There had been several kinds of Indians in the United States; perhaps they had reached the other islands too. There are some tribes who exist up to this point and one among these numbers of Tribe is the Wintu Indian Tribe who had lived in the surroundings of Trinity Mountain and Northern Sacramento River Valley in Northern California for 8,000 years already (“Native Americans”, 2007). Living a very ideal life as describe in some readings, this tribe continue to promote kinship among other villages and regions (“Native Americans”, 2007). In present, it is of great curiosity how they were able to adapt with the fast changing society.
The Indian Tribe
The word Wintu is the tribe’s language for person that was also used to calm them or pertain to them (“Native American Tribes”, 1996). Ruled by a village chieftain who posses good leadership qualities and most of the time, the leadership is being passed from father to son. However, in the absence of leadership skills to the chosen one, it will be passed to another person. Villages are owned by Chiefs who are responsible in organizing meetings, dances and gatherings. It is the leader who invites other leaders to attend to their feasts and they are the representatives to important functions (“Native Americans: Wintu”). Also, it is the chief’s responsibility to decide over disputes (“Native Americans”, 2007). In some instances that the chief wants to step down, he must be a good dancer and a good singer before he could leave his post (“Native American Tribes”, 1996).
In times of conflict, most probably a war, the tribesmen use bow and arrows as their weapon and together with this; they also use daggers, spears and slingshots as additional bludgeon. They use an Elk skin as their armor during fights and combats (“Native American Tribes”, 1996).
The way to live a Wintu Life
Wintu’s way of having or acquiring food is through hunting which, fishing and gathering wild plants. The men does the hunting and the fishing while women were the ones who pick plants to use as food and some were used as materials in making baskets. The most famous animal that they hunt is the deer. They cook food using stones and baskets while some foods are cooked through coal (“Native Americans: Wintu”).
In maintaining economy, they trade with other villages and this way of making money perhaps made them prosperous. Such trades were actually used in maintaining their survival through hard and difficult times. These things make them able to have something to eat and the same time enables them to form kinship when doing trades.
Living a Wintu Life
Wintu men marry women from outside their community or from a different Wintu Tribe. This happens so as to continue building kinship among other villages (“Native Americans”, 2007). The Chiefs are allowed to practice Polygyny and this usually happens to women from different tribes. Every people of the village offer a gift to the chief which is commonly food. This gift is shared to the rest of the villagers during meetings or gatherings (“Native Americans: Wintu”).
To their kids, they form a tradition which is being followed by the rest of the member of the tribe. A boy who already reached his puberty and was able to get his first salmon or killed his first deer was given a feast and this is the only one given to him. In the case of girls, when they reached the first menses, they are secluded for several months and for the first five day of seclusion; they were not allowed to sleep believing that dreams are bad for their future and would affect her health (“Native Americans: Wintu”).
Like most tribes, Wintus religion is somehow like that of the Pagans. Rocks and outcrops including pools, caves and most especially mountains were the ones they believe to have spiritual qualities. They treat landscapes as sacred which clearly informs the people that they do have the earthly things as their Gods (“Native Americans”, 2007).
The way they live their lives seems to be so ideal that they remain to be intact and together at most times. Though it is not clearly stated whether they were able to adapt with the fast changing society, the good thing about almost everything is that they remain abiding to the things they used to do for a long time already.
- “Native Americans”. (2007). Fifty Things Website. Retrieved October 27, 2008 from http://www.fiftythings.com/native.americans.html
- “Native American Tribes”. (1996). Coyote Canyon Webmaster Retrieved October 27, 2008 from http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1051/Indian.html#Wintu
- “Native Americans: Wintu” Retrieved October 27, 2008 from http://www.siskiyous.edu/shasta/nat/win.htm
Economic Growth: Indicators Of Risk And Health
Health economy is the top priority for every country, not depending whether the country is developed or developing one. Economic growth is affected not only by political, geographical and demographical factors, but also by tax system, tax benefits, expenditures, GDP, public-sector corruption, etc. Health economies are the combination of tax incentives, free markets, minimal economic distortions, minimal regulations, proper foreign and domestic policies.
