Wollstonecraft Vs. Rousseau: The Role Of Women Compare And Contrast Sample Assignment

The Enlightenment Period was marked by new ways of thinking. Enlightenment thinkers questioned many things, including the role of the government, religion, and the rights of man. During the Enlightenment Period, the role of an eighteenth century European woman was to be a mother and a housewife. Many Enlightenment thinkers, such as Jean- Jacques Rousseau saw no reason for women’s roles to change. However, because the Age of Enlightenment was a time when individuals felt society could be improved through new methods to understanding life, there were some thinkers like Mary Wollstonecraft who challenged this old belief system.

Similar to the majority of men in his time, Rousseau believed that women were made in order to please men. Furthermore, he postulated that the reason they were inferior was by the laws of nature; that there were biological differences that made women mothers rather than intellectuals. Therefore, men and women cannot be equal. In addition, Rousseau claimed that women did not have the mental capacity to be educated intellectuals. In Emile, Rousseau states that, “The quest for the abstract and speculative truths, principles, and axioms in the sciences, for everything that tends to generalize ideas, is not within the competence of women… Nor do women have sufficient precision and attention to succeed at the exact sciences.” It is clear that Rousseau believed women were inferior to men. All in all, women of the Enlightenment Period were not allowed the same opportunities and education as men, so as a result they were thought of, and sometimes proved to be simple beings. Mary Wollstonecraft is considered to be one of the first European feminists.

Feminism is defined as a collection of movements in order to define, establish and defend the political, economic, and social rights of women. Wollstonecraft believed that women had the capacity to do greater things than homemaking. She believed that “the most respectable women are the most oppressed”, meaning they have no freedom in the male-dominated society they lived in, and they were wasting their lives away. Instead, she argues, they “… might have practiced as physicians, regulated a farm, managed a shop, and stood erect, supported by their own industry…” But women were extremely limited and could not accomplish these things, for that was not her role. More so than it not being a woman’s role, she was not afforded the opportunity to achieve such accomplishments. Wollstonecraft felt anger towards men as well as women, because of the comfort some women seemed to possess in being in such a limited role. She wanted women to have more opportunities and to be accepted as equal to men in society.

Rousseau and Wollstonecraft had vastly different opinions of the role of women. While Rousseau discussed and promoted religious freedom and a balance between individual liberty and governmental authority, he held a biased perspective toward the idea role of women. It is ironic because he presented a multitude of new ideas, but in regards to women, he held on to the old belief system. He only thought of women in terms of how they related to men. In contrast, Wollstonecraft believed that women had the potential to be financially and intellectually independent from men. Wollstonecraft wanted women to want more for themselves, other than what Europe’s society expected from them. The role of women was not changed as a result of the Enlightenment period, but in the centuries to come women would challenge their expected roles.

Detailed Description Of Oligopoly


Meaning:- Oligopoly is a common economic system in today’s society. The word “oligopoly” comes from the Greek “oligos” meaning “little or small” and “polein” meaning “to sell.” When “oligos” is used in the plural, it means “few.” Oligopoly is a market structure in which there are a few sellers and they sell almost identical products. A situation in which a particular market is controlled by a small group of firms. An oligopoly is much like a monopoly, in which only one company exerts control over most of a market. In an oligopoly, there are at least two firms controlling the market.

There are barriers to entry in oligopoly. Oligopoly is characterized by the tension between cooperation and self- interest among these sellers. It is a competition among few big sellers each one of them selling either homogenous or differentiated products. 2 For example:- If the oligopolist firms can cooperate, they can charge a high price and share profits. But if they cannot cooperate and instead they compete because of following their own self-interest, then price goes down and profits decline. In

dustries which are examples of oligopolies include:

Steel industry




Cell phone


Telecom service providers

Internet service providers



In the words of Mansfield “Oligopoly is a market structure characterized by a small number of firms and a great deal of interdependence.” In the words of P.C. Dooley, “ An oligopoly is a market of only a few sellers , offering either homogenous or differentiated products. There are so few sellers that they recognize their mutual dependence.”


