Works Progress Administration Program In The US Sample Essay

Introduction

The only employer that was available in the village family lived in was the mill. All people would go there and seek employment, but most of them would spend the majority of their time waiting. Some people would only work for 16 hours a week because of the low demand for employees. Agricultural surplus caused wheat and flour prices to drop significantly, which is why mills were cutting production. In this context, the family required assistance from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) program. WPA was set to employ people to participate in the construction of bridges, post offices, parks, and other government-funded infrastructure.

Interview

  • What experiences and problems occurred to you during the Great Depression?

    “The Great Depression affected all people in the United States, including me. I was a mill worker, and the employees were happy to hear that the company we worked for was not laying us off. However, because people had no money to buy our products, the mill decided to lower prices. The company started to spend less on wages and working conditions. Eventually, we were working almost for free, with no other options.”

  • Did the New Deal provide you with any assistance?

    “Yes. After the passing of the National Industrial Recovery Act, we were able to enter trade unions and demand fair wages and more favorable working conditions. After the creation of WPA, employees had more employment options. I was among the ones to leave and start working on the government’s construction projects.”

Conclusion

Like the majority of families during the Great Depression, the discussed household struggled with finding a decent-paying job. The mill they worked on cut wages significantly, which is the family needed to seek other options. While the National Industrial Recovery Act allowed employees to bargain for higher salaries collectively, it was the WPA to create new jobs. The family persisted by participating in construction projects offered by the government.

Reference

History.com Editors. (2019). Works Progress Administration (WPA). HISTORY. Web.

The Principle Of Absolute And Comparative Advantage In Economic

Globalization has significantly affected the world trade and left many economies struggling to find the spheres where they could be profitable. When countries decide to produce certain products and choose the industry that is worth investing in, they employ the theory of economics, namely the concepts of absolute and comparative advantage (Theories of Trade, 2011). The former constitutes an economy’s ability to produce a good in the most efficient way, compared to other economies (International Trade & Globalization, 2010). In turn, the latter refers to a country’s ability to produce a good most efficiently compared to other goods it produces (International Trade & Globalization, 2010). This allows nations to adjust their production capabilities to fit their advantageous positions and be competitive globally.

The absolute advantage gives a nation an opportunity to offer products that have the best quality to price ratio. For example, Chinese “footwear exports have reached about 65% the world’s total shoe exports, and thus China has become the world’s largest producer and exporter” (Zhang, 2018, p. 192). This demonstrates that China has an advantage over the rest of the world in the sphere of shoemaking since, for other countries, it is more beneficial and economically reasonable to buy products from China. Of course, some countries can impose an embargo on the countries with the absolute advantage, but it will lead to higher prices and worse product quality for the consumers.

The comparative advantage is calculated through the comparison of the production of one good to other goods made by the country. For example, Vietnam is not the largest producer of rice in the world, thus it does not have an absolute production. Yet, its geographical location and natural conditions make growing any crop other than rice virtually impossible, and in 2014, the nation had only a 6.9% share of the world’s total (Chauhan et al., 2017). Therefore, the rice industry in Vietnam has a comparative advantage in relation to other crops that could be possible to grow in the country.

References

Chauhan, B. S., Jabran, K., & Mahajan, G. (Eds.). (2017). Rice production worldwide. Springer. Web.

International Trade & Globalization. (2010). International business (5th ed.). Pearson Education.

Theories of Trade. (2011). International trade: Absolute and comparative advantage [Video file]. Web.

Zhang, C. (2018). An empirical analysis on export status quo and international competitiveness of Chinese footwear products. Leather and Footwear Journal 18(3), 187-194. Web.

The Link Between Pop Culture And Stereotypes

For a culture to become popular, it has to be perceived by the audiences with ease. Complex topics are detached from internal intricacies and sophistication when delivered through popular cultural means. When all details are included, the culture is no longer popular but instead is specialized. Therefore, popular culture cannot discuss items of elevated sophistication. In this context, Cofer’s claim that popular culture has promoted only a one-dimensional view on topics that are complex in reality is correct; some examples of erroneous stereotypes include the portrayal of Chinese, Russians, and Italians in film.

The portrayal of Chinese characters in Hollywood movies has been the subject of controversy for many years. One prominent example of how American movies perpetrated the image of Chinese culture is the summarization of the entire Chinese customs as kung-fu. Such a depiction has led to the fact that any Chinese is expected to know kung-fu and be proficient at it. However, China has a rich culture that encompasses a broad range of items, and many of them have complexity beyond what martial arts possess (Hai and Dong 90). Another popular stereotype is the image of a submissive Chinese woman, does not have her own opinion, and does not have intellectual capabilities (Hai and Dong 88). There has been a decline in the portrayal of Chinese characters as villains. While one may consider this fact as a sign that Hollywood is fighting against stereotypes, the reality is much simpler. China has become one of the most dominant markets for movie studios, and unfavorably depicting Chinese individuals will lead to negative financial implications (Brook).

Since the advent of cinematography, the majority of movies in the military and action genre involved Russians as primary antagonists. Such films used the stereotypical version of Russians instead of focusing on the overall culture. The Cold War significantly influenced what type of movies were being made at the end of the 20th century. The Soviet Union was portrayed as a villain in almost all movies, and Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech is the pinnacle of these efforts. In films that depict the events in the United States, Russians are constantly shown as being connected to the mafia (Brook). While there are Russians that often engage in criminal activities, most of them have lives that do not correspond to what is being portrayed in cinema.

Italians or Italian Americans are commonly portrayed in media with pervasive stereotypes. Unlike most Europeans, Italians have been a marginalized group despite their cultural contributions. Their characterization in popular culture is shown as violent or troublesome, fitting into the narrative of mobsters and thugs. While only 0.0025% of Italians Americans participated in organized crime, the origin of mafia and mobster groups in major U.S. cities being Italian contributed to the association. This was further popularized by blockbuster critically acclaimed movies the likes of The Godfather series or Goodfellas which kept upbringing the theme through decades of Hollywood film (Maranzana). It engrained the stereotypes of association of Italians with violence (stereotypical inflammatory characters) and organized crime, even if by association.

Cofer makes a correct claim regarding the media and the use of stereotypes. Foreign cultures are too complex to be able to encompass them within one character or within a single piece of art. Therefore, to avoid this sophistication, pop culture only focuses on distinct characteristics of specific groups and generalizes them for the whole nation. Among the notable examples are the portrayals of Chinese and Russians in American movies of the previous century. Pop culture can also circumvent some stereotypes only to retain profitability and avoid financial implications.

Works Cited

Brook, Tom. “Hollywood Stereotypes: Why are Russians the Bad Guys?” BBC, 2014, Web.

Maranzana, Stefano. Italian Americans and the mythology of crime: “The Godfather paradox.” 2015, Web.

Hai, Yan, and Haibin Dong. “Asian American Woman Cinematic Image: The Exotic Beauty and/or Perpetual Foreigner.” China Media Research, vol. 15, no. 1, 2019, pp. 85-92.

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