, national in scope, and consistent with regulatory principles (“Consensus Model for APRN regulation,” 2008). In its turn, the board of nursing should be responsible for licensing APRNs while focusing on their graduation, programs, and roles. The certification regulations are to be accredited by the corresponding body and assess core and specialty competencies, following the established certification standards.

Ohio’s total points for meeting the regulations of the Consensus Model are 20, which means that the state is congruent with 71 percent of uniformity requirements. The state has four points for each of the following areas: education, certification, roles, license, and APRN title (“APRN Consensus Model by state,” 2019). Written collaborative agreements are adopted for the independent practice and prescribing of Certified Nurse Midwives (CNMs), Certified Nurse Practitioners (CNPs), and Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNSs). The practice of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) is supervised, which gives the state 0 points.

Acute care services compose the area that is questioned by Ohio’s board of nursing, which is reflected in the recent memorandum of the Ohio Association of Advanced Practice Nurses (OAAPN). The so-called ultimate authority of the Consensus Model implies that CNPs should accomplish national certification if they would work in acute care (“Memorandum,” 2018). In case the state decides not to follow the identified document, primary care provides, who were educated to provide acute care as well, would be able to practice.

This is regarded as possible if these nurses received graduate clinical training, which means that every employee’s clinical experience would be a subject of examination. In this case, the board of nursing is the key body that is to determine the relevance of CNPs’ competencies and professionalism. However, such a decision seems to significantly restrict the rights of hospitals to consider workforce planning and deployment.

Among a range of alternatives, one decision regarding the Consensus Model adoption can be noted as the most promising. The point of the OAAPN can be identified as to “maintain the current rules and course of APRN practice with no specialty certification requirements” (“Memorandum,” 2018). The value of this plan of action lies in the fact that it meets the needs of APRNs and also follows the Consensus Model requirements. Since Ohio’s APRNs effectively provide acute care without specialty regulation, it is suggested that such an over-regulation is not necessary.

References

APRN Consensus Model by state. (2019). Web.

Comparison of the APRN Consensus Model and the Ohio Nurse Practice Act and administrative rules. (2018). Web.

Consensus Model for APRN regulation: Licensure, accreditation, certification & education. (2008). Web.

Memorandum. (2018).

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