The important features of oligopoly are given as follow :

1. Few Sellers

2. Homogeneous or differentiated products

3. Entry is possible but difficult

4. Interdependence

5. Uncertainty

6. Indeterminateness

7. Price rigidity

8. Non price competition

9. Tendency to form cartel

10. Close substitutes

1) Small number of sellers:- There is a small number of sellers under oligopoly. Conceptually, however, the number of sellers is so small and the market share of each firm is so large that a single firm can influence the market price and business strategy of the rival firms Interdependence of .

2) Decision making :- The competition between the firms takes the form of action, reaction, and counteraction between them. Since the number of firms in the industry is small, the business strategy of each firm in respect of pricing, advertising, product modification is closely watched by the rival firms.

3) Interdependence:

– The firms under oligopoly are interdependent in making decision. They are interdependent because the number of competition is few and any change in price & product etc by any firm will have a direct influence on the fortune of its rivals, which in turn retaliate by changing their price and output. Thus under oligopoly a firm not only considers the market demand for its product but also the reactions of other firms in the industry. No firm can fail to take into account the reaction of other firms to its price and output policies. There is, therefore, a good deal of interdependences of the firm under oligopoly.

4) Importance of advertising and selling costs :

-The firms under oligopolistic market employ aggressive

and defensive weapons to gain a greater share in the market and to maximise sale. In view of this firms have to incur a great deal on advertisement and other measures of sale promotion. Thus advertising and selling cost play a great role in the oligopolistic market structure. Under perfect competition and monopoly expenditure on advertisement and other measures is unnecessary. But such expenditure is the life-blood of an oligopolistic firm.

5) Group behaviour :-Another important feature of oligopoly is the analysis -of group behaviour. In case of perfect competition, monopoly and monopolistic competition, the business firms are assumed to behave in such a way as to maximize their profits. The profit-maximizing behaviour on his part may not be valid. The firms under oligopoly are interdependent as they are in a group.

6) Indeterminateness of demand curve :-This characteristic is the direct result of the interdependence characteristic of an oligopolistic firm. Mutual interdependence creates uncertainty for all the firms. No firm can predict the consequence of its price-output policy. Under oligopoly a firm cannot assume that its rivals will keep their price unchanged if he makes charge in its own price. As a result, the demand curve facing an oligopolistic firm losses its determinateness. The demand curve as is well known, relates to the various quantities of the product that could be sold it different levels of prices when the quantity to be sold is itself unknown and uncertain the demand curve can’t be definite and determinate. 7) Elements of monopoly :- There exist some elements of monopoly under oligopolistic situation. Under oligopoly with product differentiation each firm controls a large part of the market by producing differentiated product. In such a case it acts in its sphere as a monopolist in lining price and output.

8) Price rigidity :-Under oligopoly there is the existence price rigidity. Prices lend to be rigid and sticky. If any firm makes a price-cut it is immediately retaliated by the rival firms by the same practice of price-cut. There occurs a price-war in the oligopolistic condition. Hence under oligopoly no firm resorts to price-cut without making price-output decision with other rival firms. The net result will be price -finite or price-rigidity in the oligopolistic condition.

9) Barriers to Entry:- Firms in an oligopolistic industry attain and retain market control through barriers to entry. The most noted entry barriers are: (1) exclusive resource ownership, (2) patents and copyrights, (3) other government restrictions, and (4) high start-up cost. Barriers to entry are the key characteristic that separates oligopoly from monopolistic competition on the continuum of market structures. With few if any barriers to entry, firms can enter a monopolistically competitive industry when existing firms receive economic profit. This diminishes the market control of any given firm. However, with substantial entry barriers found in oligopoly, firms cannot enter the industry as easily and thus existing firms maintain greater market control.

10) Homogenous or differentiated Product:

– Firms in oliogopolistic industry may produce either homogenous or differentiated products. If the firms produce a homogenous product like cement or steel the industry is called pure or perfect oligopoly. If the firms produce a differentiated product like automobile, the industry is called differentiated or imperfect oligopoly.

