Wyoming Government Systems: Problem And Solution Writing Sample

Introduction

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad led to the establishment of the Wyoming Territory. Andrew Johnson, the president of the region, approved the Organic Act when tracklayers had neared the present-day Rawlins in the central part of Wyoming. A better share of the area that makes Wyoming was detached from the huge Dakota Territory, which had been part of the new Wyoming Territory (Moncrief 66).

Wyoming is a region that is situated in the hilly areas of the western side of the US. It is ranked the tenth most widespread and least habited American region when compared to the fifty American states. The region’s climate is semi-arid. Hence, the area is much drier when compared to most of the US. The region has had loopholes in its administrative structures. Any government is expected to be impartial when addressing its people.

Court systems should not demonstrate discrimination along with gender, age, status, health, and/or religious lines. However, as the paper reveals, Wyoming’s court systems have had issues of discrimination where much focus had been given to older people while neglecting the tender aged class.

The paper will major on the identification of the most conspicuous problem in Wyoming government system, particularly its failure to structure a court system that favors the youths/children and women. However, it will also provide corresponding solutions to the stated problem.

Wyoming Government Systems

The Place of Women in the Government

The region acquired the name ‘Wyoming’ when spokesperson J.M. Ashley brought a petition to the legislative body during the mid-1860s to establish a provisional administration for the entire Wyoming province. The region was named after a Pennsylvanian gorge that had a similar name. During the period when the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town Cheyenne at the close of the 1860s, the population began to grow steadily. The then federal administration established the whole territory in July 1868.

Contrary to any other region, Wyoming did not have momentous locations of mineral resources, even with the apparently increasing number of people. During this time, women were not recognized as eligible to participate in any elections. When the government-subsidized missions in the Yellow Stone commenced, reports by Colter and Bridger were declared factual. During the close of the 1860s, the territorial administrator, namely John Allen Campbell, emphasized the right to take part in elections for the female gender.

This bold move by the court made it the first territory, followed by the US, to acknowledge the place of the woman in the government. Additionally, it was the first to receive women into politics. However, the court systems did not conclude on who was eligible for this exercise. Hence, the introduction of women into active roles in the government was very slow and procedural.

The process of establishing a stable administrative system that could properly address women’s rights was slow. The Wyoming charter introduced three key administrative departments, which included the managerial, legal, and lawmaking bodies. The lawmaking subdivision constituted the council that had a maximum of sixty members and a 30-associate committee.

The managerial department, which was headed by a superintendent, included the region’s writing desk, treasurer, inspector, and an administrator from the public domain (Baldwin and Hart 75). The region did create a space for a substitute administrator. As an alternative, the government escritoire took the front position in the progression.

The Wyoming sparse population allowed a limited space in the US legislative body. Hence, it did not have pronounced powers to air out its issues, specifically the tribulations its women were undergoing. Besides, its low population was a barrier in terms of getting an audience in the US Congress (Smith 430). For instance, whereas Montana recorded a survey population of close to 1million people in 2010, Wyoming register only half of the figure.

A stable court system should have all court levels, including an intermediate appellate court that can attend to petitions of an examination court or other junior hearings. Although Wyoming’s court structure is largely attributed to the size of the region and the corresponding lower caseload, the implication is that the Supreme Court does not properly attend to petitions from the district courts since it deems them (petitions) minor.

Although the government voted Democrats to the national headquarters in the mid-1900s, the shaky court systems have failed to address political matters in the region, especially the issue of conservativism that has prevailed since the Republican movement subjugated the region’s senatorial titles (Smith 54). Now, two legislators, namely Enzi and his colleague Barrasso, stand for the government in Washington.

Besides having only a single associate of the Upper Chambers, it has a female spokesperson, namely Cynthia Lummis. Interestingly, the government chose Democrat Nellie as the earliest ever female in the American records to work as the administrative superintendent. She held office for two years beginning mid-1920s after she emerged the victor in an extraordinary ballot vote to take over her spouse’s position after he unpredictably passed on while still on duty in the government.

The courts took advantage of Bradford’s death to silence people so that no investigations could be done to confirm whether her election was fair or whether other external forces were used to grant her the victory at the expense of other eligible women.

In the period of war, the Wyoming government was conducted effectively and economically, although it operated without the political bickering and sniping. In 1941, three republicans and two Democrats were holding the office. Besides the normal interparty strife, there emerged trouble within the dominant Republican Party (Moncrief 89). Governor Smith was not in a position to persuade his subjects to overthrow the paid executive officer, Dr. H. D Port, whom he (Smith) gravely disliked.

