Why Was France On The Brink Of Revolution By 1789 Essay Sample For College

These were caused by a multitude of political, social, and economic problems residing in the English and French monarchies. In England, the civil war was a rebellion by parliament against the king.

There was a direct conflict and truffle in determining each of their roles in governing the nation. After the Tudor dynasty ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603; her cousin, King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England and thus began the Stuart lineage. Though he was influential in his homeland, he knew little about the English laws, institutions, and customs. James believed in divine right and consequently alienated the parliament who were accustomed to the Tutors “balanced polity”. Parliament did however manage to keep the power of the purse and expressed their unhappiness by refusing the kings money quests.

King James’ additional failure was stemmed from religious affiliations. The Puritans in the country wanted James to eliminate the Episcopal system of the church organization in which bishops or Episcopal held a major role in the administration and replace it with the Presbyterian model. This model was used in Scotland, replicated after Calling’s church in Geneva where ministers and elders played an important governing role. However, their pleas were pushed away by James’ refusal because he realized in the Anglican Church, the bishops were appointed by the crown.

This gave he monarchy supreme authority over church and state. At this time there was a growing opposition of the king and now the Puritans joined in with other English gentry. Conditions continued to worsen under the reign of James’ son, Charles l. He went as far to dismiss parliament altogether from 1629 to 1640 after recanting his previous agreement to the Petition of Right. The document prohibited taxation without parliament consent, arbitrary imprisonment, quartering soldiers in private homes, and declaration of martial law in peacetime.

Charles collected taxes for his excessive spending thou Parliament’s consent. Alienating himself further, Charles’ marriage to Henrietta Maria aroused suspicions about the king’s faith. She was the Catholic sister of Louis XIII of France and this upset the English Puritans. Charles attempted to introduce more ritual practices with the archbishop Of Canterbury, William Laud. This struck Puritans as an effort to return to Catholicism. Charles’ fatal error was trying to impose the Anglican Book of Common Prayer to the Scottish Presbyterian Church, which caused many Scots to rebel.

Without the financial backing needed to raise troops, Charles as forced to call the disbanded parliament. From November 1640 to September 1641, the new Long Parliament created a series of laws to limit royal authority such as abolishing arbitrary courts, repealing the taxes the king collected without their consent and the passage of the Triennial Act, which made sure Parliament met at least every three years. Some were satisfied with these reforms while radicals pushed for even more change. Charles tried to take advantage of this division by arresting some radicals including a large group led by John Pym.

This final act made it clear that the ins had gone too far which resulted in the English Civil War. Unlike the English Civil War, the French Revolution was closer to an uprising against the power of the monarchy and rich nobility by the peasants and middle class. Fifty years before the time the war broke out in 1 789, France experienced a period of economic growth due to expansion of foreign trade and an increase in industrial production. France was broken up into three unbalanced estates. The first and second estates Were made up of the clergy and nobles, which dominated society and led lavish lives and paid little taxes.

The third estate was made up of peasants who were not included in the nation’s prosperity. The taxes necessary to maintain and pay for the first and second estate’s luxuries heavily burdened the peasants. They constituted 75-80% of the population but consequently only owned 35-40% of the land. Their discontent and struggle for survival played a vital role in the course of the revolution. The consumer prices rose faster than their wages, which resulted in urban groups unTABLE to purchase necessities to live. A hardened resentment grew from both the lower and middle classes.

Even the argosies were excluded from the social and political privileges dominated by nobles. At the same time, new critical ideas of the Enlightenment deemed attractive to groups aggravated by the monarchical system. The majority of French society was fed up with the old, rigid order based on estates and privileges and responded by taking drastic action against the regime. Crisis struck in 1 787 and 1 788 with bad harvests and the beginning of a manufacturing depression. This led to food shortages, rising prices and unemployment.

One-third of the entire French population was poor. These people saw the lavish lives of the first and second estates, which led to increased criticism of their existing privileges. The parliaments gained new strength and judges took on the role of “defenders of liberty’ against the arbitrary power of monarchs. However, these efforts failed when they pushed their own interests and often blocked new taxes. The immediate cause of the revolution was the entire collapse of government finances. The court’s luxuries and costly wars took a toll and their expenditure grew to new heights.

The government reacted by borrowing money, which created a huge interest on the debt they already owed. Charles De Clone, controller general of finance, proposed a complete reconstruction of the fiscal and administrative system of the state. He convened an “assembly of noTABLEs” to gain support, but they refused to cooperate and once again their efforts at reform failed entirely. The French king, Louis XVI was forced to call a meeting of the French Parliamentary body, known as the Estates-General. At this point, the government was basically confessing that the consent of the nation was required to raise taxes.

Louis initially thought this would be just a way to love the immediate financial issues of the monarchy but actually ended up reforming the government completely and destroying the old regime. The revolution was officially initiated on July 14, 1789, when several starving, working people of Paris stormed into the castle of Pastille, demanding change. Despite their differences, the French Revolution and English Civil War stem from unrest of their citizens and their desire to transform and improve society. Clearly the main problem lay within the corruption and greed of people with authority.