11) Lack of uniformity:- Another features of oligopoly is lack of uniformity in the size of firms. Some firms may be very large and others may be small. For example the share of Maruti Udyog is 86% in small car segment of the Automobile industry, while the share of Ceilo or Tata is comparatively much less.

12) Keen competition:

– The oligopoly is characterized by the presence of keen competition among rivals. Under oligopoly, the number of seller is so small that any move by any one seller immediately, affects the rival sellers. As a result, each firm keeps a close watch on the activities of the rivals firms and prepare itself to counter it. To an oligopolist, business is a life of constant struggle as market conditions necessitate moves and counter moves. This kind of competition is unique and is not found in other type of markets. Oligopoly is therefore the highest form of competition.

13) Uncertainty:- In an oligopoly due to interdependence of firms on each other, no certain prediction about the behaviour of different firms can be made. It is difficult to calculate the consequence of current economic change on the basis of facts already in existence. So uncertainity prevails in

oligopolistic market.

Oligopoly Classification

Oligopoly can be classified on different basis:

1. Pure Versus Differentiated Oligopoly- Oligopoly is classified as pure or perfect and differentiated on the basis of product differentiation. If the products of various firms are homogeneous the term pure oligopoly is applied. On the other hand, oligopoly is imperfect then the competing firms are not homogeneous. The stronger the differentiation, the weaker will be feeling of mutual interdependence. Differentiated oligopoly is characteristic of a very large portion of the economy.

2. Open Oligopoly versus Closed Oligopoly- On the basis of possibility of entry of firm’s oligopoly may be classified into open oligopoly and closed oligopoly. An open oligopoly refers to that market situation which allows free and easy entry of new firms. Closed oligopoly on the other hand implies that the industry is controlled by a few firms and entry of competitors is prevented.

3. Partial oligopoly and Full Oligopoly- Yet another classification of oligopoly is based on the presence or absence of price leadership. On this basis partial oligopoly refers to the predominance of the industry by one or a few large firms followed by a cluster of small firms. Full oligopoly is a state of less equal status with no price leadership.

4. Collusive and Non-Collusive Oligopoly- On the basis of the existence or non-existence of agreements among sellers we have collusive oligopoly, other otherwise will be collusive.

5. Syndicated Oligopoly and Organized oligopoly- Oligopolies which have centralized selling through syndicates have been characterized as syndicated oligopolies. These which have entered into some agreement about price, input quotes and sharing of the market have been termed as organized oligopolies.

Factors That Affecting Low Seat Turnover In Schools Cafeteria

The school cafeteria gives service to the big population of students, teachers, and school personnel’s, guests, and sometimes people around the community. Most schools nowadays consider cafeteria as one of their sources of income aside from the enrollment of students. They provide the students a place to dine and stay inside the school premises. Because of this, they think of more ways to catch the attention of their students. They offer different food selections and variations for the students to have something to choose from.

Also, having a cafeteria inside a school makes it more secure for the students because they would not have to go outside to buy something to eat. The school’s management makes it up to a point that their students will never have to search for other places to dine. Instead of having students who dines and pays eateries outside, it is a good idea to have a cafeteria. If they can offer them a place to learn their lessons and gain knowledge, why not provide a place to dine in as well? With a good choice of menu and a comfortable place to stay in, for sure the students will patronize their cafeteria’s foods and services. But how can we ensure that they will not search for another place to dine? How can we make sure that they will be our customers?

For some students, they consider their cafeteria as their place for eating, chatting with friends, doing homework and the like. They consider it as a place to have a break from the pressure caused by the difficult subjects, assignments, deadlines, research papers and all the stuff related to their studies.But also for other students, if they feel like they don’t like to dine in their cafeteria, they tend to look for other places mostly outside of the school’s vicinity. Fast foods are the number one choice of students because they find it very comfortable and have a good selection of foods. Eateries outside are also one of the students’ choice because of its affordable cost of food.