Therefore, he set out to change the board. When the terms of the highly ranked and respected Republican board members expired, the governor did not submit substitutes to the Republican Council. Despite the issue being publicized, the judicial systems did not exercise their mandates of addressing the issue with the weight it deserved. The secretary of the region vied against Smith and defeated him when he sought re-election in 1942 (Moncrief 98). The vote-seeking operations of 1942 were both hard-fought and personalized.

The situation was extended to the 1943 legislature, where administrator Hunt faced hostile majorities in both houses. The western right to vote was implemented during the close of the 1860s. Initially, it was not clear which age was to be allowed to vote, although the courts had paved the way for women to cast their ballot papers. This time, twenty members from the territorial governing body approved a revolutionary measure stating that every woman aged twenty-one could participate in the election process without any discrimination.

The Place of the Youths/Children

Currently, in the same region, youths and children are heavily mistreated and neglected, rather than being rehabilitated in the region’s juvenile justice system (Smith 59). According to Hill, “Most Wyoming judges believe that answering the questions of juvenile justice and how to adequately serve our children and families in the justice system constitute the greatest challenge facing the Wyoming judiciary” (2). The government has recorded the maximum infantile confinement instances in the US.

It was ranked second nationwide in terms of infantile confinement cases that have involved children aged below eighteen years. However, no research has been done to confirm whether Wyoming youths have been significantly involved in felony issues than elsewhere (McDonald 23). Surprisingly, a big number of detained youths are held for non-violent crimes where many of them have committed minor offenses that are not supposed to warrant any detention.

Many of them are confined after being found in possession of tobacco, violating curfew, and/or missing school, among other petty reasons. Despite the evident weak reasons for imprisoning the youths, the existing courts have not yet established a body that outlines the extent of crime that should warrant detention for a young person.

In the grown-up benches, adolescents are often handled cruelly while at the same time being deprived of a variety of essential requirements. Confirming this assertion, Hill says, “Juvenile justice and Wyoming’s current approach to providing services for children and families is the most critical issue confronting the courts” (3). Additionally, the region does not maintain guidelines that outline which group of the youths needs to be subjected to detention.

As a result, court officials frequently major in detention as a default solution to such cases. In the absence of a lucid national bursary framework, several districts miss out on the monetary support for sustaining a self-regulating body for the adolescents, as well as according to other options that can replace teenagers and infant custody. Consequently, many teenagers who are needlessly confined end up being deprived of recuperative and society-based options.

Many youths from this region are held in adult jails instead of having a sound separation between the two, as the law requires (Smith 43). Wyoming government does not have a resourceful information structure that can mark out aspects such as the figure of apprehended teenagers, their individuality, and results after the confinement. The officials end up lacking a clear picture of how the system works and whether the rehabilitative mechanisms are effective for this category of people.

Hence, the government cannot make evidence-based decisions concerning judicial operations. During the 1960s, the judicial decisions required juvenile courts to be conducted more like the formal criminal courts (Baldwin and Hart 55). Young offenders were to be supplied with legal privileges of discernment, guidance, as well as examination. Reformers raised the concern that children were not rehabilitated. They were found lost in the systems where they were warehoused in low-standard facilities.

At the beginning of the 1970s, social scientists advocated community-based deterrence and treatment programs as opposed to imprisonment. In 1974, the Upper House passed the Infantile Integrity and Felony Deterrence Act, which required adult and young offenders to be kept separate. First-time criminal offenders were not to be confined. A number of regions were greatly encouraged to bring up programs at the expense of institutionalizing children.

States that did not comply with the Act suffered from the little federal funding for juvenile programs and planning. Wyoming happened not to have complied because it had no stable bodies that could enforce the law. Whereas other counties have progressed with psychoanalysis, restorative justice, treatment, and the imprisonment substitute mechanisms, Wyoming is still lagging behind in terms of their implementation.

In Wyoming, according to Moncrief, 75 percent of youths who had been accused of criminal issues are not placed under any legal counsel representation (24). The witnessed recognition gap has been heightened in the metropolitan and the circuit legal chambers.

Solution

From the above expositions, it is apparent that Wyoming government’s court systems have many gaps that need to be sealed so that all people, irrespective of their gender and age, can be represented well. This section presents policy recommendations with regard to the failed Wyoming government, especially with reference to its poorly structured court system.

