Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a collaborative research methodology that emphasizes the participation of those affected by the research in all process phases. The methods entail the identification of the research question, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results. The approach is used in education, health, social work, and community development to empower marginalized communities. Also, the method is used to address social and political issues affecting these marginalized people’s lives. PAR is defined by its commitment to social justice and the transformation of power while seeking to give voice to marginalized communities and bring social change via research and action.
The components, characteristics, and best practices of PAR:
Firstly we have the active participation of community members, stakeholders, and researchers throughout the research process. The second component is collaboration, where PAR makes a collaborative effort that involves an equal partnership between community members and researchers. Guy et al. (2020) suggest the other component is action, and PAR aims to create actionable knowledge that leads to social change and empowerment. Finally, we have reflection where PAR involves a review of the research process and outcomes.
The first characteristic is participatory, where PAR is a participatory approach to research where community members and stakeholders have an active role in the research process. Secondly, we have contextual where PAR is context-specific and involves an understanding of the research’s social, cultural, and economic context. Thirdly, we have empowering, where PAR aims to empower individuals and communities to take action on the issues that affect them. Finally, democratic where PAR is a democratic approach to research that values the perspectives and voices of all participants.
Establishing relationships and building trust with community members and stakeholders is essential to the success of PAR. Secondly, PAR involves diverse perspectives by ensuring that diverse perspectives are represented throughout the research process. Thirdly, PAR collaborates equally between community members and researchers and is based on equal partnership and shared decision-making. According to Van de Ven, Boardley & Chandler (2022), PAR takes action and results in actionable knowledge that leads to social change and empowerment. The final best practice is reflecting on the research process, and outcomes should be a continuous part of PAR.
Comparison between PAR and Traditional Scientific Research method
The main goal of PAR is to empower participants and promote social change, whereas the main objective of traditional scientific research is to uncover new knowledge and understand natural phenomena. PAR is a collaborative and iterative process involving active participation and community members’ input, while traditional scientific research typically follows a more structured and controlled approach. Liamputtong (2019) suggests that In PAR, data is often collected through qualitative methods such as interviews, focus groups, and observations. Traditional scientific research usually relies on quantitative methods such as experiments and surveys. In PAR, data is often analyzed collaboratively with community members, while traditional scientific research is typically diagnosed by researchers alone using statistical methods. PAR aims to produce actionable outcomes that promote social change and address community needs. In contrast, traditional scientific research aims to generate new knowledge that can be applied broadly to a particular field.
Strengths and weaknesses
Strengths entail; the empowerment of community members and stakeholders to take an active role in the research process, which can lead to an increased sense of ownership and responsibility for the research outcomes. Bennett (2020) suggests PAR encourages collaboration and partnerships between researchers and community members, which can lead to more effective and sustainable solutions. Finally, there is diversity where PAR involves various community members with diverse perspectives and experiences, which can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem.
Include; PAR can be time-consuming and resource-intensive due to the need for ongoing collaboration and participation from community members. The other weakness is that the involvement of community members in the research process can potentially introduce bias and subjectivity to the research findings. Finally, the community members may not have the same level of expertise as trained researchers, which can limit the scope and depth of the research.
Firstly, PAR requires significant time and resources, including funding, staff, and participant time. This can be a limitation, particularly for organizations or communities with limited resources. Secondly, there exists potential for bias. PAR involves active participation by participants, which can introduce bias into the research process. According to Bennett (2020), participants may have their agendas or perspectives, which can influence the research findings. There is a possibility of power dynamics where power dynamics between researchers and participants can limit PAR. Researchers may hold more power and influence than participants, which can affect the research process and the findings.
Ways to address the limitations
Firstly, establish clear goals and objectives. It is essential to set clear goals and objectives for the PAR project, including the scope and focus of the research. This can help to ensure that the investigation is focused and targeted and that resources are used effectively. Secondly, build strong partnerships. Liamputtong, P. (2019) suggests that building strong partnerships between researchers and participants is critical to the success of PAR. This can involve developing trust, mutual respect, and open communication. Thirdly, ensure inclusivity, and PAR should be inclusive and involve all stakeholders, including those who may not have traditionally had a voice in research processes. This can help to ensure that the research is relevant and responsive to the needs of the community or organization.
Moreover, utilizing a mixed-methods approach which combines both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, can help to ensure that the findings are robust and credible. Liamputtong (2019) explains that addressing power dynamics between researchers and participants, such as training participants on research methods and promoting equal participation and decision-making. Additionally, focus on capacity building within communities or organizations. This can involve providing participants with training, resources, and support and building their skills and knowledge. Finally, emphasize dissemination and impact. It is essential to focus on the dissemination and impact of the research findings, including sharing the results with participants, stakeholders, and policymakers and using them to drive change and improve outcomes.
