When You Wish Upon A Dream Sample Essay

The investigation of consciousness, or states of awareness, has yielded numerous captivating and influential studies. Sleep, dreams, and hypnosis are all states of awareness that have fascinated psychologists due to their connection to the quality of psychological interaction with the environment. These states of awareness are constantly changing, resulting in corresponding changes in behavior. The field of study in this area has greatly contributed to our comprehension of psychology. Researchers exploring states of awareness have made notable advancements, including the discovery of Rapid Eye Movement sleep and its correlation with dreaming. Leading researcher Rosalind Cartwright has taken the study of consciousness to new heights by proposing that individuals may have the ability to exert control over their dreams.

Numerous psychologists have offered theories on the purpose and meaning of dreams. According to Sigmund Freud, dreams serve as a portal to the unconscious mind, enabling the expression of unfulfilled desires and fears through symbolic imagery. This viewpoint has had a significant influence, with dream interpretation remaining a fundamental tool in psychotherapy. Another perspective, known as the “mental housekeeping hypothesis” proposed by Chrick and Mitchilson, suggests that dreaming acts as a cognitive process to rid the mind of useless, bizarre, or redundant information accumulated over time. Rosalind Cartwright further developed the theory that dreams facilitate problem-solving by providing an extension of thoughts. By exploring potential solutions and gaining insights, individuals can tackle the challenges they face in waking life. Cartwright contended that dreams are influenced by personally relevant wishes made prior to sleep, particularly those related to desired changes in one’s personality or cognitive inconsistencies about oneself. In such cases, she predicted that dreams would center around the identified problem and involve different approaches compared to wakefulness.

Cartwright conducted an experiment using 17 volunteer college students who identified themselves as good sleepers. These individuals spent a few nights in the lab to get accustomed to the environment. Each participant was given a deck of cards with adjectives, such as “selfish,” and asked to sort them into seven categories from least to most similar to themselves. They also sorted another deck of cards for the person they aspired to be, which helped identify a negative aspect they wished to change, referred to as a “target adjective.” During sleep, the subjects were fitted with electrodes to monitor their REM sleep cycles. Before falling asleep, they were instructed to repeatedly say, “I wish I were not so (target adjective).” The subjects were woken up during REM sleep to record their dreams. Cartwright meticulously evaluated the subjects and selected two additional words along with the target adjective to eliminate other potential dream motivations. She explained, “If only the target word is consistently incorporated in a significant number of cases, it could be argued that this is one possible way dreams are formed: bringing attention to a tension area prior to sleep.” To validate this theory, the control words were included in the analysis of each subject.

Cartwright’s findings confirmed her predictions regarding the reasons for dreaming. The majority of participants (15 out of 17) had dreams that were related to the adjective representing their target, while only two individuals experienced dreams that contradicted their self-descriptive adjective. This provides evidence that our approach to situations in dreams differs from our waking state. Some subjects dreamt where their ideal characteristic was embodied by another character, but this trait caused difficulties for that character. Cartwright argues that these results demonstrate how dreaming serves the purpose of exploring emotional areas of tension. Other researchers have built upon Cartwright’s work, with a recent study focusing on the capacity to control dreams as they occur. Previous research conducted in the 1980s demonstrated the possibility of being aware and conscious during REM sleep, commonly referred to as lucid dreaming. Lucid dreamers often possess the ability to manipulate or alter the content within their dreams.

Gaining a deeper understanding of consciousness can provide mankind with various benefits. One advantage is the potential to utilize dreams for valuable psychotherapy purposes, such as experimenting with personal changes by learning to control them. Similarly valuable is the practice of accurately interpreting dreams, which alone can serve as a form of psychotherapy. Another benefit is the ability to use lucid dreaming to overcome nightmares. Dreaming in general offers profound insights into one’s mind and soul. By evaluating and comprehending their dreams, individuals can acquire numerous strategies for facing life’s challenges, ultimately enhancing self-understanding and equipping people with improved problem-solving approaches.

The Amusement Industry: A Key To Mundane Life

In today’s modern society, the amusement industry plays a critical function in people’s mundane life. From films to Broadway, music to telecasting, or even NASCAR to lawn mower racing, everyone has some signifier of amusement that grabs their attending. In instance of the hungriness creative person, he was seeking to put a record figure of years for fasting. However in the terminal, there was no good ground why he chose to make so, except that he didn’t find the nutrients he liked. The Hunger Artist’s endowment, in a manner, describes the overall actions of society as a whole, in the manner that it treats entertainers or famous persons.

When a individual first enters the amusement industry, or when person enters the public oculus in any manner form or signifier, the populace foremost has to take notice of this individual. Once this individual is know, the public somehow jointly decides whether to accept this individual for who they are and what they do, or ptyalize them out. In the Hunger Artist’s instance, from when this profession took topographic point, it was an instant hit. Everyone wanted to see it and wonder at the astonishing endowment. It is in human nature, to follow the current tendencies, to see what everyone else is seeing, and at this clip it was the hungriness creative person.

Modern civilization is the same manner, to an extent, seeing how rapidly new sets or film stars make a hit and they make 1000000s of dollars, and so they get smacked in the face. Society finally moves off from the current tendencies at the clip and is forced into a alteration of some sort. Whether or non certain entertainers will accept that society is traveling to alter with or with out them is the chief concern. Not in the hungriness artists life though, he was traveling to fast and that was that. His lone existent concern was the record figure of years fasting he wanted to interrupt, which he had set himself? “His populace pretended to look up to him so much, why should it hold so small forbearance with him; if he could digest fasting longer, why shouldn’t the public endure it?” I think this is a really of import statement in the reading and it truly makes a direct connection with todays modern society despite the time period difference. In todays society this statement might pertain to a music-recording artist.