To address the issue of women, although Wyoming pioneered in recognition of women’s rights and their voting eligibility, it should also implement bodies that can guarantee a fair selection of women in leadership and government positions. Since Wyoming has not established a distinct adult and children court system, it has been problematic and unfair to subject children offenders to the same rulings while not considering their age and intellectual capacity.

Hence, Wyoming should establish a unified juvenile or even a family court system that has exclusive jurisdiction that captures the non-traffic youthful issues and/or a judiciary that is professionally trained on the juvenile law (Smith 87). Hill reinforces this advice when he says, “Specialty courts, including drug courts and family courts, …can be a beneficial asset to individuals in the court system” (8). Secondly, it is important for the government to establish an all-inclusive youthful framework that can address all young offenders’ issues.

The suggested framework needs to accommodate certain bureaucratic structures that offer standardized practical measures on the supervisory guidelines concerning youthful cases.

Besides, the government needs to establish all-inclusive adolescent trial chambers, which focus on recuperative doctrines that can endorse responsibility while at the same time guaranteeing advancement for teenage criminals without even forfeiting their societal security. Finally, the government is advised to establish an organized sort of information gathering and scrutiny mechanism that can direct court management while portraying the efficacy of the programs.

Conclusion

Wyoming has the most pronounced instances of imprisonment of individuals whose age is below twenty years. Nevertheless, the region does not map out all the imprisoned youthful offenders, the main ground for their confinement, and even the duration of the imprisonment. The region has continued to wallow without clear goals on how juveniles need to be treated. It has not established cost-effective ways that can deal with errant adolescents who might have the capability of being productive citizens.

In the society and government, children are viewed as developing beings whose morals and cognitive abilities are still being formed. Since their thinking and judgment capacities are weaker compared to that of adults, they cannot be subjected to the same court rulings or detention centers as their grown-up counterparts. Hence, Wyoming has a role to play in terms of restricting its court systems such that women and children’s rights and privileges can be addressed properly.

Works Cited

Baldwin, Guy, and Joyce Hart. Wyoming. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2008. Print.

Hill, William. League of Women Voters of Wyoming Judicial Voters, 2008. Web.

McDonald, Laughlin. American Indians And The Fight For Equal Voting Rights. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010. Print.

Moncrief, Gary. Reapportionment and redistricting in the West. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2011. Print.

Smith, Lori. Tapping State Government Information Sources. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003. Print.

Major Types Of Depression

Introduction

Having a continuous sense of exhaustion, feeling of sadness, and hopelessness are the key signs of clinical or major depression. This mood disorder is an illness; it makes one feel frustrated, angry, miserable, and apathetic. Such mood changes alter the daily life an individual quite a long and may last for years. Every individual faces moment of feeling sad and tired, yet, they tend to pass by over time. In case of such condition sets in and starts to make serious negative impact on a person’s life it is recognized as depression and requires professional treatment.

Depression has been selected as a research topic due to its growing rates in the modern world and the danger it presents to both male and female individuals of all ages and backgrounds. In this paper I will review and analyze two scholarly articles concerning depression, its sings in male and female patients, and its connection and similarity to other disorders.

People’s behaviorchanges according to events are around them. We become encouraged when we achieve something and downcast when we lose something. Many kids in grade school understand the term being ‘depressed’, but being clinically diagnosed requires different logistics. A depressive condition has three degrees – mild, moderate, and severe, with or without psychotic features.

Many famous people have suffered from Major Depression among them there were Judy Garland, Kurt Cobain, and Marilyn Monroe. Psychiatrists and Clinical Specialists are trained to recognize this condition and not to confuse it with other similar disorders. The experts are also researching various kinds and signs of depression since this disorder may vary in different patients based on such factors as their social status, causes for being depressed, sex, occupation, age among others.

Overview of the Literature

The first article reviewed for this paper is called “Depression in Men and Women: Relative Rank, Interpersonal, Dependency, and Risk-Taking”. It was written by Gayle Brewer and Nicola Olive in order to develop a better understanding of the emotional and social causes of depression. The authors of this article view depression as a malfunction of adaptive behavior observing that depression frequently is combined with dissatisfaction with one’s social status and position (Brewer & Olive, 2014). In the article it is noted that depressive state can be characterized with feeling defeated or brought down.

Brewer and Olive (2014) state that normally depressive state occurs in response to one’s loss during a competition of any kind and their rival’s signaling about this individual inability to continue competing and no longer being a threat. The authors also notice that depression in not specific to humans only, and other species can experience this state which is always connected to their social position.