Ways in which PAR can be used to design and finalize a research paper
Firstly, identify key stakeholders who are involved in and affected by the issue of mass youth incarceration and youth courts. This includes young people, their families, community organizations, legal advocates, policymakers, and other relevant stakeholders. Secondly, build relationships with stakeholders by conducting interviews or focus groups to learn about their perspectives, experiences, and needs. Also, collaboratively develop research questions with the stakeholders. This could involve brainstorming sessions or workshops where stakeholders share their ideas and insights. Guy et al. (2020) suggest that the research questions should be relevant, meaningful, and actionable. The other way is co-design the research methodology with the stakeholders by involving them in deciding on the data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or observations, and identifying the sampling strategy and data analysis techniques. Also, collecting and analyzing data could involve conducting interviews, surveys, or observations and using qualitative or quantitative data analysis methods to analyze the data.
Additionally, co-interpret the findings once the data has been analyzed with the stakeholders. This could involve sharing the results through workshops, community meetings, or other forums and inviting stakeholders to provide feedback and insights. Guy et al. (2020) add that the final step is to co-write the research paper with the stakeholders. This last step involves organizing workshops or collaborative writing sessions where stakeholders contribute their ideas and insights. The research paper should reflect the perspectives and experiences of the stakeholders and provide actionable recommendations for how youth courts can serve as an alternative to mass youth incarceration in poor and underserved communities.
Bennett, M. (2020). A review of the literature on the benefits and drawbacks of participatory action research. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 1(1), 19-32.
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Guy, B., Feldman, T., Cain, C., Leesman, L., & Hood, C. (2020). Defining and navigating ‘action in a Participatory Action Research project. Educational Action Research, 28(1), 142-153.
Liamputtong, P. (2019). Handbook of research methods in health social sciences.
Van de Ven, K., Boardley, I., & Chandler, M. (2022). Through participatory action research, identifying best-practice amongst health professionals who work with people using the image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs). Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise, and Health, 14(2), 199-215.
Written Group Strategic Case Study Writing Sample
In this report, Strategic Alliance is the best cooperative strategy in which Nintendo combines its resources and capabilities to create a competitive advantage. The best types of strategic alliances the company uses include:
Nintendo has entered into several joint ventures throughout its history, including partnerships with major players in the gaming industry, such as Sony and Microsoft. These joint ventures have enabled Nintendo to leverage the strengths and expertise of its partners to create innovative products and enter new markets (Nan, 2021). Also, Nintendo has a strong brand and reputation in the gaming industry, which gives it an upper hand in using this joint venture strategy. This enables it to attract potential partners whom it collaborates with. Moreover, Nintendo has unique expertise and resources in developing innovative and creative games valuable to their diverse partners that expand their portfolio, enabling the company to enter new markets. For example, Nintendo’s partnership with Sony created the highly successful PlayStation gaming console (CHEN, 2023). While the partnership ultimately dissolved, the joint venture allowed both companies to combine their gaming hardware and software strengths to create a product that dominated the market for years.
Equity Strategic Alliance
Another type of strategic alliance that Nintendo uses is a strategic equity alliance. A relationship between several companies in which each owns shares in the other is referred to as a strategic equity alliance. While each partner has a financial interest in the success of the other, this sort of alliance frequently entails greater integration and cooperation than different types of partnerships. Throughout its history, the company has formed several equity strategic relationships. The collaboration between Nintendo and the UK-based video game developer Rare is one such instance. Nintendo bought a 25% share in Rare in 1994, and the two firms worked closely together to create several popular video games, including the Donkey Kong Country series (Butcher, 2020). Also, its partnership with The Pokemon Company depicts its application of the equity strategic alliance strategy (Hsiao, 2021). Nintendo and The Pokemon Company formed a joint venture in which each company held an equal stake. The partnership has allowed Nintendo to leverage the popularity of the Pokemon franchise and expand its reach into new markets, such as mobile gaming.
