William Bratton’s Personal, And Professional Life Free Sample

This novel illustrates William Bratton’s personal, and professional life and the police initiatives that led to his success. From Bratton’s childhood until his tenure as commissioner, we see the superiority and management styles that he brought to the New York City Police Department, and the changes he made for progressive police leaders to fight crime. This paper will discuss Bratton’s career, the leadership positions he took in various law enforcement agencies, and his successful implementation to reduce criminal violence in the cities of Boston and New York.

William Bratton, former New York City police commissioner was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1947. He came from a working middle-class family. His father, returning from World War II served in the U.S Navy, and his mother worked as a housewife. At a very young age, Bratton always knew he wanted to be a police officer. He didn’t know any officers personally, and he didn’t have any in his family. His only exposure was in grade school, when an officer came around the classrooms once a year to talk about safety issues, and when officers were assigned to go door to door to fill out census cards for valid voter registration. Bratton’s influences were mostly from television shows and movies. He had the opportunity to combine his love for reading and police because the library he went to shared the same building with the local police station. Bratton would go to the library every day to watch the daily parade of marching cops going on duty and filing out for roll call. Unlike policing today, officers were assigned to walking post and foot patrol rather than driving in vehicles. This led to the beginning of Bratton’s fascination with policing.

Following graduation from Boston Technical High School in 1966, Bratton decided to join the Army. The Vietnam War was just beginning and he wanted to avoid being drafted, with no guarantee of what specialty he would be assigned. At the time, he was 18 years old and his goal was to be a police officer, but he couldn’t achieve that goal until he turned 21. Bratton served three years in the army. He started basic training in Fort Dix, New Jersey, then he went to military police school in Fort Gordon, Georgia. He spent a year in Vietnam, and then was assigned to a Military Police Sentry dog company. These were not in the plans of what Bratton wanted to do in life, but in 1969 Bratton was deployed from the military, worked as a telephone installer at a telephone company for about a year, and on October of 1970, he got the call to take the Boston Police exam.

In the 1970’s and the 1980’s police didn’t do a good job communicating or collaborating with one another. This became ineffective when police needed information from residents to solve problems. It was believed by American society that crime was caused by factors such as demographics, racism, poverty, the economy, and unemployment. The police could not do anything about these issues so they decided to focus their energy on improving their response to what crimes occurred. In hopes that crime would not increase, the NYPD improved their response in this direction. Unfortunately, it was the right direction for them to go in. The results became evident in the 1980’s with the drug problem of crack/cocaine. This problem caused an increase in violence, guns, and other weapons to support the drug trade. Unprepared for this type of problem, Bratton discussed how American police began to de-police by being taken from walking beats, out of neighborhoods and put into police cars. In hopes to deter crime, there was an increased presence of officers in local neighborhoods.

By improving response times to what crimes did occur, citizen satisfaction would increase and by increasing the number of arrest, officers were hoping to satisfy the demand that something be done about the crime and disorder that was occurring in the neighborhoods. Lastly, in hopes to improve investigative techniques, more crimes would be solved. However, none of this happened. The response time worsened due to the numerous amount of 911 calls. Police were not expected to deal with a lot of societal issues due to the amount of disorder on the streets, public drunkenness was an issue so the drinking problem expanded significantly, and instead of mental patients becoming deinstitutionalized, they became homeless. Family morals and values led to more disintegration leading children and minorities who had no structure or guidance to become susceptible to negative influences on the streets. Pimps, prostitutes, and drug dealers became role models in the inner cities of New York, and the children began learning from them rather than their parents.

The schools also had issues, they became the substitute families. Police became increasingly ineffective in dealing with the crime problem. Their response was neither adequate nor sufficient. Fortunately in the mid 1980’s many police and community leaders, academics, media, and politicians began to understand that something had to be done about these issues. This change brought a new philosophy to the city of New York called community policing. Community policing is the new direction that all police forces should be going toward. It is very different from the modern policing techniques that were practiced in the past. The differences are its intent to prevent crime before it happens rather than responding to it after it occurs with the focus on creating a safe, social environment. It also encourages residents to participate with law enforcement in order to prevent crime from happening in the local neighborhoods.