Someone might write a hit album, make it big, and have millions of fans all over the place, wanting to see them, or buy their album. This would be a great financial income for that person, or a great living. Society would embrace their gift and then they might write a not so good album, and society would reject them. Does the artist continue or as we say, “try, try again”? In the Hunger Artist’s point of view, he would keep right on going because it makes him happy. The recording artist would try something else because the music isn’t making the same kind of money it used to, therefore he must lower his standard of living to compensate for societies rejection of his talent.

As for the hunger artist, money and standards of living do not play a role in is happiness; therefore he has only the societal pressures influencing his decisions. The hunger artist finished his fast under the Impresario, and was forced to move on in his ways. He then joined a circus that had enormous traffic, so once again more people could marvel at his talent. As many are doing so in our society, musicians are moving from the stage to the big screen or vise versa, because their luck ran out. This is yet another stage in that persons life, which will soon and once again end like it, did the first time. After the hunger artist joined the circus, he had many more days of the crowds marvelous gaze, but that too ran out. When he was found under the straw in his cage, he was asked if he was still fasting, and then soon died by the talent that he lived for. This too is representative of todays society because once an entertainer gets too old or loses their ability, they are cast out by society and are virtually dead in the eyes of their field until there death. At that point, they are quickly replaced by the next rising star, to enter the cycle. Society is a never-ending machine that as long as people live on this earth will control anything and everything that enters it.

Intersciencebv Case Analysis


The case pertains to Interscience B. V, Netherlands-based, 25 year-old, scientific equipment reseller company. Interscience is an exclusive marketer of gas chromatographs manufactured by US firm Thermo Finnigan.

Gas chromatographs are used for testing chemical contamination by the contract laboratories. The equipment has other high end usage in the R&D laboratories particularly for new product development. The contract laboratories perform various tests such as water, soil and air for companies, institutions and government. Recent environmental legislations across Europe have propelled the demand for such testing and in effect the contract laboratories are growing very fast. However, when it comes to purchasing gas chromatographs, contract labs are extremely price sensitive.

Business Model of Agilent and Varian

Business Model of Thermo-Finnigan VAS provided by Interscience


Interscience is planning to enter the contract laboratory market in the Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg (Benelux) region for growth in the sales of gas chromatographs.

Q1. What are the tradeoffs for Interscience in using geography versus application as a basis for market segmentation? There is intense competition in the contract laboratory market. The product has been reduced to commodity. Price is the main determinant of sealing a deal with the customers

As per fact given in the case the different geographical locations targeted were: a) Belgium – Netherlands- Luxembourg (Benelux) region of Europe for Contact Lab b) Ruhr-Rhine Region in Germany for R&D In Benelux region Gas Chromatographs was more treated as Commodity products thus selling in this market will require Interscience to craft a persuasive value proposition. This region was dominated by two North American firms i. e. Agilent (a spin-0ff of Hewlett Packard) and Varian which used to sell no frills equipment at low prices and thrived on customer preferences.

The current price of Gas chromatographs was € 40000 ( + 3%) whereas the lowest price model of Interscience was € 45000 which is 10% more than the available gas chromatographs. Though Interscience Chromatographs had lot many VAS but were of least importance for the customers in Benelux region. In Ruhr-Rhine Region of Germany there is great opportunity and potential in R&D for interscience. Some of the major benefits derived are

  • Sales and profit potential is roughly equivalent to Contract Market of benelux. The Ruhr–Rhine region was in close geographical proximity to Interscience’s area of operations.
  • R&D leveraged highly on core competencies of Interscience where it had successfully proven. Challenges in Ruhr Rhine region * Selling in the R&D market will require reinventing the selling approach
  • The market has potential, but with given resources, Interscience cannot pursue both the markets
  • There are already 15 local players fighting out in this segment for the last 30 years Market characteristic: nationalistic and loyal German marketplace.

Q2: Which Market should Interscience target and what should its positioning of the Trace GC be? What, specifically, is the value proposition for the Trace GC in the selected market?

Answer: As per the discussion above and the facts presented and analyzed in answer 1 and 2, we would recommend Trace GC for Contracts Laboratory Market after removing few of the value added services like Customization, Education and training, consulting which are not required in the Contracts lab markets. Though as per the calculations given above we can see that Net Earning per Gas Chromatograph per annum is €116,835 which is 100% more than Varian 3800 (€ 56,635). If we calculate Cycle Time (Per Job) it takes 4 minutes less than Varian 3800 and Trace GC additionally performs 22000 job per annum which adds up to additional revenue of € 66000.

Further, to add up we can see productivity efficiency of Trace GC is 4 minutes higher than Varian 3800 which will decrease the cost of ownership by 4 min / 60 X € 45 = € 3 per hour (technical person’s wage per hr). Trace GC could be positioned as Highly Efficient Gas Chromatographs for contract laboratories and one day emergency response guarantee and urgent repair services could be provided on additional charges. For Germany, R&D market there challenges are already specified in answer 1 but at the same time we see high product efficiency and value price proposition in contract laboratory market so it is recommended that Trace GC should be positioned in Benelux market.

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