Non-equity Strategic Alliance
Cooperation between two or more companies in which the partners do not own equity in one another is known as a non-equity strategic alliance. Instead, they work together in particular business sectors like marketing, distribution, and research & development. With other businesses, Nintendo has a history of creating non-equity strategic relationships (Franklin, 2021). The early 2000s relationship between Nintendo and IBM serves as one such. The two companies collaborated on developing microprocessors for Nintendo’s gaming consoles, with IBM providing chip design and manufacturing expertise. Non-equity strategic alliances allow Nintendo to access resources and capabilities it may not possess in-house, such as specialized technology, expertise in a particular market, or distribution channels. Without making a big financial commitment, these collaborations also enable Nintendo to broaden its reach and penetrate new areas (Firdaus, 2021). Non-equity strategic alliances can be less formal than strategic equity alliances, making it harder for partners to coordinate their efforts. These partnerships need to be carefully managed by Nintendo to ensure that they align with its overarching strategic vision and goals and that each partner is dedicated to their success.
Strategic Implementation Issues
Some strategic implementation issues that Nintendo goes through include Resource allocation. Nintendo must allocate its resources effectively to implement its strategic plan successfully. The company must prioritize its financial, human, and technological resources to achieve its strategic goals. Secondly, Resistance to change in which employees, partners, or stakeholders can resist any strategic change. Nintendo must ensure that its employees and partners are on board with the new strategy and that they understand the benefits it brings to the company (Chylinski, 2020). Thirdly, Technology integration is essential to the gaming industry. To remain competitive in the market, Nintendo must integrate new technologies, such as virtual and augmented reality, into its products and services. Also, competitive pressure is due to the highly competitive gaming industry, with many players competing for market share. Nintendo needs to stay updated with the latest trends and innovations in the industry to maintain its position (Sah, 2021). Lastly, Consumer preferences, in which some consumer preferences and trends change rapidly in the gaming industry. Nintendo must know these changes and adapt its strategies to meet consumer needs and preferences.
It can be concluded that the gaming industry is highly competitive and constantly evolving, requiring companies to innovate and improve to stay relevant. Nintendo, a famous game company, faces challenges in this dynamic industry. This report has analyzed Nintendo’s strategic position and future through various theories and models. Nintendo’s external and internal environment and major SWOTs were discussed in the strategic analysis. Secondly, the strategies adopted by Nintendo to pursue its strategic objectives were discussed in strategic formulation, including diversification, differentiation, and strategic alliances. Next, strategy implementation and the significant issues that affect implementation were discussed in strategic implementation. Finally, Nintendo’s overall performance was discussed in the strategic evaluation. This paper has met the thesis statement by analyzing Nintendo’s current strategic position and future through various theories and models. Also, the implementation of strategies and the significant issues that affect the implementation have been handled in strategic implementation with their evaluation in strategic evaluation.
Butcher, L., Tucker, O., & Young, J. (2020). Path to discontinuance of pervasive mobile games: the case of Pokémon Go in Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 33(2), 584-606.
CHEN, C. C., & LİN, C. J. How Smartness of Leisure-Sports Appliances Influence Tourists’ Intention to Use. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR).
Chylinski, M., Heller, J., Hilken, T., Keeling, D. I., Mahr, D., & de Ruyter, K. (2020). Augmented reality marketing: A technology-enabled approach to situated customer experience. Australasian Marketing Journal, 28(4), 374-384.
Firdaus, A. S., & Rahadi, R. A. (2021). Conceptual Model for Factors that Influence Purchase Intention of In-game Purchase in Freemium Mobile Game. International Journal of Accounting, 6(32), 74-87.
Franklin, S. B. (2021). The Impact of Casual Videogames on Competency, Autonomy, and Mood State (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University Graduate School).
Hsiao, C. H., & Tang, K. Y. (2021). Who captures whom–Pokémon or tourists? A perspective of the Stimulus-Organism-Response model. International Journal of Information Management, 61, 102312.
Nan, D., Lee, H., Kim, Y., & Kim, J. H. (2022). My video game console is so cool! A coolness theory-based model for intention to use video game consoles. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 176, 121451.
Sah, Y. J., Rheu, M., & Ratan, R. (2021). Avatar-User Bond as Meta-Cognitive Experience: Explicating Identification and Embodiment as Cognitive Fluency. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 695358.
Annotated Bibliography On Human Trafficking Free Writing Sample
Clawson, Heather J., et al. “Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature.” Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25 (2009): 2009.
This systematic literature review of current work on human smuggling into and across the United States focuses on recent research aimed at recognizing victims of human trafficking and effectively rescuing them as two of the most crucial concerns—an even more narrow. The issue of “internal trafficking,” also known as the “trafficking of U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents, typically within the U.S.,” as well as its effects on young people who were born in the United States and the effectiveness of support services for victims, are the focal points of this discussion.