Community policing is generally defined as a law enforcement philosophy that allows officers to continuously operate in the same area in order to create a stronger bond with the citizens living and working in that area. This model emphasizes rapid response, random patrol in police cars and reactive investigations. Bratton believed that community policing was defined by the 3p’s. Partnership is a method police use to work with communities and other entities of the criminal justice system by collaborating to expand the resources of dealing with problems. Problems is the second P in Bratton’s theory of community policing. Most 911 calls from residents are generated by a problem. If police focused on eliminating the problem, many 911 calls would decrease by reducing citizen satisfaction of slower responses to those calls. The last P is the overall goal of police to prevent crime.

The idea of putting a uniform police officer on the streets to prevent crime and get to know the neighborhood that he/she is patrolling gives residents a more favorable view on their local police departments, builds a trusting relationship between law enforcement and the community, it gives citizens a better understanding about their expectations from the police, and it gives residents the opportunity to provide accurate information regarding criminal activity in the community. The presence of a police officer in local neighborhoods allows them to work with the residents on what the problems are, and how they can be addressed. Based on Bratton’s novel, community policing brought a major impact on these issues.

William Bratton became police commissioner of New York City from 1994-1996, hired by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani who appointed him to his role. Mayor Giuliani used his campaign as a platform to do something about crime. During their tenure together, the two reduced crime by 40% and homicides by 50%. More importantly, they changed the way the streets of NYC felt. There was a significant improvement in the reduction of crime, and in the restoration of confidence. Their goal was to control and correct the misbehavior that had been ignored for the past 20 years. The two believed that if this behavior is not corrected first hand, overtime it leads to more disorder, more disturbances, and even more serious criminal behavior. Commissioner Bratton and Mayor Giuliani began to focus their policies on the Broken Windows Theory- a theory that addressed small crimes to create an atmosphere that discourages larger ones.

The theory tests that if you take a window and damage it in some way, ultimately if it is not repaired crime and disorder will be encouraged in the area. Critics assume that due to this unnoticed window, residents do not care about the area because they are not paying attention. When neighborhoods are clean, from the trash being picked up off the ground to graffiti being taken of the buildings, crime tends to decrease. The broken windows theory was popularized to view crime holistically. Bratton believed in “zero tolerance policing” that cracking down on minor infractions will attempt to decrease more violent crime. Unfortunately, many critics believed that his theory targeted communities of color. It was said that his implementation of the broken windows theory had increased havoc from Los Angeles, to New York City and beyond. There is much debate over the impact of New York policing tactics on reductions on crime and disorder during Bratton’s career as police commissioner. Broken windows policing alone did not bring down the crime rates but it did play a large role. Although Bratton’s efforts had some negative opinions, he defended his methods that required strategic training, supervision, and a positive relationship between law enforcement and the local community.

Modeled after the Broken Windows Theory, Compstat was developed in the early 1990s. Compstat is a computer program used to approach crime reduction using comparative statistics to identify crime. There are four levels to Compstat: timely and accurate information or intelligence, rapid deployment of resources, effective tactics, and relentless follow-up. Commissioner Bratton implemented the program in 1994. Compstat has allowed Bratton and his team to successfully compile information on crimes and the times they took place, victims, and other details to spot emerging crime patterns. Every precinct in New York was ordered to collect crime data, enter it into a computer database, and submit the disk each week to the police commissioner’s office. In 1994 the use of Compstat lowered the crimes of murder, robberies, burglaries, moto-vehicle theft, felony assault, and overall crime almost 27%. With this high-tech “pin-mapping” approach, police are quickly able to identify trouble spots as well as casual relationships, and then target resources to fight crime strategically.

During William Bratton’s long career of working in law enforcement, he became one of the most well-known figures in national policing. Bratton had a large amount of success during his 45-year tenure and is the only man to lead police departments in Boston, New York, and Los Angeles. He served two terms as NYPD commissioner under two radically different mayors, first in the 90’s under Mayor Rudy Giuliani and returned to the department in 2014 under Mayor Bill de Blasio. Commissioner Bratton formally retired from the NYPD September 16, 2016. Bratton brought new innovations and techniques to policing during his career. He made it necessary for officers to attain a college degree while working on the force, he made sure officers were equipped with new weaponry, equipment, and uniforms, and he brought crime down to a record breaking low.