The powerful have influence over the political, social, ND economic facets of society. However, in these instances, each monarchy failed to compromise by ignoring their own citizen’s frustrations and struggles. This left the civilians no other choice but to begin a revolution. Word count: 1 185 course luxuries and costly wars took a toll and their expenditure grew to new reform failed entirely.

According To Faber How Has Religion Changed

The primary aim of Machiavelli’s “The Prince” is to provide rulers with guidance on how to preserve their power. Machiavelli asserts that effective leadership is the most efficient method of governing. Nonetheless, if this approach proves unsuccessful, Machiavelli suggests employing diverse strategies, including violence. During his time, there was limited acceptance of Machiavelli’s theories, leading to his disgraceful death. Nevertheless, he remained unwavering in his convictions and disregarded societal teachings. Gradually though, individuals began to understand and adopt Machiavellian philosophies.

Other philosophers began incorporating portions of Machiavelli’s philosophy into their own, bringing a newfound respect to his ideas that were previously looked upon shamefully. Citation’s from Original Source: Undermanned, Cary. “Niccole¬∂ Machiavelli.” Stanford University. Stanford university, 13 swept. 2005. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.. “Niccole Machiavelli, 1469-1527.” Niccole Machiavelli, 1469-1527. N. P., n. D. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.. Mansfield, Harvey. “Niccole Machiavelli (Italian Statesman and Writer).” Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

According to Encyclopedia Britannica (n.d.), the reference to Niccole Machiavelli in “Fahrenheit 451” establishes a connection between Guy Montage and Machiavelli. Montage, unlike society’s beliefs, acted based on his own thoughts and convictions. He firmly believed that books were crucial for society and that their information should be memorized to pave the path towards a brighter future. Despite society’s disapproval of reading books, Montage would ultimately be celebrated as a hero due to his actions.

“Fahrenheit 451” by Bradbury contains a reference to Machiavelli, which is used to demonstrate the actions of the protagonist, Guy Montage. Similar to how Machiavelli’s ideas were initially rejected but eventually acknowledged for their positive impact on Italian city states, Montage experiences disapproval from society but ultimately leaves a significant influence. Having an understanding of Machiavelli and his contributions is essential in fully grasping the effectiveness of this allusion.

Fahrenheit 451 Purpose

“What is there about fire that’s so lovely?… It’s perpetual motion; the thing man wanted to invent but never did… What is fire?… Lets real beauty is that is destroys responsibility and consequences… Clean quick, sure; nothing to rot later. Antibiotic, aesthetic, practical” (Bradbury 1 15). This section of reading is without argument dominated by fire and its effects. For the society in F 451, fire is the magic elixir for cleansing life of its hardships and enigmas. Montage uses fire to cleanse his life of the restraints that are holding him back from freedom. Before Chief Beauty sends Montage to burn his own house, he informs

Montage that fire is the solution to everything. Beauty sends Montage into his home with a powerful weapon. This powerful weapon is simply an explanation. To the readers dismay, the explanation is later used against its dragomen. As Montage begins to enjoy burning his own house down, he begins to concur with Beauty that fire is the solution to anything and everything. Bradbury makes it evident that Montage enjoys burning his house by using descriptive accounts like “it was good to burn” (116) and “Fire was best for everything” (1 16). As he fires each shot of liquid fire, Montage is incinerating is past into ash.

Fire plays a contradictory role in this reading. Montage uses fire as his liberator against his past, while at the same time violates its vast power. Since Montages past has held him down for so long, he is feeling pleasure getting rid of it. To do so, he uses fire’s sheer dynamism to justify his problems, a lesson he derives from Chief Beauty. Montages cowering back to his old way of thinking shows the reader that he may not have changed as much as he believes he did. This is the case until he gets rid of the seconds thing that is holding him back from total edification.

The barrage of quotes and explanations that Beauty radiates help prevent Montage from becoming completely contumacious and incorrigible against power. To eliminate the force that prevents him from being liberated, Montage uses fire to kill a pundit of fire. Ray Bradbury has filled F 451 with instances of irony, so unsurprisingly he uses a major one in the climax of the novel. Beauty uses fire to defend his mentality and the mentality of society, but ironically the Bulgarian of fire leads to Beauty’s demise. In tonight’s reading, Montage successfully exterminates two of the three wings that hold him back from outright emancipation.

To eliminate Chief Beauty and his past, Montage uses fire. LCP to this point, Montage uses fire as a tool for dissipation. In this section, however, Montage uses fire as a tool to free himself from the restraints of a vacant life. Bradbury depicts to the reader that Montage craves change by writing “burned the bedroom walls and cosmetics chest because he wanted to change everything’ (116). The third and final obstacle that is holding Montage back from utter freedom is his own conscience. If he can learn to control his feelings and reasoning, Montage will be free once and for all.