This is an excellent credible source to use in this research. This is because the author of this source looks keenly into human trafficking as they occur within the borders of America. The author explains how the network is channeled to traffic humans and the impacts it brings on the life of young people.
Feingold, David A. “Human trafficking.” Foreign policy(2005): 26-32.
In this work, Human trafficking may be a recent occurrence, but it has made headlines only recently. Forced migration across international boundaries is as old as the market forces that drive it. What’s unique is the traffic’s intensity and the knowledge that humankind has done little to slow it. If we want to stop people who traffic in human lives, we have to look past our initial reactions. This article provides a primer on globalization and its effects on our daily lives, detailing national, institutional, and cultural transformations. The article acts as both a scout and a translator, compiling the observations of some of the best journalists, intellectuals, and professionals worldwide to shed light on our day’s most pressing global issues. This study aims to inform those who aren’t experts but understand that events on the other side of the world have consequences at home. In the United States and over Ninety other nations, readers include some of the most influential individuals in business, governments, and other technical experts.
This source adds a new dynamic as a research source. The author goes back in time to look at the history of human trafficking. Even though this source was printed some years back, the author narrates what is happening in the real world today. As a source, I would incorporate it in my research to give a picture of the history of human trafficking, its effects on the real world, the cartels and financiers behind it, and the metamorphosis it has undergone to become modern-day human trafficking. Because as the author of this piece puts it, human trafficking is as old as the forces that drive it.
Gozdziak, Elzbieta M., and Elizabeth A. Collett. “Research on human trafficking in North America: A review of literature.” International Migration1‐2 (2005): 99-128.
With more smugglers being caught and more victims being given shelter, researchers in North America now have a unique chance to examine the trafficking trend in the geographical area objectively. This research examines the predominance of human smuggling in the area, trafficking movement patterns, victim and smuggler character traits, and the facilities needed to safeguard victims. Even with these openings, there has been a need for a more comprehensive, factual, and theoretically sound study on human smuggling in North America. The purpose of this article is to do a cursory examination of the research on human smuggling in the area. The U.N. Convention to Stop, Repress, and Prosecute Trafficking in People, Particularly Women, and Children, is only one example of the many types of literature discussed. Yet, we incorporate them since their creators contend that they are central to the discussion of human trafficking. The historical roots of modern traffickers are discussed against the backdrop of current smuggling definitions, and a review of the relevant literature is conducted. To develop successful policies and programs for trafficking victims, it is necessary to draw a clear picture of the existing research in this area. We make an effort to respond to the following concerns.
An extensive examination of this source shows this is a source that will be used in this research. In this article, the author looks at the core victims of human trafficking. The vulnerable women and children and how they are impacted by human trafficking. The author looks further at the patterns of how this human trafficking is carried out, answering the question of how is this human trafficking carried out. Apart from that, this article is fundamental in this research since it attempts to explain the efforts by NGOs and international humanitarian organizations to combat human trafficking. What role do they partake in as far as human trafficking is concerned? Lastly what has been their progress so far in stopping human trafficking?
Jordan Miriam. Smuggling Migrants at the Border Now a Billion-Dollar Business. NewYork(2022).Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/07/25/us/migrant-smuggling-evolution.html
Contrary to the widespread assumption about the danger of the U.S.-Mexico border and frequent assertions that it’s necessary to secure the border to avoid the introduction of terrorism into the nation as a whole, research has continued to reveal the safe operation of the U.S. border region. We rarely poll border people on their perceptions of security and crime, even though their answers could shed important light on the allegations that the frontier is an unsafe conflict zone that jeopardizes the whole country. Despite widespread calls for border security, this study looks into how locals in El Paso, Texas—a sizable city on the U.S. side of the border opposite Ciudad Juárez, Mexico—feel about the safety and security of their community. Information was gathered from a survey financed by the National Institutes of Health that polled 919 locals on their thoughts on crime, feelings of protection, and general city security. The data demonstrate that most border city inhabitants feel safe, with the highest rates of safety reporting coming from undocumented individuals who grew up in El Paso. Another nuance to consider in debates about immigration in this country’s link to violence and crime is that we discover the foreign-born demographic had a significantly lower misdemeanor recidivism rate than the native-born population. El Pasoans don’t seem worried about their safety, despite media assertions to the contrary regarding the carnage on the borderline with Mexico’s Ciudad Juárez. We address the discrepancy between actuality on the frontier and impression outside the buffer zone. We suggest potential causes for these reduced violence rates on the U.S. side of the border.
To begin with, this is a recent publication on human trafficking. Based on my observation of this article, it’s more politically oriented in the stated topic. Therefore I might forego it in research since I perceive the author to be politically biased when looking at the issue of human trafficking.