Bratton’s many successes made the news nationwide and landed him on the cover of Time magazine. He made a vow to the city of New York and took full responsibility for leading the department in finding new ways to reduce crime and fear in one of America’s biggest cities and beyond. Bratton fully believed that with able leadership, political will, well-trained cops, and community participation we can take back America state by state, city by city, borough by borough, block by block, and we will win (Bratton & Knobler, 1998, p. 313). Bratton and his team’s efforts made New York City one of the safest places to visit, work, and live.

References

Bratton, W., & Knobler, P. (1998). Turnaround: How Americas top cop reversed the crime epidemic. New York: Random House.

Compstat: A Crime Reduction Management Tool. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.innovations.harvard.edu/compstat-crime-reduction-management-tool

Godown, J. (2009, August). PUBLICATIONS. Retrieved November 15, 2018, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/

Lortz, M. (2016, December 28). What is Community Policing? Retrieved from https://www.everbridge.com/blog/what-is-community-policing/

Criminal Investigation

In a home invasion there are four important steps that need to be taken. Step one, call the police. Step two, the detective needs to establish that a burglary occurred. Step three, locate the breaking and entering point. Step three, focus on the building and the occupies structure of the burglary. Step four, what was the intent of the burglary and what constitute a burglary.

When the detective arrivers to do an assessment of the scene the detective will determine the nature of the incident and the level of response necessary. The detective will document preliminary information, evaluate the complexity and scope of the scene, and plan the course of the investigation. As the detective, you will pay close attention to details and document everything you observe and do. You will record the time of your arrival at the scene and the exact location of the scene. Then you will record the existing weather and lighting conditions. Next, the detective will record information about the first officer on the scene.

The detective will make sure his or her duties have been carried out and documented. The detective will talk with any other officers or rescue workers on the scene. The detective will arrange for witness interviews and transportation. The detective will make sure to keep all witnesses separated from each other so their insight of what occurred is not influenced by anyone else. The detective will determine if a brief interview may be done at the scene to establish whether a possible witness has information about the event. Later in the investigation there will be a formal and detailed interview and it will be conducted at the office.

The witness’s statement should be written, audiotaped, and both. In some case’s the detective might contact the local rape crisis center and transport the victim to a designated medical facility for examination and treatment. The residents and the victims should be discouraged from doing any form of tidying up or cleaning. At the same time, movements inside the house should be limited to areas where there is no connection to the break-in. If it’s possible, investigators should escort the residents to a separate area and conduct the interview while the other investigators are still processing the location. Next ask the victim if she can point out the things that have been disturbed or missing. The investigator should be asked the victim about any recent visitors that has been to their home.

Police officers would also be interviewing the neighbors in case they have seen or heard anything suspicious. Although burglars would often go unnoticed, neighbors can sometimes recall seeing a suspicious vehicle in the area. The victim is an important part of any investigation. It is very important to locate the point where the burglar has gained entry to the property. This area gives a lot of clues and is also the best place to gather helpful evidence. After finding the point of entry, all windows and doors should be checked to find out if there was an attempt to open them. The detective should pay close attention to the ground outside in case of some footprints as these can tell if there were multiple burglars, and a way to estimate the weight and size of the individual.

The detective should look for evidence that can help pinpoint a burglar. The crime scene should be powdered to get both complete and partial fingerprints. The best way to find fingerprints would be on the smooth surfaces and glasses. The problem is most burglars are smart enough to know they should be wearing gloves. At most crime scene evidence is usually found at the point of greatest activity. One of the first things which needs to be determined then is how and where the entry was gained. The most common areas are to look in any room with windows and check for broken glass or a kicked in door.

If some other method of entry is used, make special note of it. Be sure to check all the doors and windows for signs of forced entry often a burglar may try several doors or windows before finding one they can open. Fingerprints are one of the best forms of evidence at any scene, and burglaries offer many opportunities for locating prints.