Seat turnover is literally defined as the number of times a seat has been used. This determines how many people ate in the cafeteria or canteen. A high seat turnover rate may indicate high sales but a low seat turnover rate indicates low sales. What are the factors that cause the low seat turnover? What are the problems associated with its low rate? Seat turnover is an essential factor to know how much a certain business earns or how much it loses in a day. It can be referred to as a counter. The researchers chose this topic because they want to know the factors that affect the low seat turnover and provide a possible solutions or recommendations to solve the said problem.

This study is anchored on the PAD emotional state model. The PAD emotional state model is a psychological model developed by Albert Mehrabian (1997 and after) and James A. Russell to describe and measure emotional states. PAD uses three numerical dimensions to represent all emotions. The PAD (Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance) model has been used to study nonverbal communication such as body language in psychology. It has also been applied to consumer marketing and the construction of animated characters that express emotions in virtual worlds.

Physical environment theorist, like (Mehrabian and Russell 1974) particularly (atmospherics) suggest that stimuli from the environment affect one’s emotional state, leading to an approach (desire to stay, explore environment or avoidance (stay away from, leave) response. Another theorist (Bagozzi 1986) their stimulus-organism-response model consist of external stimuli made of different physical atmosphere elements. The main purpose of this study is to ascertain the factors affecting low seat turnover in Emilio Aguinaldo College’s cafeteria. The variables used were the food affordability, ambiance, personal hygiene, taste and quality of the food, and the time of customer’s disposal. Food affordability affects the rate of seat turnover because customers would patronize more likely affordable rather than costly foods. Budget is one of the important considerations of students when it comes to their food choices. Ambiance has grown to be an important factor in a restaurant’s success.

They needed to make a strong statement in contrast to competitive independents. Some hired experts to design their facilities, those interior decorators where specialists in the psychology of designing restaurants. They had the feel and close intuitive understanding of what the dining public wanted when dining away from home. Personal hygiene has aimed at preventing the spread of food poisoning bacteria from the body or clothing to food. It is the responsibility of the individual and all food handlers should have knowledge and understanding of it. Lack of sanitation practices and improper handling of food may lead to cross contamination and food borne diseases.

The taste and quality of the food is necessary because students would not stick or even buy costly products that would not meet their budgets. They would rather buy cheap priced foods that are of quality and good taste. The time of customer’s disposal affects the rate of seat turnover because the more the customer spends time in the cafeteria, the lesser the seats will be occupied again for that period. The lesser time the customers stay at the cafeteria, the higher the possibility of the seats to be occupied again. The variables stated above may be the factors or reasons for having lower seat turnover. Probably, the seat turnover is dependent on those factors.

A cafeteria has become meeting places where they gather to study and eat. This study will serve as their guide in choosing where they were going to eat at the same time they will feel comfortable and safe. Institution or School administration.A cafeteria makes highly visible contributions to an institution’s public image. This study will serve as their reference on how to improve campus revenue sales. Owners of the establishment.

The completed study will served as a guide for the cafeteria’s management to have market growth and to increase and raise their sales based on the said factors that may affect the seat turnover in their cafeteria. Businessmen.It will give them an idea on how they will make strategies to have a stable business. Food Safety and Sanitation.This study could help to guide the performance of the business and this must be given importance in all undertakings of the latter.Thisalso could serve as a guide for them in implementing or formulating policies and making ordinances relevant to responsible businessmen.

The study focus only on thefactors that causes low seat turnover in the cafeteria since this is one of the observed problems in our school.The study will focus only to students who will use the facilities in EAC cafeteria for dining, excluding those who will buy food and take it outside the cafeteria. The faculties, deans, school employees such as maintenance, security guard, office staff and others will not be included in the study even if they use the cafeteria for dining. This study is delimited to a 2008 number of students enrolled in all departments in EAC for the year 2012 to 2013.

To ensure clearer and better understanding of the terms used in this study, the following terms are defined: Cafeteria. A type offood service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen. Seat turnover.Measuresthe number of times seats change from the current diner to the next diner in a given accounting period. Customer.Sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser, is the recipient of a good, service, product, or idea, obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplierfor a monetary or other valuable consideration. 10

The special the atmosphere or mood, character, quality, tone, created by a particular environment or surrounding. Individual Preference.The selecting of someone or something over another or others, the right or chance to so choose. Sanitation. Sanitation literally means measures necessary for improving and protecting health and well-being of the people, and the process of keeping places free from dirt, infection, disease. Personal Hygiene. Properly caring for your body by keeping it clean and healthy and protecting yourself from illness and infection.