Clinical depression is recognized when a person’s feeling of being defeated continues regardless of the circumstances and does not come to end. In such cases depressive state is dangerous as it starts to affect an individual’s everyday life, relationships, work, and may lead to suicide attempts based on dissatisfaction with one’s accomplishments.

The second study reviewed for this paper is “Is Burnout a Depressive Disorder? A Reexamination with Special Focus on Atypical Depression” by Bianchi, Schonfeld, and Laurent. This work explores the similarities and differences between burnout and depression in order to help the researchers and practitioners to help the patients with both of these disorders since there is a challenge in describing burnout and its signs and telling it apart from depression.

The authors notice that work-related stress is a key cause of both burnout and occupational depression. In fact, depression is characterized as the most complicated diseases for midlife patients in terms of disability-adjustment (Bianchi, Schonfeld, & Laurent, 2014). The authors struggle to determine whether or not burnout should be viewed as a form of depression since these disorders tend to overlap.

Analysis of the Literature

Both of the reviewed studies note the complicatedness and severity of depression in the contemporary world. Besides, the idea about depression being an unnaturally prolonged feeling of defeat expressed by Brewer and Olive (2014) is very similar to the opinion that depression occurs because of the individuals’ inability to affect the situation and work and influence the development of unwanted circumstances mentioned by Bianchi, Schonfeld, and Laurent (2014).

One more similar feature of the reviewed papers is that both of the employ questionnaire as a tool to conduct their research, but while the study by Brewer and Olive examines a variety of aspects of the participants, Bianchi, Schonfeld, and Laurent focus only on the individuals’ occupation. Both of the researches end up confirming the hypotheses they posed beginning their work.

Brewer and Olive (2014) prove that depressive state evolves from a defeat, increases its probability when there are higher levels of interpersonal dependency, and reduces the individuals’ desire to take risks. Bianchi, Schonfeld, and Laurent (2014) come to a conclusion that burnout is impossible to distinguish from a depression and note that the treatment from depression could be applied to burned-out patients.

Reactions to the Literature

Treatment of depression can be provided can be in two ways – with a help of medicine such as antidepressants and through the course of psychotherapy of some kind. Extremely depressed persons and those contemplating to commit suicide should receive hospital treatment. Patients are recommended to be constant in contacting their personal doctors to help them monitor the overall progress of the situation. Providers can use antidepressants to treat clinical depression; the medicines restore the chemical level in the brain. Psychotherapy involves one-on-one discussions with a mental health provider.

It is a common practice helping a patient to reveal their thoughts and analyze their behaviors under the supervision of their doctor. It is the sole responsibility of psychotherapists to apply varied techniques in order to put the patients in a favorable situation for sharing personal information. Psychosocial therapy or counseling exists in different categories, such as dialectic behavioral therapy, mindfulness techniques, and cognitive behavioral therapy.

The papers reviewed for this paper raise rather important questions considering depression and its aspects. Based on the conclusions of the research conducted by Brewer and Olive I assume that to provide an emotional way out of a depressive state one might be recommended to engage into mild recreational risks, try new experiences. In my opinion, such therapy may help to snap the depressed patients out of their prolonged feeling of defeat, add some adventure in their lives and make them feel as achievers again.

This may also help the burned-out workers, as their main issue is work relayed stress, to forget about work they might start participating in exciting activities. I think that the further research of depression and its causes is necessary to work out a manual for a modern human being that would help everyone avoid depression or cope with it at the earliest stages.

Of course, such factors increasing the risk of depression as work-related stress, interpersonal dependency, and defeats are impossible to eliminate, so as a disease depression will never be gone from our society, but at least the researchers of various fields may find the best strategies to address the depressions while they are on initial stages.

Conclusion

Depression is a widespread disorder that affects 340 million people in the world. About half of all of these conditions are unrecognized and untreated. About 10-15% of those who suffer from this take their own lives. No one is immune to depression. Those with severe depression find it impossible to continue with their everyday lives. A person suffering from severe depression may be hard to treat, this is why the modern society needs researchers to raise awareness about this disease and educate the individuals about coping methods and tools that are available to everyone and may help to save lives.

Reference List

Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2014). Is burnout a depressive disorder? A reexamination with special focus on atypical depression. American Psychological Association, 21(4), 307-324.

Brewer, G. & Olive, N. (2014). Depression in men and women: Relative rank, interpersonal dependency, and risk-taking. American Psychological Association, 8(3), 142-147.