There are several new materials available which aid in the recovery of prints from textured surfaces. They don’t improve the chances that prints will be left on the surfaces, but they allow you to recover any prints you do find. Look for foot impressions can often be found near points of entry, either below windows, or on doors which have been kicked. With broken windows, it can also be valuable to check the glass on the floor inside the window for impressions. Foot imprints on glass or doors can be recovered using fingerprint powders and lifting tape. Footwear imprints can also be photographed. Use a scale in the photographs so they can be reprinted actual size. Footwear impressions in dirt or snow can be cast. Dental stone is the current casting material of choice. It is usually mixed with water in a large zip lock bag and poured into the impression.

Psychopathology As A Science

Psychopathology is the study of unusual behaviors or mental disorders in human beings. Mental health professionals in the fields of psychology, psychiatry and social work need to understand the genesis of mental issues in order to come up with remedies against them. Initially, the explanation for the causes of mental illnesses was based on superstitious or religious beliefs. The idea was widely accepted until the 17th century with individuals suffering from such conditions were subsequently tortured as a form of treatment. Since the introduction of psychology, the field has been viewed very differently. For instance, there exists a relative perspective on psychology as well as a Universalist perspective on psychopathology.

Relative Perspective on Psychopathology

The relative perspective is subjective, with varying principles and prioritizations of psychological concepts such as nature and nurture creating a unique psychoanalytic framework which varies depending on culture. The developmental and social setting whereby behavior occurs helps in distinguishing the disordered character from normal behavior. It is upon social judgment to decide what is damaging dysfunction or unfitting development and this differs across different societies. Ethnic and cultural groups have differences in their practices as well as activities that are important for their ecocultural adaptation and endurance. These cultural differences support a relativistic perspective.

Universalist Perspective on Psychopathology

A universalistic view of psychology is a preferred view when compared to the relative perspective, especially when focusing on psychiatric epidemiology. The basic point of the Universalist view is that psychiatric conditions and disorders are general and have chief symptoms that collect into widespread disorder outlines. What can vary in diverse cultures or smaller assemblages within cultures is the indicative expression of the disorder or the inception of what is deliberated pathological against ordinary character. Hence, the same inner disorder can be expressed contrarily in diverse cultures but have the same fundamental psychopathology across all cultures . This type of perspective is the one that is close to my own. Examples include Anglo culture and Thai culture. In Anglo culture, a child will display disobedience by openly refusing to follow the adult’s requests while in Thai culture the child will be hesitant or will appear uninterested showing the symptoms of disobedience. In both cultures, disobedience, when tied to a number of behaviors, show oppositional insolent disorder.

Types of Biases

Self-centered Bias

Bias in cross-cultural psychology refers to issues of attribution which arise from a person’s lack of objectivity, usually caused by external influences such as cultural values or other flaws in perception or judgment. For instance, a self-serving bias the tendency for people to maintain their self-esteem through denying their failures and attributing negative results to external factors beyond their control while successes are attributed to internal or inherent capabilities. The self-serving bias is a cognitive process where a person feels the need to navigate any negative feelings about themselves or hurtful emotions by denying that any negative results from a certain event could come from their own shortcomings. As a result, only positive results can be actively acknowledged due to their opposite effect on the persons, self-esteem, which explains the origin of the term self-serving bias. For instance, a person who passes a test will naturally claim that they passed it because they studied but not because the test might have been easy. Contrarily, if the person fails the exam, they will claim that it was because the examiner was unfair or that it was too difficult, and not that they simply weren’t well prepared.

Unassuming Bias

An unassuming bias is the opposite of self-serving bias and involves the acknowledgment of a person’s failures as a result of their personal attributes, while their failure to accept any successes as their own, instead of relying on external factors. This bias is quite contrary to the self-serving bias which aims to maintain self-esteem, as the unassuming bias has a negative impact on one’s self-efficacy. As a result, the unassuming bias acknowledges personal weaknesses and mistakes as a more significant contributor than their own capabilities, which are perceived negatively. For instance, a winning racer with an unassuming bias would typically attribute his success to factors outside his control such as the weather or the car’s independent specifications. On the other hand, a losing winner would attribute his loss to his own inferior driving skills, rather than attribute it to driving a less powerful vehicle.

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