The common characteristics of the country’s risk are large government deficit, high rates of money expansion, relatively fixed exchange rates, low rates of return and substantial government expenditures. Analysts argue that price control, trade restrictions and rigid-labor laws are not able to adjust changing relative prices hindering thus economic development. Moreover, incentives to save and to invest may be destroyed by high tax rates. One more risk is attributed to governments that accept responsibility for maintaining national living standards through regulation and spending in public sector. Pervasive corruption also hinders economic growth as, in such cases, corruption acts as large tax on legal business activities. Corruption discourages foreign investments and weakens public trust in capitalism structure. Finally, economic growth is hindered by absence of proper regulation of financial markets and honest civil service.
Long-run economic growth requires properly developed domestic and foreign policies. Developing countries are better equipped with tools and instruments to maintain health economies. Firstly, economy’s health depends on a structure of incentives that demonstrates government’s ability to respond to changing incentives and available resources. Incentives encourage savings and foreign investments. For example, productive investments are the result of legal rights to sell and to own some forms of property. Low taxes are argued to encourage economic growth as they positively affect savings, investments and productive efforts. Secondly, health economy is associated with free market economy. Researchers argue that stable rules, fair and predictable application of government laws along with absence of corruption encourage and foster wealth creation. Free markets with minimal regulations and restrictions are favorable for economy’s health as well. In particular, development of free markets is facilitated by the rule of law, fair system of property rights and enforceable contracts. Free markets are important for health economy as they increase economic efficiency and encourage successful innovation.
Thirdly, minimal economic distortion play important role in fostering economic growth. In particular, complex regulations are too costly for the government that has to utilize additional resources. Instead, minimal government regulation leads to decreased rates of corruption. Goods and services of superior quality are the most effective way to succeed in highly competitive environment. Fourthly, incentives to invest and to save maximize national chances of economic development. Finally, open economy and stable macroeconomic policies are important for increasing competition, providing comparative advantage, increases living standards and decrease poverty rates. Further, macroeconomic stability ensures is very likely to reduce economic risks, discussed above, to lower inflation rates, and to low real interest rates. Macroeconomic stability encourages people to invest in domestic policies and to stimulate further economic policies.
Summing up, the key indicators of economic risk are high taxes, absence of incentives, large government deficit and relatively fixed exchange rates. Corruption hinders economic growth as the public looses trust in capitalism system. Absence of free markets hinders economic development as well. In contrast, health economy is a combination of strong government incentives, low taxes, foreign and domestic investments, stable macroeconomic policies, free markets and minimal economic distortion. Open economy increases living standards and decreases poverty rates.
17th Century Masters Of Dutch Painting
The Baroque Art Style Movement started in the 17th century. This period was characterized by complex art style which is stimulated by the urge to tap the different “emotional states” which is dramatically shown “by appealing to the senses.” The dominant characteristics of this period were “ grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinctions” ( Pioch, 2002, “Baroque”). The Dutch were one of those who perfected this particular style and they have generated some of the critically acclaimed Baroque masterpieces in art history. Jan Vermeer, Jan Steen and Gabriel Metsu were just three of the masters of Dutch painting who have immensely contributed to the development of the arts in the Netherlands. Vermeer’s Woman Holding A Balance, Steen’s The Drawing Lesson and Metsu’s Young Woman Reading A Letter were some of the noted creations that have embodied the “novelty of genre Dutch paintings.” These art pieces were immediately accepted by the public because they resembled an “honest and materialist art” that highlighted art as an “end in itself and not as a mere vehicle for emphasizing values from other realms of human thought.” More so, these paintings focused on a common theme which is the depiction of domestic daily life wherein women where the central characters. The artists used this theme to emphasize that the homes were not merely structures but also the foundation of morals in the society. In addition, the role of women in the paintings was intended to help bring serenity to the viewers in order for them to easily adapt to the overwhelming changes that were introduced in the 17th century (cited in Janson, 2008, “The Subject Matter of Dutch Domestic Interiors”).