Cafeteria is the only place where students and teachers gathered every day to eat their meals and catch up with each other’s and discuss school activities. The area must be fully equipped and to meet the need of meal times such us tables, chairs, electric fan for ventilation, complete lights, tools and utensils for serving and other equipment for preparing the meals. Cafeteria is a necessity in every establishment especially in schools because this is where we meet our needs to satisfy hunger. SooCheong (2009) defines cafeteria as a self-service establishment where customers order at the service counter and take the food to their seats.

The operational plan for a cafeteria deals with startup issues, basic operations, short term and long-term strategy and maintaining financial sustainability. It is important that issues must be addressed in a cafeteria to maintain customer satisfaction to continue profitability of the business. Among the issues need to be addressed is low seat turnover in which you will choose whether to sacrifice revenue against customer satisfaction or vice – versa concerning the factors that may affect to it.

According to Bernard Davis, Andrew Lockwood, Peter Alcott and IoannisPantelidis (2012) a food service facility speed of service, the atmosphere and environment of certain types of catering facilities and the social skills of the service staff can be particularly attractive to certain groups of customers. The price level of an operation will significantly affect the restaurant choice of customer, particularly “impulse” buying decisions of customers and hence their choice of meal experience, although it is unlikely that any of these variable will operate in isolation usually two or three factors together will influence customers choice of operation. Once customers have decided on the type of meal they want, they will start to accumulate different expectation and anticipations.

Just as the customers buying decisions are influenced by an number of variables, so too is the meal experience itself. According to Gueguen et al. (2008) some strategies include loud decibel levels, which have been prove to make customers eat faster. Even the colors of the surroundings have also effect to the customers, bright colors like red, yellow, and orange entice customers in and also help speed eating up. Cafeteria owners do not want to have customers who stay firmly parked in their food establishment for hours on end. They can be a cause of low turnover percentage. On the other hand, owners want customers to enjoy a great atmosphere while they dine. It is understood that an enjoyable experience is more likely to bring customers back the next time. According to Chef Kyle Shadix, MS, RD (2008) the marketing mix is the critical component because price is the most evident to the customer in the target market. Price is often a competition tool and can assist a business in developing product images. A 13

Safety, Sanitation and maintenance are equally important receiving and storage areas should be checked after deliveries to make sure that items were put away property and in a timely manners there areas need to be cleared or a timely manners there areas need to be cleared or a daily basis. This will prevent remain such a rodents cockroaches from using their areas as resting grounds. The receiving and storage area should consider when developing your food service establishment HACCP system. The personnel to give a given menu, several resources must be considered a primary one being labor. The number of labor hours, as well as the number and skill of personnel at a given time, determines the type of menu that could planned. Physical facility production capability also affected by the layout of the food production facility and the availability of large and small equipment.

The budget it is the amount of financial resources a facility has available is a very consideration in menu planning. Aesthetics this are the flavor, texture, color, shape, and method of preparation are other factors to consider in planning menus. On the other hand Mary Crane (2007) stressed out that financial viability requires sales growth and cost management. Cafeterias should have multiple sources for food supplies and they should negotiate volume discounts from suppliers. Management should always look to maximize resource utilization. For example, catering service for special events could optimize resource utilization during off-peak hours and drive profitability. Crane writes that cash flow, which is the difference between cash inflow and outflow, and the percentage of repeat customers are two ways to monitor the financial performance of a restaurant. Aside from customer satisfactions that would result to increase revenue other factors such as cost management is important.