Strategic Compensation In Employees Management

Are employees more likely to favor defined contribution plans over defined benefit plans?

Defined benefit plans provide benefits for the retirement which are established by a certain formula.  The formula includes calculations based on the number of years a person spent working for the company multiplied by the monthly sum equal to the percentage of their pre-retirement payment (Martocchio 222). This way, the annual benefits are composed by the years of service, retirement age, and final average salary. Defined contribution plans require the employees to contribute a certain percentage of their salary every year.

The employers use this money to make an investment of some kind on behalf of the employees (federal government bond funds, stock market funds, or company stocks). This benefit plan is more attractive for the employers since it provides them with an opportunity to make investments and have larger capitals to use. At the same time, this plan is not as convenient for the employees since it does not provide guarantees for the final benefits. This way, the employees would be more interested in defined benefit plans.

Three types of executive compensation

Base pay

Base pay stands for the annual cash compensation that is fixed (Martocchio 267). Normally the companies create their compensation structures based on a variety of pay grades and pay ranges. The employees of better value who occupy the jobs of higher level are given more opportunities for promotion. This way they can remain in the higher pay grades for longer.

Bonuses

Bonuses are the non-regular rewards that are provided based on the successful performance of certain employees. When an employee achieves specific and valuable goals they are granted financial bonuses for that. There are discretionary, performance contingent, predetermined allocation and target plan bonuses. All of these types of payments are designed to reward the employees for achieving goals of different kinds.

Short-term incentives

Short-term incentives for the executives are different from those for lower-level management employees. When a worker of lower level is granted a short-term incentive it is to reward their achievement of one of the major goals. At the same time, in the case with executive employees short-term incentives are given to appreciate their progress on the way towards a major goal, a so-called milestone.

The challenges when determining compensation and benefits for flexible and/or contingent employees

Among the challenges that the employers face hiring part-time employees there are the issues of equity, the difficulty to decide whether the part-time workers are supposed to be paid hourly or monthly salaries, and the question considering benefits for the part-time workers. Telecommuting carries a lot of advantages, for example, it helps the employers to save the costs of office as all of the employees work from homes. Besides, telecommuting attracts a lot of workers willing to perform their professional duties without leaving their homes (Martocchio 304).

At the same time, telecommuting is not suitable for the businesses requiring a lot of personal communication between the workers and the customers, or among the employees. Total compensation is a good way for the company to communicate with the employees and let them know how much the company really spends to care about them.

Total compensation exceeds base pay significantly and includes all of the benefits provided for each worker. The description of the benefits and bonuses such as health, dental insurances, perks, or retirement plans makes jobs more attractive. The creation of better workplace conditions helps to retain the employees.

Considerations when determining compensation and benefits for expatriates, and managing international activities and challenges

Expatriates are the citizens of the United States who are employed by the United States companies for the work abroad (Martocchio 317). Staff mobility, equity and the terms of international assignment are the three main factors that compose the basis for the creation of the international compensation packages. Expatriates may be paid home country, host country or headquarters-based payments.

Service premiums are the bonuses granted to the employees to encourage them to obtain expatriate tasks, such premiums may compile 10 to 30 percent addition to their base pay. The extra pay is not provided after the expatriate assignment is over, which often may create a conflict between the employee and the employer.

Hardship allowances are to cover for the sacrifices of the employees working abroad. Such allowances are offered only for the assignments in the severe locations with difficult living conditions. Mobility premiums are granted to attract workers to move from one location to another abroad or in the native country; such payments cover the travel costs and are given in a single piece.

The challenges facing compensation professionals

The compensation-productivity gap has been growing during the last three decades. This means that while the overall productivity increased a lot, the compensation rates did not happen to follow it. This is explained by the rate of unemployment which made people agree to accept less paid jobs, and the losses of profits experienced by the companies.

Employee benefits also have been impacted by the growing demographic diversity enforced by the globalization, aging of baby boomers, and the growing numbers of working women. Growing workforce diversity makes it difficult for the compensation professionals to assign benefits suitable for all groups of employees.

Some states demand that the companies provide domestic partner benefits for the employees, yet various employers treat this concept differently. The coverage may be provided to heterosexual unmarried couples with children or limited to same-sex couples only (Martocchio 360). In both cases, the long-term partnership needs to be proved.

Works Cited

Martocchio, Joseph J. Strategic Compensation-A Human Resource Management Approach. 8th ed. 2014. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. Print.

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