Jan Vermeer was an artisan who is known for his trademarks of crafty play with light and color, inclusion of graphics with poetic quality and the exploration of spatial relationships. The camera obscura was the tool he used add a realness factor to his paintings (Pioch, 2002, “Vermeer, Jan”). In Woman Holding A Balance, Jan Vermeer illustrated a young woman holding a pair of empty weighing scales who was probably going to measure the mass of the valuable materials placed on the table. Moreover, other elements were also harmoniously integrated in the artwork such as the painting of the Last Judgment which signified a Christian biblical event, the weighing scales which symbolized justice, the light coming from the window suggested spiritual enlightenment and the mirror in front of the woman represented conceitedness. All of these elements exemplified the significance of resisting temptation of material things and living moderately in order to obtain salvation (National Gallery of Art, 2008, “Vermeer”).
Meanwhile, Jan Steen was branded as one of the most productive painters of the Dutch art scene. He was known for his “versatility, richness of characterization, inventiveness in composition, skillful manipulation of colors” (Janson, 2008, “Seven Dutch Masters: Jan Steen”). The The Drawing Lesson captured the scene of an art instructor teaching a young male and a beautiful young lady most likely about drawing. The art studio was filled with a variety of art paraphernalia that were strewn all over the place. There were nude sculptures, paint brushes, easels and other art materials. Vanity was also represented through the presence of “a laurel wreath, a skull, wine, a fur muff, a book, a lute, and a pipe” to impart Steen’s message that popularity and life are not permanent in the physical world. This uncomplicated ordinary scene is a symbolic representation of the lives of artists and the nature of their profession (J. Paul Getty Trust, “”The Drawing Lesson”).
Moreover, another Dutch painter who made a mark in the field of Baroque art was Gabriel Metsu who was also a son of a painter. He founded the Leiden painters guild where he learned to create genre scenes that showed the “influences of Nicolaes Maes, Gerrit Terborch and the Delft school.” More so, “his technique evolved from the quite broadly painted Leiden works to the meticulous fjnschilder manner of his later Amsterdam years” (Janson, 2008, “Seven Dutch Masters: Gabriel Metsu”). In Metsu’s painting of Woman Reading a Letter, shows a woman reading a letter probably from a suitor or a male correspondence. Actually, this painting is a continuation of another Metsu painting called Man Writing a Letter and when these two pieces are interconnected, a story of courtship between a man and a woman is established. Meanwhile, “the maid’s momentary movement contrasts with the concentration of the young woman who, one senses, will not move until she has finished reading the letter.” Love was also cleverly symbolized in the painting which is in the form of the seascape painting mounted on the wall which probably was directed to represent the risks involved in having relationships (Web Gallery of Art, 1996, “Metsu, Gabriel”).
These three masterpieces by Vermeer, Steen and Metsu have clearly manifested the spirit of Dutch genre painting during the Baroque period. The definitive representation of domestic scenes and the depiction of women goes beyond the narration and description of the Dutch lifestyle. The symbols and human figures have transcended its literal meaning into something more profound. Subliminal meanings on morality and relationships were ingeniously included through the drawing of inanimate objects and bodily gestures. Because of these unique features, people were encouraged to analyze the rationality of the painting while enjoying and admiring its aesthetic beauty.
National Gallery of Art. (2008). Vermeer. Retrieved June 26, 2008 from http://www.nga.gov/feature/vermeer/symbols1.shtm
Janson, J. (2008, April 19). Seven Dutch Masters: Gabriel Metsu. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.essentialvermeer.com/dutch-painters/masters/metsubase.html
Janson, J. (2008, April 19). Seven Dutch Masters: Jan Steen . Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.essentialvermeer.com/dutch-painters/masters/steensbase.html
Janson, J. (2008, April 19). The Subject Matter of Dutch Domestic Interiors. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.essentialvermeer.com/dutch-p ainters/dutch_art/subject_matter.html
J. Paul Getty Trust. The Drawing Lesson. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=844
Pioch, N. (2002, October 14). Baroque. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/glo/baroque/
Pioch, N. (2002, October 14). Vermeer, Jan. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/vermeer/
Web Gallery of Art (1996, October). Metsu, Gabriel. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/m/metsu/writing2.html