Management should always look to maximize resource utilization. For example, catering service for special events could optimize resource utilization during off-peak hours and drive profitability. Crane writes that cash flow, which is the difference between cash inflow and outflow, and the percentage of repeat customers are two ways to monitor the financial performance of a restaurant. Aside from customer satisfactions that would, result to increase revenue other factors such as cost management is important. Related studies

According to Danny Banda’s (2010)in planning a menu, consider why restaurant owners have selected the men items and how they relate to the service system are the foundation of their cafeteria and must be compatible. They begin with what they personally feel would be the right menu for their concept. They do not focus only on what is practical and foundational by focusing only on the practice aspect of a menu they will lose inspiration and creativity only after they have settled on what they think are the most appealing items to consider their practicability.

An effective way to add menu items while effective controlling food costs is to offer daily specials. This way they can contribute to offer of a variety of selection that will 15 keep their menu appealing. In preparing specials, be careful to prepare just enough, so that they will run out by the end of the this will help to control unnecessary waste after trying out dishes internally food trials may be conducted for a cross action of people from the target market with a view to incorporating their feedback. This gives us leads on which dishes, tastes, colors, textures, or portion sizes, aroma etc. are likely to work in our favors.

The price point to portion size ratio of each dish must also be considered from a market acceptance point of view before a final decision. Cafeterias of the same/similar cuisine and of the same/similar positioning level may be used as reference points for this exercise. Once the menu is decided conclusively in terms of content such as item description, price, etc.

Menu design is not simply about offering everything a menu can like variety for instance. Create your menu based on what your offer is about and what your guest would actually want or need. Staffs are another limitation they needs to be taken account into when creating a menu every manager and chef is limited by their own ability to find qualified help. Limit their offering to what their staff is qualified to prepare. The customer’s desire if they want a menu that works, it has to work for their potentials customers. Rather idea they have about introducing some new.

Individual food choices are influenced by a wide variety of environment and individual variables. Three main dimension related to food choices are taste, perceived value (which include the price and portion size) and perceive nutrition. Food varyalong each of these evaluative dimension, individuals also vary in terms of the importance placed on each dimension.

For example, individuals of lower socioeconomic status may place greater importance on perceive value, whereas those who are mainly concerned about health and nutrition may place greater importance on the nutrition quality of the foods. In general, people may possess knowledge about healthful food choices. But when considered in tandem with the choice dimensions of price tastier, they may choose the tastier and cheaper, but less nutrition, food. An important question for public health promotion efforts in the area of healthful food choices is, “can people be influenced to purchase and consume more healthful foods if the foods are in increased attractiveness through lowering prices?’’

The temperature, lighting, odor and noise that influence the immediate eating environment. Consider the direct physiological influence that ambient temperature has on consumption. People hot temperature because of the body’s need cold temperatures, more energy is needed to warm and maintain the body’s core temperature. These atmospherics are thought to increase consumption volume partly because they simply make it comfortable or enjoyable for a person to spend more time eating. Odor can influence food consumption through taste enhancement or through suppression. Unpleasant ambient odors are likely to shorten the duration of a meal and to suppress food consumption. Noise and the sound of music, soft music generally encourages a slower rate of eating, longer meal duration, and higher consumption of both food and drinks.

When preferred music is heard, individuals stay longer, feel more comfortable and disinhibited, and are more likely to order a dessert or another drink. In contrast when music is loud fast, or discomforting, people sometimes spend less in a cafeteria.

Food service industry is a big business enterprise. The services it offers cater thousands of the homes, restaurants, hotels, motels, inns, and lots of people who patronize them. This means food staff, personnel and crew members play an important role in the health of the community. Your customers will see only the finished products vin your sales/dining room, but when you go behind the counter what really matters is the safety of your products and the people behind the industry.

Safety and sanitation is essentials in any catering department maintaining sanitation in food business prevents customers from untoward incident like poisoning, infection, diarrheas, gastrointestinal disease, excretory and other related respiratory disease. To keep food safe, the food handler should be medically fit, have a license should be educated in matters related to personal and food hygiene and should practice safe food handling and service. The local health authority should lay special emphasis on clean food practices.