Lee, Maggy, ed. Human trafficking. Routledge, 2013.
There are ten chapters totaling 240 pages; each is a comprehensive essay written by a prominent expert. The annual value of the human trafficking trade is third largest only to that of drugs and weaponry, making it one of the most profitable marketplaces for organized crime. The exact number of victims of human trafficking each year is tough to determine. However, the U.S. Department of State puts the amount around 600,000 and 800,000. Non-profit groups estimate that number to be as much as 2 million annually. About 80% of victims are female, with half being underage when they are trafficked. This book focuses on how immigration policy, prostitution, and the search for low-wage labor in the European Union and the United Kingdom are all affected by human trafficking. No mention of the estimated 300,000 children under 18 who are being exploited in over thirty countries experiencing armed conflict due to human trafficking, as reported by UNICEF. Instead, it discusses forced labor, with most cases occurring when bad employers take advantage of legal loopholes to manipulate employees. It recognizes that sexual abuse is a common experience for female victims of compelled or bonded labor, particularly women and girls in servitude. Compared to sex trafficking, forced labor is more difficult to detect and quantify as a type of human trafficking. Contrary to the prurience of the media, who thrive on scurrilous, frequently unauthenticated allegations, global smuggling for sexual exploitation rarely involves the same criminal networks.
This is a significant source among the many sources in this research. This is because other authors examine the many causes and forces behind human trafficking. This author creatively digs into the fueling factor behind human trafficking. The market! Yes, this author narrates the profitability of this kind of trade. The various sector in the economy where these humans are sold and the forces behind these markets. A more recent source and most definitely the best source for this research.
Morris Jane Mosbacher. Human trafficking is a global epidemic. And we can all help fight it. CNN. (2019). Retrieved from: https://edition.cnn.com/2019/01/14/perspectives/human-trafficking-fight/index.html
Human trafficking, as outlined by Jane Morris in this article, is one of the most rapidly expanding global criminal businesses of the twenty-first century, with an estimated annual revenue of $150 billion. Although human trafficking may appear to be an impersonal issue, every time we purchase an item created using slave labor, we are complicit in this system. Whether at a Chinese factory, an Indian rubbish dump, or a New York City household, human trafficking refers to the forced labor of unwilling individuals under deplorable conditions for low or no pay. It also refers to those in the sex trade or war who are detained against their will or threatened by violence. False assurances of stable employment are a standard hook used to entice victims. Traffickers routinely threaten survivors and their families if they or their loved ones try to flee after having their passports and money taken.
This is another publication that looks at the economies of human trafficking. The fact that it is a more recent publication makes the author develop methods of trade, nature, and market structure currently in play. The author examines how victims are preyed on and lured into human trafficking and how the hope of a better future has turned noble human beings into human goods to be sold. Apart from that, this source also looks at the barriers created to prevent the victims’ families from setting out to help them keenly, which makes this source even better since its dynamic nature.
Shelley, Louise. Human trafficking: A global perspective. Cambridge University Press, 2010
This book delves into every facet of human trafficking worldwide, exposing the inner workings of the trafficking industry and the personalities of the people who run it. It shows, from a historical and comparative vantage point, that there is more than one business model of human trafficking and that human trafficking varies significantly between geographic locations. The author drew from a mountain of scholarly literature, including real-life prosecutions, a wide range of reports, and extensive fieldwork and interviews.
This source answers the question of how the market is structured. Therefore this source brings to light more about how the market is structured, how people are sold, and how payments are made. In addition, it’s a tremendously unbiased source for the research as it provides more of a geographical heat map of areas or zones where this human trafficking is practiced. Furthermore, it has accurate life statistics and data to back up everything the source portrays.
Weitzer, Ronald. “New directions in research on human trafficking.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2014): 6-24.
This essay will examine four common assertions about the scope, trajectory, and gravity of human smuggling worldwide compared to other forms of global organized crime. I don’t think the claims can be backed up by proof. Second, the case is made for micro-level studies of trafficking to be carried out with great care. The articles collected here in this issue of The Annals detail several research. Microlevel research provides many advantages over significant, macrolevel assertions, benefits which are both qualitative and quantitative and better adapted to crafting contextualized policy and police responses by pinpointing the size of smuggling within a measurable context.
The writer of this source is very objective and very creative. The writer explains the new trends in human trafficking. How is the market changing, and how is it anticipated to change? This source is significant in the research as it will significantly help explain the methods that can work now and in the future as we try to stop human trafficking.