Aesthetic factor include the color, illustrate of the menu and attraction of the menu and attractive to the customers. The menu must have on appealing factor so that customers will be interested the food must have a balanced flavor. The food is prepared in advanced ready to be served and available anytime either hot or cold. Food is placed or displayed at the counter, attractively arranged to what the appetite and with numerous choices. Food served should satisfy the customer’s need.

Food served should be high quality yet low in cost so that everybody can afford to buy. Food should be pleasing and acceptable to the taste and likes of the customers. The turnover and speed of caring correlate with the restaurant classification. But not perfectly. In some restaurants the family style can offer speedy service and fast turnover and still provide and enjoyable atmosphere for its customer turnover is also highly collated with the efficiency of the operation in turnover in two restaurants of exactly the same type can vary widely because of layout and management.

In a business like cafeteria, there are several factors affect the profitability or income generation. One of the most important factors that need to be addressed is the customer satisfaction which is beyond cost management since the customer is the bread and butter of this kind of business. The information gathered from literature and studies provided relevant data with regards to the factors affecting low seat turnover that is needed for this study. It is said that the low seat turnover should be consider in evaluating the performance of the cafeteria. The higher the rate the profitable the business becomes. Seat turnover is defined as the number of times a seat is used by different individuals during a particular meal period. It means that the most often the seats are used the more customers are satisfied in the performance of the business.

The literature included in this chapter will be a great help in the formulation of data needed to answer the problem stated in this study. Information gathered will encourage the researcher to pursue the study and come up with a sound conclusion. The related literature is important in edifying the ideas, generalizations, principles, or conclusions relevant to the problem under investigation in this study. Above mentioned literature provided the researchers relevant information that will help them to establish facts about the topic. The meaning of the cafeteria and how it operates to generate more income through customer satisfaction and cost management is clearly stated.

In this chapter, it is stated that one of the things that has to be examined in assessing the performance of the cafeteria whether or not the customer becomes satisfied is through the seat turnover. It is noticeable also that the seat turnover was clearly defined. Also each factors affecting low seat turnover was identified. So, this chapter is necessary for the completion of data and information needed in this study.

The researcher will be using the descriptive type of research, employing the questionnaire checklist as the instrument in data gathering. Descriptive research is most popular approach in research projects. As explained by Best (1981), Descriptive study presents and interprets the status of something. It is concerned with condition or relation that exist opinions and trends that are developing as they relate to the current condition. It describes and interprets what is and reveals conditions and relationship that exist and do not exist. In this study, what will be ascertaining is the factors affecting low seat turnover in Emilio Aguinaldo College’s cafeteria.

In every research study, data gathering is the most challenging part. It will measure the creativeness, ability, and charisma of the researcher to get the data they need from the respondents. Most common techniques in gathering data are questionnaires, survey, interview, and observation. In this study, researcher will utilize questionnaire as the tool in gathering data. Prepared questionnaire will be randomly given to the students in the cafeteria and they will be given enough time to read, understand, and answer the questions written in the questionnaire. Approximately 10 – 15 minutes each respondent will be able to complete it since they will only need to check their answers in the questionnaire. 24

The completed questionnaire will be collected for tabulation and analysis. Then, the data will be interpreted with the use of various statistical tools. And the result will be necessary for presentation and conclusion.

In this study, the instruments that will be used are questionnaires, which are a necessity for descriptive method. The contents of the questionnaire will be designed based on the respondent’s perspective with regard to the EAC cafeteria in terms of the following factors such as individual preferences and affordability, ambiance, personal hygiene and sanitation practices, taste and quality of the food, and time of customer’s disposal.

The researchers will adopt the subject of the study as basis for developing the questionnaire. They will be grouped individually to have the proper division of their part in the questionnaire. Researchers will design the questionnaire in proper form to accommodate sufficient and relevant information required from the respondents. The questionnaire will be divided into three (3) parts. The first part concentrates on the profile of the respondents.

The second part will pertains to the self-evaluation of the respondents about the EAC cafeteria base on the above mentioned factors. And, the third part will be the respondents comment if they will need to say something like their suggestions and reactions. On the part of the questionnaire, respondents will be requested to check the space provided for each option.